Sulfur

Sulfur

Its Significance for Chemistry, for the Geo-, Bio-, and Cosmosphere and Technology

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Editors: A. Müller, B. Krebs
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289892

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Description

Sulfur: Its Significance for Chemistry, for the Geo-, Bio- and Cosmosphere and Technology focuses on the significance of sulfur for chemistry, geosphere, biosphere, cosmosphere, and technology. Topics covered range from the geochemistry and natural cycle of sulfur to the role of sulfur in "black powder". Organometallic sulfur compounds, thiolates, and the spectroscopic effects of sulfur chemistry are also discussed. Comprised of 21 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to elemental sulfur and related homocyclic compounds and ions, focusing on their preparation, molecular and crystal structures, molecular spectra, and thermodynamic properties. Subsequent chapters deal with the origin and natural cycle of sulfur in the earth's crust; the role of sulfur in the reactions of exploding gunpowder; the use of sulfur in artwork; and developments in the field of organic sulfur chemistry. The catalytic properties of metal complexes of sulfur and sulfur-nitrogen compounds are also examined, along with the synthetic aspects of sulfido-complexes of molybdenum and tungsten. The final section is devoted to the role of sulfur in microbiology, biochemistry, and medicine. This monograph will be useful to students, practitioners, and researchers in the field of inorganic chemistry, as well as those who are interested in sulfur and its compounds.

Table of Contents


  • I. Sulfur: The Element, its Geochemistry and some Aspects of its History

    Elemental Sulfur and Related Homocyclic Compounds and Ions

    1. Introduction

    2. Elemental Sulfur (Neutral Rings Sn)

    3. Homocyclic Sulfur Cations

    4. Homocyclic Sulfur Oxides

    5. Homocyclic Sulfur Halide Cations

    Sulfur in the Earth's Crust, its Origin and Natural Cycle

    1. Cosmic and Terrestrial Abundance of Sulfur

    2. Sulfur Cycle in the Continental Crust

    3. Sulfur Cycle in the Oceanic Crust

    4. Isotopic Composition of Natural Sulfur

    5. Sulfur in the Water Cycle at the Earth's Surface

    Sulfur in History: The Role of Sulfur in "Black Powder"

    1. Gunpowder - A Chinese Invention?

    2. Technology of Black Powder in the European Middle Ages

    3. The Composition of Black Powder and the Reaction of Its Components

    4. The Role of Sulfur in Black Powder

    Sulfur in Artwork: Lapis Lazuli and Ultramarine Pigments

    1. A Five-Thousand Years Old Pigment

    2. The Synthesis of Ultramarine

    3. Structure Analysis of Lapis Lazuli and of the Ultramarine Pigments

    4. Blue Sulfur?

    5. The Chromophores in Ultramarine-Yellow, -Green, -Violet and -Red

    6. Chemical Behavior of the Sulfur Species in Lapis Lazuli and in the Ultramarine Pigments

    7. Concluding Remarks

    II. Chemistry

    New Developments in the Field of Organic Sulfur Chemistry

    1 . Introduction

    2. New Structures and New Methods for Understanding Structures

    3. New Ideas on and New Applications of Reactions of Organosulfur Compounds

    4. Sulfur-Containing Natural Products and Biologically Active Sulfur Compounds

    Organometallic Sulfur Compounds

    1 . Introduction

    2. Structural Types

    3. Stabilisation Principles and Synthetic Approaches

    4. Reactivity of M-SH Complexes

    5. The M3S Electron Reservoir

    6. Framework Reactions of Sulfur Bridged Organometal1ic Clusters

    Thiolates - Intriguing and Versatile Ligands for Transition Metals

    1 . Introduction

    2. Mononuclear Complexes with Monodentate Thiols

    3. Polynuclear Thiolato-Complexes

    4. Sulfide Formation by C-S Bond Cleavage

    5. Polydentate Thiolato-Ligands; Sulfur-Sulfur Interactions

    6. Redox Reactions and the Electrochemistry of Thiolato-Complexes

    7. Sterically Hindered Thiolato-Ligands

    8. Conclusion

    Metal Complexes of Sulfur and Sulfur-Nitrogen Compounds and their Catalytic Properties

    1 . Introduction

    2. Elemental Sulfur as a Ligand

    3. Complexes with (CH2S)3, (CH2Se)3 and (CH2O)6

    4. Sulfur-Nitrogen Species as Ligands

    5. Metal-Catalyzed Formation of S(CN)4

    Sulfido-Complexes of Molybdenum and Tungsten: Synthetic Aspects

    1 . Introduction

    2. Simple Thiometallate Anions and Their Reactions

    3. Thiometal1ates as Ligands

    4. Reactions of Thiometallates in the Presence of Thiolates

    5. Mononuclear Complexes

    Interaction Between Metal Centers Through Sulfur Containing Ligands

    1 . Introduction

    2. Theoretical Background

    3. Large Interaction between Copper(II) Ions Far Away from Each Other

    4. Dithiooxamidato Copper(II) Dinuclear Complexes

    5. Ab Initio Calculation of the Exchange Interaction in Dithiooxamide Complexes

    6. Ordered Bimetallic Chains with Dithiooxalato Bridges

    7. Magnetic Properties of Iron-Sulfur Complexes

    8. Conclusion

    Spectroscopic Aspects of Sulfur Chemistry: Electronic and Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Sulfur-Containing Complexes, Ions and Radicals

    1. Introduction

    2. Transition Metal Thiometallates

    3. Electronic and RR Spectra of Sulfur-Donor Complexes

    4. Spectroscopic Studies on Cations

    5. Spectroscopic Studies on Sulfur Radical Anions

    6. Conclusion

    III. Technology and Chemistry with Technological Relevance

    Sulfuric Acid - An Important Basic Product in Chemistry. Problems and Recent Development in Production

    1. Introduction

    2. Acid Manufacture and Reduction of Emissions

    3. Raw Materials

    4. Energy Recovery

    5. Recycling of Spent Acids and By-Products

    Chemical Problems of Flue-Gas Desulfurisation

    1. Introduction

    2. Chemistry of Sulfur

    3. The Problem of Changing Oxidation States of Sulfur

    4. Proposal for a Sulfur Producing Desulfurisation Process

    Metal Sulfides in Photovoltaic, Photoelectrochemical and Solar Biological Energy Conversion

    1. Introduction

    2. Sulfur Compounds as Solar Energy Materials

    3. Photovoltaic Cells Based on Sulfides

    4. Photoelectrochemical Cells Based on Sulfides

    5. Solar Assisted Electrolysis of Water

    6. Photocatalysis and Solar Intercalation Chemistry

    7. Solar Biomass Based on Sulfur Cycle

    8. Stability and Reactivity of Sulfide Materials

    9. Conclusion

    Inorganic Chemistry Related to Rubber Vulcanisation

    1. Introduction

    2. Mechanism of Sulfur Vulcanisation

    Biodegradation of Sulfur Minerals and its Application for Metal Recovery

    1. Introduction

    2. Microorganisms

    3. Leaching Machanisms

    4. Factors Influencing Bacterial Leaching Activity

    5. Leaching Techniques

    6. Conclusion

    IV. Sulfur in Microbiology, Biochemistry and Medicine

    Microorganisms and the Sulfur Cycle

    1. Introduction

    2. The Biogeochemical Sulfur Cycle

    3. The Metabolic Types and Microbial Groups Involved in the Cycle

    4. The Sulfuretum

    5. Fractionation of Sulfur Isotopes by Bacteria

    Phototrophic Bacteria and their Sulfur Metabolism

    1. Introduction

    2. Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism

    3. Ecology and Technical Application

    4. Photosynthesis

    5. Sulfur Metabolism

    Cytochromes and Iron Sulfur Proteins in Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Sulfur Bacteria

    1. Introduction

    2. Definition of Electron Transfer Proteins

    3. Enzymatic Steps of Dissimi1atory Sulfur Metabolism

    4. Summary and Conclusion

    Sulfide and Other Sulfur-Containing Ligands in Metalloproteins and Enzymes

    1. Introduction

    2. Natural Sulfur-Containing Ligands

    3. Metalloproteins Containing No Sulfide Ligands

    4. Metalloproteins with Sulfide Ligands

    Genetic Diseases of Sulfur Metabolism in Humans

    1. Introduction

    2. Cystathionine ß-Synthase Deficiency

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289892

About the Editors

A. Müller

B. Krebs

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