Synthetic Membrane Process - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120854806, 9780323145817

Synthetic Membrane Process

1st Edition

Fundamentals and Water Applications

Editors: Georges Belfort
eBook ISBN: 9780323145817
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st April 1984
Page Count: 566
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Synthetic Membrane Processes: Fundamentals and Water Applications presents a summary of some of the theoretical developments in membrane and fluid transport. The book reviews water and wastewater hyperfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis, as well as the economics of these processes. The text approaches the topics from the standpoint of chemical engineering. It provides a description of procedures for maintaining reasonable fluxes with a balanced pretreatment, cleaning, and fluid management program. The different structures of water and aqueous systems, hyperfiltration membranes, and the polarization phenomena in membrane processes are also discussed. The text provides concrete examples of the desalting experience and water and wastewater treatment in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The book targets those in the water and wastewater field and is also generally useful for teaching and for anyone interested in adapting membrane technology to separation or concentration applications.

Table of Contents



1. Membrane Methods in Water and Wastewater Treatment: An Overview

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Membrane Processes

III. Applications of Membrane Processes

IV. Conclusions


2. Structure of Water and Aqueous Systems

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Liquid Water

III. Electrolyte Solutions

IV. Water-Organic Solute-Salt Solutions

V. Examples of Aqueous Systems

VI. Water in Desalination Membranes and the Desalination Mechanism


3. Hyperfiltration Membranes, Their Stability and Life

I. Introduction

II. Mechanical Effects

III. The Effect of Pressure

IV. Chemical Effects

V. Microbiological Attack

VI. Membrane Regeneration

VII. Conclusion


4. Polarization Phenomena in Membrane Processes

I. Introduction

II. Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration

III. Electrodialysis


5. Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Solute Distribution in Pressure-Driven Membrane Modules

I. Introduction and Overview

II. Field Equations and Common Submodels

III. Comprehensive Case Studies

IV. Conclusions and Future Work


6. Electrodialysis—Membranes and Mass Transport

I. Principle of Electrodialysis

II. Mass Transfer through Permselective Membranes

III. Manufacture of Permselective Membranes

IV. Membrane Permselectivity

V. Diffusion

VI. Water Transport through Permselective Membranes

VII. Electrotransport of Large Ions through Permselective Membranes

VIII. Energy and Membrane Area Requirements

IX. Resin-Filled Cells


7. Desalting Experience by Hyperfiltration (Reverse Osmosis) in the United States

I. Introduction

II. The Concept

III. Reverse Osmosis Membranes

IV. Theoretical Considerations

V. Plant Equipment

VI. Membrane Permeators

VII. Applications of Reverse Osmosis to Water Desalination

VIII. Applications of Reverse Osmosis to Wastewater Renovation

IX. Control of Product Flux Decline

X. Economics of Reverse Osmosis

XI. Conclusions


8. Desalting Experience Using Hyperfiltration in Europe and Japan

I. Introduction

II. Seawater Desalination

III. Hyperfiltration of Brackish Water

IV. Hyperfiltration as Unit Operation in Industry

V. Hyperfiltration of Liquid Foods

VI. Wastewater Renovation by Hyperfiltration

VII. Summary


9. Water and Wastewater Treatment Experience in Europe and Japan Using Ultrafiltration

I. Introduction

II. Membrane Materials Used in Ultrafiltration Systems

III. Ultrafiltration Modules and Systems Designs

IV. Practical Experience in Ultrafiltration

V. Ultrafiltration Plant Design and Process Costs

VI. Manufacturers and Distributors of Ultrafiltration Equipment in Japan and Europe


10. Design, Operation, and Maintenance of a 5-mgd Wastewater Reclamation Reverse Osmosis Plant

I. Introduction

II. Design and Operation of a 5-mgd Reverse Osmosis Plant for Water Reclamation

III. Orange County Water District Responsibilities and Background Leading to Present Facilities

IV. Water Factory 21 Process Description

V. 5-mgd Reverse Osmosis Performance

VI. Detailed Process Description

VII. Performance

VIII. Discussion

IX. Summary and Conclusions

X. Reverse Osmosis Demineralization Costs


11. Design and Operation of Desalting Systems Based on Membrane Processes


I. The Membrane Plant-—Reverse Osmosis

II. The Membrane Plant—-Electrodialysis

III. The Membrane Plant—-Ultrafiltration

IV. Pretreatment

V. Posttreatment

VI. Conclusion


12. Economics of the Application of Membrane Processes. Part 1: Desalting Brackish and Seawaters

I. Introduction

II. Desalting Brackish Waters

III. Desalting Seawater

IV. General Conclusions


13. Economics of the Application of Membrane Processes. Part 2: Wastewater Treatment

I. Basis for the Economics of Water Processing

II. Reverse Osmosis

III. Electrodialysis

IV. Ultrafiltration

V. Pretreatment

VI. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Georges Belfort

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