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Tailor-Made and Functionalized Biopolymer Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128214374

Tailor-Made and Functionalized Biopolymer Systems

1st Edition

For Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications

Editors: Hriday Bera Buddhadev Layek Jagdish Singh
Paperback ISBN: 9780128214374
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 30th July 2021
Page Count: 788
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Table of Contents

List of contributors xv

1 Introduction to tailor-made biopolymers in drug delivery


Yasir Faraz Abbasi, Parthasarathi Panda, Sanjay Arora, Buddhadev Layek

and Hriday Bera

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Biopolymers from plant and animal kingdom

1.2.1 Polysaccharides

1.2.2 Polypeptides

1.2.3 Polynucleotides

1.3 Chemical modifications of biopolymers

1.3.1 Modification approaches of polysaccharides

1.3.2 Modification approaches of polypeptides

1.4 Tailor-made biopolymers as pharmaceutical excipients

1.5 Conclusion


Section 1 Modified biopolymers

2 Thiolated biopolymers in drug delivery and biomedical applications

Custodiana A. Colmenarez Lobo, Mirta L. Fascio and Norma B. D’Accorso

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thiolated biopolymers in drug delivery applications

2.3 Thiolated biopolymers in biomedical applications

2.3.1 Medicinal applications

2.3.2 Diagnosis

2.3.3 Regenerative medicine

2.4 Conclusion and future perspectives



3 Smart biopolymers for controlled drug delivery applications

Sanjay Arora, Riddhi Trivedi, Richard N.L. Lamptey, Bivek Chaulagain,

Buddhadev Layek and Jagdish Singh

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Different types of smart biopolymers

3.2.1 Thermosensitive smart polymers

3.2.2 pH-sensitive smart polymers

3.2.3 Light-sensitive smart polymers

3.2.4 Phase-sensitive smart polymers

3.2.5 Bioresponsive smart polymers

3.3 Conclusion


4 Alginate-based systems for protein and peptide delivery

Paramita Paul, Gouranga Nandi, Mohammed A. Abosheasha and

Hriday Bera

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Alginate: sources, physicochemical and biological properties

4.2.1 Sources of alginates

4.2.2 Physicochemical properties

4.2.3 Biological properties

4.3 Modifications of alginate for protein and peptide delivery

4.3.1 Covalent chemical modifications

4.3.2 Polyelectrolyte complexes

4.4 Alginate-based systems for protein and peptide delivery

4.4.1 Model protein delivery

4.4.2 Insulin delivery

4.4.3 Angiogenic factor delivery

4.4.4 Chemokine delivery

4.4.5 Bone morphogenetic protein delivery

4.5 Conclusion


5 Chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes in biomedical


Buddhadev Layek, Surajit Das and Shubhajit Paul

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polyelectrolyte complexes

5.2.1 Mechanism of polyelectrolyte complexes formation

5.2.2 Preparation of PECs and factors influencing the formation

and stability of PECs

5.3 Applications of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes

5.3.1 Drug delivery

5.3.2 Gene delivery

5.3.3 Tissue engineering

5.4 Conclusion


6 Tailor-made cyclodextrin-based nanomaterials as drug carriers

Kazi Ali, Pradyot Roy, Arindam Maity and Pranabesh Chakraborty

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 History

6.1.2 Source of cyclodextrins

6.1.3 Types and structure of cyclodextrins

6.1.4 Properties of cyclodextrins

6.1.5 Inclusion complex formation

6.2 Modification of cyclodextrins

6.2.1 Principle and chemistry of cyclodextrin modification

6.2.2 Characterization of modified cyclodextrins

6.3 Cyclodextrin-based nanomaterials

6.3.1 Preparation of nanomaterials from cyclodextrins and


6.3.2 Different cyclodextrin-based nanomaterials

6.4 Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of tailor-made

CD-based nanomaterials

6.5 Conclusion and future prospects


Further reading

Section 2 Biopolymeric conjugates/composites

7 Biopolymer_metal oxide composites in biomedical


Yasir Faraz Abbasi and Hriday Bera

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Applications of biopolymer_metal oxide composites

7.2.1 Drug delivery

7.2.2 Anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities

7.2.3 Wound healing and tissue engineering

7.2.4 Biosensors, bioimaging, and diagnostics

7.3 Conclusion


8 Biopolymer_drug conjugates as biomaterials

Haifei Guo, Yasir Faraz Abbasi, Hriday Bera and Mingshi Yang

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Biopolymer_drug conjugates

8.2.1 Polysaccharide-drug conjugates

8.2.2 Polypeptide_drug conjugates

8.3 Conclusion


9 Functionalized biopolymer_clay-based composites as drug-cargos

Hriday Bera, Motoki Ueda and Yoshihiro Ito

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Structure and properties of clays

9.3 Biopolymer_clay intercalations

9.4 Properties of biopolymer_clay-based composites as drug-delivery


9.4.1 Improvement of clay properties

9.4.2 Improvement of polymer properties

9.5 Biopolymer_clay-based composites as drug-delivery systems

9.5.1 Animal-derived polysaccharide_clay composites

9.5.2 Algae-derived polysaccharide_clay composites

9.5.3 Plant-derived polysaccharide_clay composites

9.5.4 Natural protein_clay composites

9.5.5 Biopolymer blend_clay composites

9.6 Conclusion


10 Mesoporous silica-biopolymer-based systems in drug delivery


Suman Saha, Payal Roy and Jui Chakraborty

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Classification of MSNs, their structures and properties

10.2.1 Two-dimensional mesostructures

10.2.2 Three-dimensional mesostructures

10.2.3 Classification of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as

drug carriers

10.3 Different synthesis techniques of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

10.3.1 Hydrothermal synthesis

10.3.2 Aerosol-assisted synthesis

10.3.3 Modified St&e_004E7;ber’s synthesis

10.3.4 Template-assisted synthesis

10.3.5 Microwave synthesis

10.3.6 Chemical etching synthesis

10.4 Functionalization of mesoporous silica nanoparticles using

synthetic polymers/biopolymers

10.4.1 Functionalization techniques

10.5 Different biopolymer-MSN systems in drug delivery applications

10.5.1 Drug delivery for cancer treatment

10.5.2 Drug delivery for other disease treatment

10.5.3 Gene delivery

10.5.4 Drug delivery and bioimaging

10.6 Stability and degradation profiles

10.7 Biocompatibility, pharmacology, and toxicological profiles

10.8 Conclusion, challenges, and future prospects



Section 3 Modified biopolymer based biomaterials

11 Micellar drug-delivery systems based on amphiphilic block and graft


Leonard Ionut Atanase

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Micellization and drug-loading methods

11.3 Characterization techniques of drug-free and drug-loaded

micellar systems

11.4 Polysaccharide-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.1 Chitosan-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.2 Cellulose-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.3 Dextran-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.4 Starch-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.5 Alginate-based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.6 Hyaluronic acid_based micellar drug-delivery systems

11.4.7 Miscellaneous polysaccharide-based micellar

drug-delivery systems

11.5 Conclusions and perspectives


12 Engineering of biopolymer-based nanofibers for medical uses

Yang Chen, Hriday Bera, Dongmei Cun and Mingshi Yang

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Tissue engineering

12.3 Drug delivery

12.3.1 Drug delivery to the skin

12.3.2 Mucosal drug delivery

12.3.3 Controlled and sustained drug delivery

12.4 Stem cells

12.5 Sensors

12.6 Conclusion and future perspectives


Further reading

13 Engineered protein and protein-polysaccharide cages for drug

delivery and therapeutic applications

Isha Ghosh, Ujjwal Sahoo and Souvik Basak

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Proteins

13.3 Protein cages: engineering and therapeutic applications

13.3.1 Natural protein cages/scaffolds

13.3.2 Engineered protein cages

13.3.3 Therapeutic applications of protein cages

13.4 Protein-polysaccharide cages: engineering and therapeutic


13.4.1 Electrostatic precipitation complexes/cages

13.4.2 Chemical reaction_mediated complexes/cages

13.4.3 Electrospun nanohybrid_mediated complexes/cages

13.4.4 Posttranslational modification_aided protein-polysaccharide

block copolymer complexes/cages

13.5 Conclusion and future perspectives


14 Biopolymeric hydrogels prepared via click chemistry as carriers of

therapeutic modalities

Rohit Bisht, Pinto Raveena, Sonali Nirmal, Shovanlal Gayen,

Gaurav K. Jain and Jayabalan Nirmal

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Properties of biopolymeric hydrogels

14.2.1 Swelling and solubility

14.2.2 Porosity and permeation

14.2.3 Drug release

14.3 Chemically cross-linked hydrogels

14.3.1 Cross-linking by free-radical polymerization

14.3.2 Cross-linking by click chemistry

14.4 Applications of biopolymeric click hydrogels in drug delivery

14.5 Conclusion and future prospects



15 Biopolymeric nanocrystals in drug delivery and biomedical


Daphisha Marbaniang, Rajat Subhra Dutta, Niva Rani Gogoi,

Subhabrata Ray and Bhaskar Mazumder

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Generalized synthesis methods for biopolymeric nanocrystals

15.2.1 Mineral acid hydrolysis

15.2.2 Enzymatic hydrolysis

15.2.3 Co-precipitation method

15.3 Biopolymeric nanocrystals and their drug delivery and

biomedical applications

15.3.1 Biopolymeric nanocrystals

15.3.2 Reinforcement of biopolymeric nanocrystals with

biopolymers and vice versa

15.3.3 Biopolymers-assisted drug nanocrystals

15.4 Conclusion and future prospects


Section 4 Biopolymeric systems in biomedical


16 Functionalized biopolymers for colon-targeted drug delivery

Yasir Faraz Abbasi and Syed Muhammad Farid Hasan

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Biopolymeric systems as colon-targeted drug carriers

16.2.1 Plant-derived polysaccharides

16.2.2 Animal-derived polysaccharides

16.2.3 Algae- and microbial-derived polysaccharides

16.2.4 Plant- and animal-derived polypeptides

16.3 Conclusion


17 Modified biopolymer-based systems for drug delivery to the brain

Abhimanyu Thakur, Rakesh Kumar Sidu, Isha Gaurav, Kumari Sweta,

Prosenjit Chakraborty and Sudha Thakur

17.1 Introduction

17.2 BBB and other common hurdles in brain drug delivery

17.3 Brain drug delivery by invasive methods

17.4 Brain drug delivery by the noninvasive methods

17.4.1 Chemical modification

17.4.2 Intranasal route

17.4.3 Aptamer

17.4.4 Extracellular vesicles

17.4.5 Ultrasound

17.4.6 Photodynamic effect

17.4.7 Extracorporeal shockwave

17.4.8 Laser-activated perfluorocarbon nanodroplets

17.4.9 Nanoformulations

17.5 Biopolymer-based systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain

17.5.1 Plant-derived polysaccharides

17.5.2 Animal-derived polysaccharides

17.5.3 Algae-derived and microbial polysaccharides

17.5.4 Polypeptides

17.6 Conclusion and future perspectives



Further reading

18 Modified biopolymer-based chronotherapeutic drug-delivery systems

Somasree Ray and Shalmoli Seth Professor

18.1 Introduction

18.1.1 Clinical relevance of chronotherapeutic drug-delivery


18.2 Concepts and terminologies used in chronotherapeutics

18.2.1 Period, level, amplitude, and phase

18.3 Common disease states under chronotherapy

18.3.1 Cardiovascular disease

18.3.2 Asthma

18.3.3 Pain

18.3.4 Diabetes

18.3.5 Gastric ulcer

18.3.6 Cancer

18.4 Drug-delivery strategies as chronopharmaceuticals

18.4.1 Chronotherapeutics

18.4.2 Ideal characteristics of chronotherapeutic drug-delivery


18.4.3 Different techniques used to develop


18.5 Biopolymer-based drug-delivery strategies as


18.5.1 Hydrogels

18.5.2 Reservoir system based on swellable/erodible natural


18.5.3 Low-density floating microparticulate system based on


18.5.4 Modified natural polymers as chronopharmaceuticals

18.5.5 Pulsatile release from capsular system based on

biopolymeric plug

18.6 Conclusion


19 Biopolymeric systems for the delivery of nucleic acids

Rinku Dutta, Shyam S. Mohapatra and Subhra Mohapatra

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Types of nucleic acids used in gene therapy

19.3 Biopolymers used in gene delivery

19.3.1 Polysaccharides

19.3.2 Protein-based

19.4 Conclusion


20 Stimuli-responsive biopolymeric systems for drug delivery to

cancer cells

Viviane Seba, Gabriel Silva, Bor Shin Chee, Jeferson Gustavo Henn,

Gabriel Goetten de Lima, Zhi Cao, Mozart Marins and Michael Nugent

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Stimuli-responsive biopolymeric systems

20.2.1 Ultrasound responsive

20.2.2 Temperature responsive

20.2.3 pH responsive

20.2.4 Light responsive

20.2.5 Enzymatic responsive

20.2.6 Magnetic responsive

20.2.7 Redox responsive

20.2.8 Hypoxia responsive

20.3 Conclusion


21 Biopolymeric systems for diagnostic applications

Jacob Shreffler, Madison Koppelman, Babak Mamnoon, Sanku Mallik

and Buddhadev Layek

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Biopolymers used for various diseases

21.2.1 Infection

21.2.2 Cancer

21.2.3 Diabetes

21.2.4 Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

21.2.5 Blood sample stabilization

21.3 Conclusion


22 Functionalized biopolymer-based drug delivery systems:

current status and future perspectives

Buddhadev Layek

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Summary of topics

22.2.1 Introduction to tailor-made biopolymers in drug delivery


22.2.2 Modified biopolymers

22.2.3 Biopolymeric conjugates/composites

22.2.4 Modified biopolymer-based biomaterials

22.2.5 Biopolymeric systems in biomedical applications

22.3 Conclusions and future perspectives




Tailor-Made and Functionalized Biopolymer Systems: For Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications covers the design and application of these functionalized and tailor-made biopolymers and biopolymer systems intended for drug delivery and biomedical applications. Various concepts, design protocols and biomedical applications of tailor-made biopolymer systems are covered, guiding the reader from theoretical knowledge to practical application. Authored by an array of experts from global institutions, this book offers an interdisciplinary approach to how tailor-made biopolymers lead to novel drug delivery and treatment solutions. This will be a useful reference to a broad audience, including biomedical engineers, materials scientists, pharmacologists and chemists.

Key Features

  • Provides a concise overview of tailor-made and functionalized biopolymer systems for biomedical applications
  • Covers a range of modified biopolymers, biopolymeric composites and biopolymer-based systems in drug delivery, development of artificial organs, diagnostic applications, and more
  • Describes characterization, synthesis and functionalization of biopolymers and biopolymers systems


Postgraduate research students from various disciplines such as materials science, biomedical science and engineering, pharmacy, molecular medicine, and chemistry. This book would also serve as a resource of information for faculty, instructors and research supervisors working in academia and industrial researchers from biomedical and pharmaceutical industries


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2021
30th July 2021
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Hriday Bera

Dr. Hriday Bera completed his Masters study at Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India and Ph.D at National University of Singapore, Singapore. He is presently working as Post-doctoral Fellow at Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, China and Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Japan. The major focus of his current research is the conceptual design, fabrication and evaluation of chemically modified naturally-occurring polymer based systems intended for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. As a part of his research career, he published 36 peer-reviewed articles (including 23 first-author articles) in various international journals of repute with a total SCI citation of 546, h-index of 15 and i10-index of 20. Moreover, he penned 20 book chapters for various international publishers. Furthermore, as a principal investigator, he has received highly competitive research grants from AICTE, Govt. of India; Ministry of Higher Education, Govt. of Malaysia; National Natural Science Foundation, China and Tekada Science Foundation, Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Post-doctoral Fellow/International Young Scientist, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Buddhadev Layek

Dr. Buddhadev Layek received his Master of Pharmacy degree from Jadavpur University in Kolkata, India and Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from North Dakota State University in Fargo, USA. He is currently working as Assistant Professor at North Dakota State University, USA. His primary research interests include tumor-targeted drug delivery, modulating the tumor microenvironment to improve outcomes of cancer therapy, and designing multifunctional, polymeric nanomaterials for drug andgene delivery. Layek has published 22 peer-reviewed articles in high impact journals and 6 book chapters for various international publishers. He has also served as a guest editor for special issues on “Cell-Penetrating Peptides” and “Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers” in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor at North Dakota State University, USA.

Jagdish Singh

Dr. Singh is Professor and Chair of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at NDSU School of Pharmacy, and a Fellow of American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) and Fellow, Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy. Dr. Singh’s research efforts focus on the mechanistic studies for developing and testing novel delivery technologies to deliver biotechnologically derived molecules (e.g., peptide, protein, and gene), using smart polymers, nanomicelles and nanoparticles for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, other brain disorders, and diabetes. National Institutes of Health, US Department of Defense, PhRMA Foundation, and AFPE have funded Dr. Singh’s research. Dr. Singh has published over 175 peer-reviewed papers and 350 abstracts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA