Sustainable Design Through Process Integration - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128098233

Sustainable Design Through Process Integration

2nd Edition

Fundamentals and Applications to Industrial Pollution Prevention, Resource Conservation, and Profitability Enhancement

Authors: Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi
Paperback ISBN: 9780128098233
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st August 2017
Page Count: 618
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Description

Sustainable Design through Process Integration, Fundamentals and Applications to Industrial Pollution Prevention, Resource Conservation, and Profitability Enhancement, Second Edition is an important tool for professional chemical, plant and environmental engineers who need to tackle pollution and efficiency challenges in chemical plant and unit operations. It delivers techniques that can be used to maximize efficiency and sustainability and minimize pollution. The book covers hot and high growth topics, including pollution prevention and sustainable design, reduction of greenhouse gases from industrial facilities, and production of renewable energy sources, including biofuel refining. The new edition contains seven new chapters and content has been updated throughout.

The is an ideal resource for engineers who must address pollution prevention problems in a cost-effective manner. It provides authoritative, comprehensive, and easy-to-follow coverage of the fundamental concepts and practical techniques on the use of process integration to maximize the efficiency and sustainability of industrial processes.

Key Features

  • Presents the latest information on distillation networks and advanced energy systems
  • Includes discussions on the design of water-desalination and treatment systems
  • Covers solar systems and hydrocarbon energy systems

Readership

Practicing chemical and process engineers; plant and process designers; environmental and energy engineers; academics, researchers and students of chemical engineering

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION TO SUSTAINABILITY, SUSTAINABLE DESIGN, AND PROCESS INTEGRATION

    1. WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY?
    2. METRICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY
    3. CONVENTIONAL PROCESS DESIGN

1.4. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DESIGN THROUGH PRCESS INTEGRATION?

1.5. MOTIVATING EXAMPLES ON THE GENERATION AND INTEGRATION OF SUSTAINABLE-DESIGN ALTERNATIVES

1.6. STRUCTURE AND LEARNING OUTCOMES OF THE BOOK

CHAPTER TWO: OVERVIEW OF PROCESS ECONOMICS

2.1. COST TYPES AND ESTIMATION

2.1.1. Capital-Cost Estimation

2.1.2. Equipment-Cost Estimation

2.1.3. Operating-Cost Estimation

2.1.4. Production-Cost Estimation

2.2 DEPRECIATION

2.2.1. Linear Depreciation (Straight-Line Method):

2.2.3. Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS)

2.3. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS

2.4. ECONOMIC SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

2.5. TIME VALUE OF MONEY

2.6. PROFITABILTY ANALYSIS

2.5.1. Profitability Criteria without the Time-Value of Money:

2.5.2. Profitability Criteria with the Time-Value of Money

2.5.3. Comparison of Alternatives

CHAPTER THREE: BENCHMARKING PROCESS PERFORMANCE THROUGH OVERALL MASS TARGETING

3.1. STOICHIOMETRY-BASED TARGETING

3.2. STOICHIOMETRIC-ECONOMIC TARGATING

3.3. MASS-INTEGRATION TARGETING

3.3.1. Targeting for Minimum Waste Discharge

3.3.2. Targeting for Minimum Purchase of Fresh Material Utilities

3.3.3. Targeting for Maximum Product Yield

3.4. MASS INTEGRATION STRATEGIES FOR ATTAINING THE TARGETS

CHAPTER FOUR: DIRECT-RECYCLE NETWORKS: A GRAPHICAL APPROACH

4.1. PROBEM STATEMENT FOR THE DESIGN OF DIRECT-RECYCLE NETWORKS

4.2. SELECTION OF SOURCES, SINKS, AND RECYCLE ROUTES

4.3. DIRECT-RECYCLE TARGETS THROUGH MATERIAL-RECYCLE PINCH DIAGRAM

4.4. DESIGN RULES FROM THE MATERIAL-RECYCLE PINCH DIAGRAM

4.5. EXTENSION TO THE CASE OF IMPURE FRESH

4.6. INSIGHTS FOR PROCESS MODIFICATIONS

4.7. THE SOURCE-SINK MAPPING DIAGRAM FOR MATCHING SOURCES AND SINKS

4.8. MULTICOMPONENT SOURCE-SINK MAPPING DIAGRAM

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SYNTHESIS OF MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS: A GRAPHICAL APPROACH

5.1. MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORK SYNTHESIS TASK

5.2. THE MEN-TARGETING APPROACH

5.3. THE CORRESPONDING COMPOSITION SCALES

5.4. THE MASS-EXCHANGE PINCH DIAGRAM

5.5. CONSTRUCTING PINCH DIAGRAMS WITHOUT PROCESS MSAS

5.6. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MEN CONFIGURATION WITH MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXCHANGERS

5.6.1. Feasibility Criteria at the Pinch

5.6.2. Operating Line versus Equilibrium Line

5.6.3. Network Synthesis

5.7. TRADING OFF FIXED COST VERSUS OPERATING COST

5.7.1. Trading off Fixed and Operating Costs by Varying the Mass-Exchange Driving Forces

5.7.2. Trading off Fixed and Operating Costs by Mixing Rich Streams

5.7.3. Trading off Fixed and Operating Costs Using Mass-Load Paths

CHAPTER SIX: DISTILLATION NETWORKS

6.1. BASICS OF IDEAL DISTILLATION

6.2. NON-IDEAL DISTILLATION

6.3. DISTILLATION NETWORKS

6.4. RESIDUE CURVE MAPS

CHAPTER SEVEN: COMBINING MASS-INTEGRATION STRATEGIES

7.1. PROCESS REPRESENTATION FROM A MASS-INTEGRATION SPECIES PERSPECTIVE

CHAPTER EIGHT: HEAT INTEGRATION

8.1. HEN-SYNTHESIS PROBLEM STATEMENT

8.2. MINIMUM UTILITY TARGETS VIA THE THERMAL PINCH DIAGRAM

8.3. MINIMUM UTILITY TARTGETS USING THE ALGEBRAIC CASCADE DIAGRAM

8.4. SCREENING OF MULTIPLE UTILITIES USING THE GRAND COMPOSITE REPRESENTATION

8.5. STREAM MATCHING AND THE SYNTHESIS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE NETWORKS

CHAPTER NINE: INTEGRATION OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS

9.1. HEAT ENGINES

9.1. Principles of Heat Engines

9.2. Shortcut Correlations for Modeling Steam Properties

9.2. STEAM TURBINES AND POWER PLANTS

9.3. PLACEMENT OF HEAT ENGINES AND INTEGRATION WITH THERMAL

PINCH ANALYSIS

9.4. HEAT PUMPS

9.5. CLOSED –CYCLE VAPOR COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS USING A SEPARATE WORKING FLUID (REFRIGERANT)

9.6. VAPOR-COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS AND THERMAL PINCH DIAGRAM

9.7. OPEN-CYCLE MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION USING A PROCESS STREAM AS THE WORKING FLUID

9.8. ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLES

9.9. COGENERATION TARGETING

9.10. ADDITIONAL READINGS

CHAPTER TEN: ADVANCED ENERGY SYSTEMS

10.1. INDUSTRIAL UTILITY SYSTEMS

10.2. STEAM HEADERS AND NETWORKS

10.3. FLARING AND ABNORMAL SITUATION MANAGEMENT

10.4. CALCULATION AND REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

10.5. ADDITIONAL READINGS

CHAPTER ELEVEN: PROPERTY INTEGRATION

11.1. PROPERTY-BASED MATERIAL RECYCLE PINCH DIAGRAM

11.2. PROCESS MODIFICATION BASED ON PROPERTY-BASED PINCH DIAGRAM

11.3. CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES FOR MULTIPLE PROPERTIES

11.4. CLUSTER-BASED SOURCE-SINK MAPPING DIAGRAM FOR PROPERTY-BASED RECYCLE AND INTERCEPTION

11.5. PROPERTY-BASED DESIGN RULES FOR RECYCLE AND INTERCEPTION

11.6. DEALING WITH MULTIPLICITY OF CLUSTER-TO-PROPERTY MAPPING

11.7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLUSTERS AND MASS FRACTIONS

11.8. INTER-DEPENDENT PROPERTIES

11.9. COUPLING OF PROPERTY, MASS, AND HEAT INTEGRATION

11.10. ADDITIONAL READINGS

CHAPTER TWELVE: DIRECT-RECYCLE NETWORKS: AN ALGEBRAIC APPROACH

12.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

12.2. ALGEBRAIC TARGETING APPROACH

12.3. ALGEBRAIC TARGETING PROCEDURE

12.4. CASE STUDY: TARGETING FOR WATER USAGE AND DISCHARGE IN A FORMIC ACID PLANT

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: SYNTHESIS OF MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS: AN ALGEBRAIC APPROACH.

13.1 . THE COMPOSITION-INTERVAL DIAGRAM

13.2. TABLE OF EXCHANGEABLE LOADS

13.3. MASS-EXCHANGE CASCADE DIAGRAM

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: SYNTHESIS OF HEAT-INDUCED SEPARATION NETWORK FOR CONDENSATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

14.1. Problem Statement

14.2. System Configuration

14.3. Integration of Mass and Heat Objectives

14.4. Design Approach

14.4.1. Minimization of External Cooling Utility

14.4.2. Selection of Cooling Utilities

14.4.3. Trading off Fixed Cost versus Operating Cost

14.5. Special Case: Dilute Waste Streams

14.6. Case Study: Removal of Methyl Ethyl Ketone

14.7. Effect of Pressure

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: DESIGN OF WATER-DESALINATION AND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

15.1. Classification of Water-Treatment and Desalination Systems

15.2. Modeling and Design of Reverse-Osmosis Systems

15.3. Modeling and Design and Thermal Membrane Distillation Systems

15.4. Modeling and Design of Flash Distillation

15.5. Modeling and Combined Water-Treatment Systems

15.6. Handling Biofilm Growth

 

 

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: WATER-ENERGY NEXUS

16.1. Overview of Water-Energy Nexus

16.2. Modeling Water-Energy Nexus in Industrial Processes

16.3. Synthesis of Integrated Water-Energy Networks

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: OVERVIEW OF OPTIMIZATION

17.1. WHAT IS MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING?

17.2. HOW TO FORMULATE AN OPTIMIZATION MODEL?

17.3. USING THE SOFTWARE LINGO TO SOLVE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

17.4. INTERPRETING DUAL PRICES IN THE RESULTS OF A LINGO SOLUTION

. 17.5. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO SETS, CONVEX ANALYSIS, AND SYMBOLS USED IN OPTIMIZATION

17.5.1. Sets

17.5.2. Convex Analysis

17.5.3. Symbols Used in Optimization Formulations

17.6. THE USE OF 0-1 BINARY-INTEGER VARIABLES

17.7. ENUMERATING MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS USING INTEGER CUTS

17.8. MODELING DISJUNCTIONS AND DISCONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS WITH BINARY INTEGER VARIABLES

17.8.1. Discontinuous Functions

17.8.2. Big-M Reformulation:

17.8.3. Convex-Hull Reformulation:

17.9. USING SET FORMULATIONS IN LINGO

17.9.1. Summation:

17.9.2. Defining Sets:

17.9.3. Entering Data:

17.9.4. The @FOR Command

17.9.5. Dealing with Double Summations

17.9.6. Entering Two-Dimensional Data

17.9.7. Using @FOR in the Case of Repeating Constraints with Two-Dimensional Variables

17.9.8. Adding Logical Operators

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: AN OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO DIRECT RECYCLE

18.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

18.2. PROBLEM REPRESENTATION

18.3. OPTIMIZATION FORMULATION

18.4. ADDITIONAL READINGS

CHAPTER NINETEEN: SYNTHESIS OF MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS: A MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING APPROACH

    1. GENERALIZATION OF THE COMPOSITION INTERVAL DIAGRAM
    2. PROBLEM FORMULATION

19.3. OPTIMIZATION OF OUTLET COMPOSITIONS

19.4. STREAM MATCHING AND NETWORK SYNTHESIS

CHAPTER twenty: SYNTHESIS OF REACTIVE MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS

20.1 OBJECTIVES OF REAMEN SYNTHESIS

20.2. CORRESPONDING COMPOSITION SCALES FOR REACTIVE MASS EXCHANGE

20.3. SYNTHESIS APPROACH

CHAPTER TWENTY ONE: MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR MASS INTEGRATION

21.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND CHALLENGES

21.2. SYNTHESIS OF MSA-INDUCED WINS

21.2.1. The Path Diagram

21.2.2. Integration of the Path and the Pinch Diagrams

21.2.3. Screening of Candidate MSAs using a Hybrid of Path and Pinch Diagrams

21.3. DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR SEGREGATION, MIXING, AND DIRECT RECYCLE

21.4. INTEGRATION OF INTERCEPTION WITH SEGREGATION, MIXING, AND RECYCLE

CHAPTER TWENTY TWO: MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE NETWORKS

22.1. TARGETING FOR MINIMUM HEATING AND COOLING UTILITIES

22.2. STREAM MATCHING AND HEN SYNTHESIS

22.3. HANDLING SCHEDULING AND FLEXIBILITY ISSUES IN HEN SYNTHESIS

22.4. RETROFITTINH OF HEAT-EXCHANG NETWORKS

 

CHAPTER TWENTY THREE: DESIGN OF SOLAR SYSTEMS

23.1. OVERVIEW OF SOLAR SYSTEMS

23.2. MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEMS

23.3. DESIGN OF SOLAR SYSTEMS WITH THERMAL STORAGE

23.4. COUPLING OF SOLAR SYSTEMS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR: SYNTHESIS OF COMBINED HEAT AND REACTIVE MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS

24.1. SYNTHESIS OF COMBINED HEAT- AND REACTIVE MASS-EXCHANGE NETWORKS

CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE: DESIGN OF HYDROCARBON PROCESSING SYSTEMS

25.1. OVERVIEW OF OIL AND GAS PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGY MAPS

25.2. MODELING AND TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF KEY OIL AND GAS PROCESSING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER TWENTY SIX: DESIGN OF INTEGRATED BIOREFINERIES

26.1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A BIOREFINERY

26.2. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF A BIOREFINERY

 

CHAPTER TWENTY SEVEN: DESIGN OF ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARKS (EIPs)

27.1. WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS

27.2. MASS INTEGRATION FOR EIPS

27.3. ENERGY ISLANDS

` 27.4. C-H-O SYMBIOSIS NETWORKS AND MULTISCALE MODELING

CHAPTER TWENTY EIGHT: MACROSCOPIC APPROACHES OF PROCESS INTEGRATION

28.1. LINKAGE OF THE PROCESS WITH THE SURROUNDINGS

28.2. MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS AND REVERSE PROBLEM FORMULATION FOR WATERSHEDS

28.3. PROCESS INTEGRATION AS AN ENABLING TOOL IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

` 28.4. PROCESS INTEGRATION IN LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

CHAPTER TWENTY NINE: CONCLUDING THOUGHTS: LAUNCHING SUCCESSFUL PROCESS-INTEGRATION INITIATIVES AND APPLICATIONS

29.1. COMMERCIAL APPLICABILITY

29.2. PITFALLS IN IMPLEMENTING PROCESS INTEGRATION

29.3. STARTING AND SUSTAINING PI INITIATIVES AND PROJECTS

 

APPENDIX I: CONVERSION RELATIONSHIPS FOR CONCENTRATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTOR FOR UNITS

I.1. BASIC RELATIONSHIPS FOR CONVERTING CONCENTRATIONS

I.1 1. Mass versus Molar Compositions

I.1.2. Gas Composition versus Partial Pressure

I.1.3 Parts Per Million

I.2. KEY CONVERSION FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT SETS OF UNITS

APPENDIX II: MODELING OF MASS-EXCHANGE UNITS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

II.1. WHAT IS A MASS EXCHANGER?

II.2. EQUILIBRIUM

II.3. INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER

II.4. TYPES AND SIZES OF MASS EXCHANGERS

II.5. MINIMIZING COST OF MASS-EXCHANGE SYSTEMS

APPENDIX III: MODELING OF STEAM AND UTILITY SYSTEMS

Details

No. of pages:
618
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
Paperback ISBN:
9780128098233

About the Author

Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

Dr. Mahmoud El-Halwagi is professor and holder of the McFerrin Professorship at the Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University. He is internationally recognized for pioneering contributions in the principles and applications of process integration and sustainable design. He has served as a consultant to a wide variety of processing industries. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and is the recipient of prestigious research and educational awards including the American AIChE Sustainable Engineering Forum Research Excellence Award, the Celanese and the Fluor Distinguished Teaching Awards, and the US National Science Foundation's National Young Investigator Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A & M University, College Station, USA