Subsea Pipelines and Risers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080445663, 9780080524191

Subsea Pipelines and Risers

1st Edition

Editors: Yong Bai Qiang Bai
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445663
eBook ISBN: 9780080524191
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 21st November 2005
Page Count: 840
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• Updated edition of a best-selling title • Author brings 25 years experience to the work • Addresses the key issues of economy and environment

Marine pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas have become a safe and reliable way to exploit the valuable resources below the world’s seas and oceans. The design of these pipelines is a relatively new technology and continues to evolve in its quest to reduce costs and minimise the effect on the environment.

With over 25years experience, Professor Yong Bai has been able to assimilate the essence of the applied mechanics aspects of offshore pipeline system design in a form of value to students and designers alike. It represents an excellent source of up to date practices and knowledge to help equip those who wish to be part of the exciting future of this industry.


Structural and civil engineers, students and researchers.

Table of Contents

Table of contents


Foreword to "Pipelines and Risers" Book


Part I: Mechanical Design

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Design Stages and Process

1.3 Design Through Analysis (DTA)

1.4 Pipeline Design Analysis

1.5 Pipeline Simulator

1.6 References

Chapter 2 Wall-thickness and Material Grade Selection

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Material Grade Selection

2.3 Pressure Containment (hoop stress) Design

2.4 Equivalent Stress Criterion

2.5 Hydrostatic Collapse

2.6 Wall Thickness and Length Design for Buckle Arrestors

2.7 Buckle Arrestor Spacing Design

2.8 References

Chapter 3 Buckling/Collapse of Deepwater Metallic Pipes

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Pipe Capacity under Single Load

3.3 Pipe Capacity under Couple Load

3.4 Pipes under Pressure Axial Force and Bending

3.5 Finite Element Model

3.6 References

Chapter 4 Limit-state based Strength Design

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Out of Roundness Serviceability Limit

4.3 Bursting

4.4 Local Buckling/Collapse

4.5 Fracture

4.6 Fatigue

4.7 Ratcheting

4.8 Dynamic Strength Criteria

4.9 Accumulated Plastic Strain

4.10 Strain Concentration at Field Joints Due to Coatings

4.11 References

Part II: Pipeline Design

Chapter 5 Soil and Pipe Interaction

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Pipe Penetration in Soil 83

5.3 Modeling Friction and Breakout Forces

5.4 References

Chapter 6 Hydrodynamics around Pipes

6.1 Wave Simulators

6.2 Choice of Wave Theory

6.3 Mathematical Formulations Used in the Wave Simulators

6.4 Steady Currents

6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces

6.6 References

Chapter 7 Finite Element Analysis of In-situ Behavior

7.1 Introduction 101

7.2 Description of the Finite Element Model

7.3 Steps in an Analysis and Choice of Analysis Procedure

7.4 Element Types Used in the Model

7.5 Non-linearity and Seabed Model

7.6 Validation of the Finite Element Model

7.7 Dynamic Buckling Analysis

7.8 Cyclic In-place Behaviour during Shutdown Operations

7.9 References

Chapter 8 Expansion, Axial Creeping, Upheaval/Lateral Buckling

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Expansion

8.3 Axial Creeping of Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting

8.4 Upheaval Buckling

8.5 Lateral Buckling

8.6 Interaction between Lateral and Upheaval Buckling

8.7 References

Chapter 9 On-bottom Stability

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Force Balance: the Simplified Method

9.3 Acceptance Criteria

9.4 Special Purpose Program for Stability Analysis

9.5 Use of FE Analysis for Intervention Design

9.6 References

Chapter 10 Vortex-induced Vibrations (VIV) and Fatigue

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Free-span VIV Analysis Procedure

10.3 Fatigue Design Criteria

10.4 Response Amplitude

10.5 Modal Analysis

10.6 Example Cases

10.7 References

Chapter 11 Force Model and Wave Fatigue

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fatigue Analysis

11.3 Force Model

11.4 Comparisons of Frequency Domain and Time Domain Approaches

11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

11.6 References

Chapter 12 Trawl Impact, Pullover and Hooking Loads

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Trawl Gears

12.3 Acceptance Criteria

12.4 Impact Response Analysis

12.5 Pullover Loads

12.6 Finite Element Model for Pullover Response Analyses

12.7 Case Study

12.8 References

Chapter 13 Pipe-in-pipe and Bundle Systems

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Pipe-in-pipe System

13.3 Bundle System

13.4 References

Chapter 14 Seismic Design

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Pipeline Seismic Design Guidelines

14.3 Conclusions

14.4 References

Chapter 15 Corrosion Prevention

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Fundamentals of Cathodic Protection

15.3 Pipeline Coatings

15.4 CP Design Parameters

5.5 Galvanic Anodes System Design

15.6 References

Chapter 16 Asgard Flowlines Design Examples

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Wall-thickness and Linepipe Material Selection

16.3 Limit State Strength Criteria

16.4 Installation and On-bottom Stability

16.5 Design for Global Buckling, Fishing Gear Loads and VIV

16.6 Asgard Transport Project

16.7 References

Part III: Flow Assurance

Chapter 17 Subsea System Engineering

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Typical Flow Assurance Process

17.3 System Design and Operability

17.4 References

Chapter 18 Hydraulics

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Composition and Properties of Hydrocarbons

18.3 Emulsion

18.4 Phase Behavior

18.5 Hydrocarbon Flow

18.6 Slugging and Liquid Handling

18.7 Pressure Surge

18.8 Line Sizing

18.9 References

Chapter 19 Heat Transfer and Thermal Insulation

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Heat Transfer Fundamentals

19.3 U-value

19.4 Steady State Heat Transfer

19.5 Transient Heat Transfer

19.6 Thermal Management Strategy and Insulation

19.7 References

19.8 Appendix: U-value and Cooldown Time Calculation Sheet

Chapter 20 Hydrates

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Physics and Phase Behavior

20.3 Hydrate Prevention

20.4 Hydrate Remediation

20.5 Hydrate Control Design Philosophies

20.6 Recover of Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors

20.7 References

Chapter 21 Wax and Asphaltenes

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Wax

21.3 Wax Management

21.4 Wax Remediation

21.5 Asphaltenes

21.7 References

Part IV: Riser Engineering

Chapter 22 Design of Deepwater Risers

22.1 Description of a Riser System

22.2 Riser Analysis Tools

22.3 Steel Catenary Riser for Deepwater Environments

22.4 Stresses and Service Life of Flexible Pipes

22.5 Drilling and Workover Risers

22.6 Reference

Chapter 23 Design Codes for Risers and Subsea Systems

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Design Criteria for Deepwater Metallic Risers

23.3 Limit State Design Criteria

23.4 Loads, Load Effects and Load Cases

23.5 Improving Design Codes and Guidelines

23.6 Regulations and Standards for Subsea Production Systems

23.7 References

Chapter 24 VIV and Wave Fatigue of Risers

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Fatigue Causes

24.3 Riser VIV Analysis and Suppression

24.4 Riser Fatigue due to Vortex-induced Hull Motions (VIM)

24.5 Challenges and Solutions for Fatigue Analysis

24.6 Conclusions

24.7 References

Chapter 25 Steel Catenary Risers

25.1 Introduction

25.2 SCR Technology Development History

25.3 Material Selection, Wall-thickness Sizing, Source Services and Clap Pipe

25.4 SCR Design Analysis

25.5 Welding Technology, S-N Curves and SCF for Welded Connections

25.6 UT Inspections and ECA Criteria

25.7 Flexjoints, Stressjoints and Pulltubes

25.8 Strength Design Challenges and Solutions

25.9 Fatigue Design Challenges and Solutions

25.10 Installation and Sensitivity Considerations

25.11 Integrity Monitoring and Management Systems

25.12 References

Chapter 26 Top Tensioned Risers

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Top Tension Risers Systems

26.3 TTR Riser Components

26.4 Modelling and Analysis of Top Tensioned Risers

26.5 Integrated Marine Monitoring System

26.6 References

Chapter 27 Steel Tube Umbilical & Control Systems

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Control Systems

27.3 Cross-sectional Design of the Umbilical

27.4 Steel Tube Design Capacity Verification

27.5 Extreme Wave Analysis

27.6 Manufacturing Fatigue Analysis

27.7 In-place Fatigue Analysis

27.8 Installation Analysis

27.9 Required On-seabed Length for Stability

27.10 References

Chapter 28 Flexible Risers and Flowlines

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Flexible Pipe Cross Section

28.3 End Fitting and Annulus Venting Design

28.4 Flexible Riser Design

28.5 References

Chapter 29 Hybrid Risers

29.1 Introduction

29.2 General Description of Hybrid Risers

29.3 Sizing of Hybrid Risers

29.4 Preliminary Analysis

29.5 Strength Analysis

29.6 Fatigue Analysis

29.7 Structural and Environmental Monitoring System

29.8 References

Chapter 30 Drilling Risers

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Floating Drilling Equipments

30.3 Key Components of Subsea Production Systems

30.4 Riser Design Criteria

30.5 Drilling Riser Analysis Model

30.6 Drilling Riser Analysis Methodology

30.7 References

Chapter 31 Integrity Management of Flexibles and Umbilicals

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Failure Statistics

31.3 Risk Management Methodology

31.4 Failure Drivers

31.5 Failure Modes

31.6 Integrity Management Strategy

31.7 Inspection Measures

31.8 Monitoring

31.9 Testing and Analysis Measures

31.10 Steel Tube Umbilical Risk Analysis and Integrity Management

31.11 References

Part V: Welding and Installation

Chapter 32 Use of High Strength Steel

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Review of Usage of High Strength Steel Linepipes

32.3 Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of High Strength Steel

32.4 Welding of High Strength Linepipe

32.5 Cathodic Protection

32.6 Fatigue and Fracture of High Strength Steel

32.7 Material Property Requirements

32.8 References

Chapter 33 Welding and Defect Acceptance

33.1 Introduction

33.2 Weld Repair Analysis

33.3 Allowable Excavation Length Assessment

33.4 Conclusions

33.5 References

Chapter 34 Installation Design

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Pipeline Installation Vessels

34.3 Software OFFPIPE and Code Requirements

34.4 Physical Background for Installation

34.5 Finite Element Analysis Procedure for Installation of In-line Valves

34.6 Two Medium Pipeline Design Concept

34.7 References

Chapter 35 Route Optimization, Tie-in and Protection

35.1 Introduction

35.2 Pipeline Routing

35.3 Pipeline Tie-ins

35.4 Flowline Trenching/Burying

35.4.1 Jet Sled

35.5 Flowline Rockdumping

35.6 Equipment Dayrates

35.7 References

Chapter 36 Pipeline Inspection, Maintenance and Repair

36.1 Operations

36.2 Inspection by Intelligent Pigging

36.3 Maintenance

36.4 Pipeline Repair Methods

36.5 Deepwater Pipeline Repair

36.6 References

Part VI: Integrity Management

Chapter 37 Reliability-based Strength Design of Pipelines

37.1 Introduction

37.2 Uncertainty Measures

37.3 Calibration of Safety Factors

37.4 Reliability-based Determination of Corrosion Allowance

37.5 References

Chapter 38 Corroded Pipelines

38.1 Introduction

38.2 Corrosion Defect Predictions

38.3 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe

38.4 New Remaining Strength Criteria for Corroded Pipe

38.5 Reliability-based Design

38.6 Re-qualification Example Applications

38.7 References

Chapter 39 Residual Strength of Dented Pipes with Cracks

39.1 Introduction

39.2 Limit-state based Criteria for Dented Pipe

39.3 Fracture of Pipes with Longitudinal Cracks

39.4 Fracture of Pipes with Circumferential Cracks

39.5 Reliability-based Assessment

39.6 Design Examples

39.7 References

Chapter 40 Integrity Management of Subsea Systems

40.1 Introduction

40.2 Acceptance Criteria

40.3 Identification of Initiating Events

40.4 Cause Analysis

40.5 Probability of Initiating Events

40.6 Causes of Risks

40.7 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Qualitative Review and Databases

40.8 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Structural Reliability Methods

40.9 Consequence Analysis

40.10 Example 1: Risk Analysis for a Subsea Gas Pipeline

40.11 Example 2: Dropped Object Risk Analysis

40.11.4 Results

40.12 Example 3: Example Use of RBIM to Reduce Operation Costs

40.13 References

Chapter 41 LCC Modeling as a Decision Making Tool in Pipeline Design

41.1 Introduction

41.2 Initial Cost

41.3 Financial Risk

41.4 Time Value of Money

41.5 Fabrication Tolerance Example Using the Life-cycle Cost Model

41.6 On-Bottom Stability Example

41.7 References

Subject Index


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About the Editor

Yong Bai

Dr. Yong Bai obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. He is currently President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR Inc., a design/consulting firm in the field of subsea pipelines, risers and floating systems. In the 1990's, he had been a technical leader for several Asgard Transport pipeline and flowline projects at JP Kenny as Manager of the advanced engineering department. Yong was previously a lead riser engineer at Shell and assisted in offshore rules development at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) as Manager of the offshore technology department. While a professor, he wrote several books and served as a course leader on the design of subsea pipelines and irsers as well as design of floating systems. He also serves at Zhejiang University in China as professor.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.

Qiang Bai

Dr. Qiang Bai obtained a doctorate for Mechanical Engineering at Kyushu University, Japan in 1995. He has more than 20 years of experience in subsea/offshore engineering including research and engineering execution. He has worked at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA, OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. His experience includes various aspects of flow assurance and the design and installation of subsea structures, pipelines and riser systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Offshore Pipelines & Risers (OPR) Inc.