Superconductivity - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125614559, 9781483219349

Superconductivity

1st Edition

Authors: Charles P. Poole Horacio A. Farach Richard J. Creswick
eBook ISBN: 9781483219349
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th July 1995
Page Count: 636
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Description

Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity.
The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates.
The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high temperature superconductors. The band theory; type II superconductivity and magnetic properties; and the intermediate and mixed states are also considered. The book further tackles critical state models; various types of tunneling and the Josephson effect; and other transport properties. The text concludes by looking into spectroscopic properties.
Physicists and astronomers will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

1 Properties of the Normal State

I. Introduction

II. Conduction Electron Transport

III. Chemical Potential and Screening

IV. Electrical Conductivity

V. Frequency Dependent Electrical Conductivity

VI. Electron-Phonon Interaction

VII. Resistivity

VIII. Thermal Conductivity

IX. Fermi Surface

X. Energy Gap and Effective Mass

XI. Electronic Specific Heat

XII. Phonon Specific Heat

XIII. Electromagnetic Fields

XIV. Boundary Conditions

XV. Magnetic Susceptibility

XVI. Hall Effect

Further Reading

Problems

2 The Phenomenon of Superconductivity

I. Introduction

II. A Brief History

III. Resistivity

A. Resistivity above Tc

B. Resistivity Anisotropy

C. Anisotropy Determination

D. Sheet Resistance of Films: Resistance Quantum

IV. Zero Resistance

A. Resistivity Drop at Tc

B. Persistent Currents below Tc

V. Transition Temperature

VI. Perfect Diamagnetism

VII. Fields inside a Superconductor

VIII. Shielding Current

IX. Hole in Superconductor

X. Perfect Conductivity

XI. Transport Current

XII. Critical Field and Current

XIII. Temperature Dependences

XIV. Concentration of Super Electrons

XV. Critical Magnetic Field Slope

XVI. Critical Surface

Further Reading

Problems

3 The Classical Superconductors

I. Introduction

II. Elements

III. Physical Properties of Superconducting Elements

IV. Compounds

V. Alloys

VI. Miedema's Empirical Rules for Alloys

VII. Compounds with the NaCl Structure

VIII. Type .415 Compounds

IX. Laves Phases

X. Chevrel Phases

XI. Heavy Electron Systems

XII. Charge-Transfer Organics

XIII. Chalcogenides and Oxides

XIV. Barium Lead-Bismuth Oxide Perovskite

XV. Barium-Potassium Bismuth-Oxide Cubic Perovskite

XVI. Buckminsterfullerenes

XVII. Borocarbides

Further Reading

Problems

4 Thermodynamic Properties

I. Introduction

II. Specific Heat above Tc

III. Discontinuity at Tc

IV. Specific Heat below Tc

V. Density of States and Debye Temperature

VI. Thermodynamic Variables

VII. Thermodynamics of a Normal Conductor

VIII. Thermodynamics of a Superconductor

IX. Superconductor in Zero Field

X. Superconductor in a Magnetic Field

XI. Normalized Thermodynamic Equations

XII. Specific Heat in a Magnetic Field

XIII. Evaluating the Specific Heat

XIV. Order of the Transition

XV. Thermodynamic Conventions

XVI. Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Problems

5 Ginzburg-Landau Theory

I. Introduction

II. Order Parameter

III. Ginzburg-Landau Equations

IV. Zero-Field Case Deep inside Superconductor

V. Zero-Field Case near Superconductor Boundary

VI. Fluxoid Quantization

VII. Penetration Depth

VIII. Critical Current Density

IX. London Equations

X. Exponential Penetration

XI. Normalized Ginzburg-Landau Equations

XII. Type I and Type II Superconductivity

XIII. Upper Critical Field Bc2

XIV. Quantum Vortex

A. Differential Equations

B. Solutions for Small Distances

C. Solutions for Large Distances

Further Reading

Problems

6 BCS Theory

I. Introduction

II. Cooper Pairs

III. BCS Order Parameter

IV. Generalized BCS Theory

V. Singlet Pairing in a Homogeneous Superconductor

VI. Self-Consistent Equation for the Energy Gap

VII. Response of a Superconductor to a Magnetic Field

Further Reading

7 Perovskite and Cuprate Crystallographic Structures

I. Introduction

II. Perovskites

A. Cubic Form

B. Tetragonal Form

C. Orthorhombic Form

D. Planar Representation

III. Cubic Barium Potassium Bismuth Oxide

IV. Barium Lead Bismuth Oxide

V. Perovskite-Type Superconducting Structures

VI. Aligned YBa2Cu307

A. Copper Oxide Planes

B. Copper Coordination

C. Stacking Rules

D. Crystallographic Phases

E. Charge Distribution

F. YBaCuO Formula

G. YBa2Cu408 and Y2Ba4Cu7015

VII. Body Centering

VIII. Body-Centered La2Cu04 and Nd2Cu04

A. Unit Cell Generation of La2Cu04 (T Phase)

B. Layering Scheme

C. Charge Distribution

D. Superconducting Structures

E. Nd2Cu04 Compound (T' Phase)

F. La2_x_yRxSryCu04 Compounds (T* Phase)

IX. Body-Centered BiSrCaCuO and TIBaCaCuO

A. Layering Scheme

B. Nomenclature

C. Bi-Sr Compounds

D. Tl-Ba Compounds

E. Modulated Structures

F. Aligned Tl-Ba Compounds

G. Lead Doping

X. Aligned HgBaCaCuO

XI. Buckminsterfullerenes

XII. Symmetries

XIII. Crystal Chemistry

XIV. Comparison with Classical Superconductor Structures

XV. Conclusions

Further Reading

Problems

8 Hubbard Models and Band Structure

I. Introduction

II. Reciprocal Space and Brillouin Zone

III. Free Electron Bands in Two Dimensions

IV. Nearly Free Electron Bands

V. Fermi Surface in Two Dimensions

A. Fermi Surface

B. Closed Fermi Surface

C. Open Fermi Surface

VI. Electron Configurations

A. Electronic Configurations and Orbitals

B. Tight-Binding Approximation

VII. Hubbard Models

A. Wannier Functions and Electron Operators

B. One-State Model

C. Electron-Hole Symmetry

D. Half-Filling and Antiferromagnetic Correlations

E. t-J Model

F. Resonant-Valence Bonds

G. Spinons, Holons, Slave Bosons, Anyons, and Semions

H. Three-State Model

I. Energy Bands

J. Metal-Insulator Transition

VIII. Transition Metal Elements

IX. A-15 Compounds

X. Buckminsterfullerenes

XI. BaPb1_xBix03 System

XII. Ba1_xKxBi03 System

XIII. Band Structure of YBa2Cu307

A. Energy Bands and Density of States

B. Fermi Surface: Plane and Chain Bands

C. Charge Distribution

XIV. Band Structure of (La1_xSrx)2Cu04

A. Orbital States

B. Energy Bands and Density of States

C. Brillouin Zone

D. Fermi Surface

E. Orthorhombic Structure

XV. Bismuth and Thallium Compounds

XVI. Mercury Compounds

XVII. Fermi Liquids

XVIII. Fermi Surface Nesting

XIX. Charge-Density Waves, Spin-Density Waves, and Spin Bags

XX. Mott-Insulator Transition

XXI. Anderson Interlayer Tunneling Scheme

XXII. Comparison with Experiment

XXIII. Discussion

Further Reading

Problems

9 Type II Superconductivity

I. Introduction

II. Internal and Critical Fields

A. Magnetic Field Penetration

B. Ginzburg-Landau Parameter

C. Critical Fields

III. Vortices

A. Magnetic Fields

B. High-Kappa Approximation

C. Average Internal Field and Vortex Separation

D. Vortices near Lower Critical Field

E. Vortices near Upper Critical Field

F. Contour Plots of Field and Current Density

G. Closed Vortices

IV. Vortex Anisotropies

A. Critical Fields and Characteristic Lengths

B. Core Region and Current Flow

C. Critical Fields

D. High-Kappa Approximation

E. Pancake Vortices

F. Flux Trapping

V. Individual Vortex Motion

A. Vortex Repulsion

B. Pinning

C. Equation of Motion

D. Onset of Motion

E. Magnus Force

F. Steady-State Vortex Motion

G. Intrinsic Pinning

H. Vortex Entanglement

VI. Flux Motion

A. Flux Continuum

B. Entry and Exit

C. Two-Dimensional Fluid

D. Dimensionality

E. Solid and Glass Phases

F. Moving Flux

G. Transport Current in a Magnetic Field

H. Dissipation

I. Magnetic Phase Diagram

VII. Fluctuations

A. Thermal Fluctuations

B. Characteristic Length

C. Entanglement of Flux Lines

D. Irreversibility Line

E. Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition

VIII. Quantized Flux

Further Reading

Problems

10 Magnetic Properties

I. Introduction

II. Susceptibility

III. Magnetization and Magnetic Moment

IV. Magnetization Hysteresis

V. Zero Field Cooling and Field Cooling

VI. Granular Samples and Porosity

VII. Magnetization Anisotropy

VIII. Measurement Techniques

IX. Comparing Susceptibility and Resistivity Results

X. Ellipsoids in Magnetic Fields

XI. Demagnetization Factors

XII. Measured Susceptibilities

XIII. Sphere in a Magnetic Field

XIV. Cylinder in a Magnetic Field

XV. ac Susceptibility

XVI. Temperature-Dependent Magnetism

A. Pauli Paramagnetism

B. Paramagnetism

C. Antiferromagnetism

XVII. Pauli Limit and Upper Critical Fields

XVIII. Ideal Type II Superconductor

XIX. Magnets

Further Reading

Problems

11 Intermediate and Mixed States

I. Introduction

II. Intermediate State

III. Surface Fields and Intermediate-State Configuration

IV. Type I Ellipsoid

V. Susceptibility

VI. Gibbs Free Energy for the Intermediate State

VII. Boundary-Wall Energy and Domains

VIII. Thin Film in Applied Field

IX. Domains in Thin Films

X. Current-Induced Intermediate State

XI. Mixed State in Type II Superconductors

Further Reading

Problems

12 Critical States

I. Introduction

II. Current-Field Relations

A. Transport and Shielding Current

B. Maxwell Curl Equation and Pinning Force

C. Determination of Current-Field Relationships

III. Critical-State Models

A. Requirements of Critical-State Model

B. Examples of Models

C. Model Characteristics

IV. Fixed Pinning Model

V. Bean Model

A. Low-Field Case

B. High-Field Case

C. Transport Current

D. Circular Cross Section

E. Combining Screening and Transport Current

F. Pinning Strength

VI. Reversed Critical States and Hysteresis

A. Reversing Field

B. Average Internal Field

C. Magnetization

D. Hysteresis Loops

E. Magnetization Current

F. Critical Currents

G. Reversing Fields with Transport Currents

VII. Kim Model

VIII. Comparison of Critical-State Models with Experiment

IX. Concluding Remarks

Further Reading

Problems

13 Tunneling

I. Introduction

II. The Phenomenon of Tunneling

A. Conduction-Electron Energies

B. Types of Tunneling

III. Energy Level Schemes

A. Semiconductor Representation

B. Boson Condensation Representation

IV. Tunneling Processes

A. Conditions for Tunneling

B. Normal Metal Tunneling

C. Normal Metal-to-Superconductor Tunneling

D. Superconductor-to-Superconductor Tunneling

V. Quantitative Treatment of Tunneling

A. Distribution Function

B. Density of States

C. Tunneling Current

D. N - I -N Tunneling Current

E. N-I-S Tunneling Current

F. S-I-S Tunneling Current

G. Nonequilibrium Quasiparticle Tunneling

VI. Tunneling Measurements

A. Weak Links

B. Experimental Arrangements for Measuring Tunneling

C. N-I-S Tunneling Measurements

D. S-I-S Tunneling Measurements

E. Energy Gap

F. Proximity Effect

G. Even-Odd Electron Number Effect

VII. Josephson Effect

A. Cooper Pair Tunneling

B. dc Josephson Effect

C. ac Josephson Effect

D. Driven Junctions

E. Inverse ac Josephson Effect

F. Analogues of Josephson Junctions

VIII. Magnetic Field and Size Effects

A. Short Josephson Junction

B. Long Josephson Junction

C. Josephson Penetration Depth

D. Two-Junction Loop

E. Self-Induced Flux

F. Junction Loop of Finite Size

G. Ultrasmall Josephson Junction

H. Arrays and Models for Granular Superconductors

I. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

Further Reading

Problems

14 Transport Properties

I. Introduction

II. Inductive Superconducting Circuits

A. Parallel Inductances

B. Inductors

C. Alternating Current Impedance

III. Current Density Equilibration

IV. Critical Current

A. Anisotropy

B. Magnetic Field Dependence

V. Magnetoresistance

A. Applied Fields above Tc

B. Applied Fields below Tc

C. Fluctuation Conductivity

D. Flux Flow Effects

VI. Hall Effect

A. Hall Effect above Tc

B. Hall Effect below Tc

VII. Thermal Conductivity

A. Heat and Entropy Transport

B. Thermal Conductivity in the Normal State

C. Thermal Conductivity below Tc

D. Magnetic Field Effects

E. Anisotropy

VIII. Thermoelectric and Thermomagnetic Effects

A. Thermal Flux of Vortices

B. Seebeck Effect

C. Nernst Effect

D. Peltier Effect

E. Ettinghausen Effect

F. Righi-Leduc Effect

IX. Photoconductivity

X. Transport Entropy

Further Reading

Problems

15 Spectroscopic Properties

I. Introduction

II. Vibrational Spectroscopy

A. Vibrational Transitions

B. Normal Modes

C. Soft Modes

D. Infrared and Raman Active Modes

E. Kramers-Kronig Analysis

F. Infrared Spectra Results

G. Light-Beam Polarization

H. Raman Spectra Results

I. Energy Gap

III. Optical Spectroscopy

IV. Photoemission

A. Measurement Technique

B. Energy Levels

C. Core-Level Spectra

D. Valence Band Spectra

E. Energy Bands and Density of States

V. X-ray Absorption Edges

A. X-ray Absorption

B. Electron-Energy Loss

VI. Inelastic Neutron Scattering

VII. Positron Annihilation

VIII. Magnetic Resonance

A. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

B. Quadropole Resonance

C. Electron-Spin Resonance

D. Nonresonant Microwave Absorption

E. Microwave Energy Gap

F. Muon Spin Relaxation

G. Mössbauer Resonance

Further Reading

Problems

References

Appendix

Index


Details

No. of pages:
636
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1995
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483219349

About the Author

Charles P. Poole

Horacio A. Farach

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, USA

Richard J. Creswick

Ratings and Reviews