Subsea Pipelines and Risers

Subsea Pipelines and Risers

1st Edition - November 21, 2005

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  • Editors: Yong Bai, Qiang Bai
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445663
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080524191

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• Updated edition of a best-selling title • Author brings 25 years experience to the work • Addresses the key issues of economy and environment Marine pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas have become a safe and reliable way to exploit the valuable resources below the world’s seas and oceans. The design of these pipelines is a relatively new technology and continues to evolve in its quest to reduce costs and minimise the effect on the environment. With over 25years experience, Professor Yong Bai has been able to assimilate the essence of the applied mechanics aspects of offshore pipeline system design in a form of value to students and designers alike. It represents an excellent source of up to date practices and knowledge to help equip those who wish to be part of the exciting future of this industry.


Structural and civil engineers, students and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Table of contents


    Foreword to "Pipelines and Risers" Book


    Part I: Mechanical Design

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Design Stages and Process

    1.3 Design Through Analysis (DTA)

    1.4 Pipeline Design Analysis

    1.5 Pipeline Simulator

    1.6 References

    Chapter 2 Wall-thickness and Material Grade Selection

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Material Grade Selection

    2.3 Pressure Containment (hoop stress) Design

    2.4 Equivalent Stress Criterion

    2.5 Hydrostatic Collapse

    2.6 Wall Thickness and Length Design for Buckle Arrestors

    2.7 Buckle Arrestor Spacing Design

    2.8 References

    Chapter 3 Buckling/Collapse of Deepwater Metallic Pipes

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Pipe Capacity under Single Load

    3.3 Pipe Capacity under Couple Load

    3.4 Pipes under Pressure Axial Force and Bending

    3.5 Finite Element Model

    3.6 References

    Chapter 4 Limit-state based Strength Design

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Out of Roundness Serviceability Limit

    4.3 Bursting

    4.4 Local Buckling/Collapse

    4.5 Fracture

    4.6 Fatigue

    4.7 Ratcheting

    4.8 Dynamic Strength Criteria

    4.9 Accumulated Plastic Strain

    4.10 Strain Concentration at Field Joints Due to Coatings

    4.11 References

    Part II: Pipeline Design

    Chapter 5 Soil and Pipe Interaction

    5.1 Introduction 83

    5.2 Pipe Penetration in Soil 83

    5.3 Modeling Friction and Breakout Forces

    5.4 References

    Chapter 6 Hydrodynamics around Pipes

    6.1 Wave Simulators

    6.2 Choice of Wave Theory

    6.3 Mathematical Formulations Used in the Wave Simulators

    6.4 Steady Currents

    6.5 Hydrodynamic Forces

    6.6 References

    Chapter 7 Finite Element Analysis of In-situ Behavior

    7.1 Introduction 101

    7.2 Description of the Finite Element Model

    7.3 Steps in an Analysis and Choice of Analysis Procedure

    7.4 Element Types Used in the Model

    7.5 Non-linearity and Seabed Model

    7.6 Validation of the Finite Element Model

    7.7 Dynamic Buckling Analysis

    7.8 Cyclic In-place Behaviour during Shutdown Operations

    7.9 References

    Chapter 8 Expansion, Axial Creeping, Upheaval/Lateral Buckling

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Expansion

    8.3 Axial Creeping of Flowlines Caused by Soil Ratcheting

    8.4 Upheaval Buckling

    8.5 Lateral Buckling

    8.6 Interaction between Lateral and Upheaval Buckling

    8.7 References

    Chapter 9 On-bottom Stability

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Force Balance: the Simplified Method

    9.3 Acceptance Criteria

    9.4 Special Purpose Program for Stability Analysis

    9.5 Use of FE Analysis for Intervention Design

    9.6 References

    Chapter 10 Vortex-induced Vibrations (VIV) and Fatigue

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Free-span VIV Analysis Procedure

    10.3 Fatigue Design Criteria

    10.4 Response Amplitude

    10.5 Modal Analysis

    10.6 Example Cases

    10.7 References

    Chapter 11 Force Model and Wave Fatigue

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Fatigue Analysis

    11.3 Force Model

    11.4 Comparisons of Frequency Domain and Time Domain Approaches

    11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

    11.6 References

    Chapter 12 Trawl Impact, Pullover and Hooking Loads

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Trawl Gears

    12.3 Acceptance Criteria

    12.4 Impact Response Analysis

    12.5 Pullover Loads

    12.6 Finite Element Model for Pullover Response Analyses

    12.7 Case Study

    12.8 References

    Chapter 13 Pipe-in-pipe and Bundle Systems

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Pipe-in-pipe System

    13.3 Bundle System

    13.4 References

    Chapter 14 Seismic Design

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Pipeline Seismic Design Guidelines

    14.3 Conclusions

    14.4 References

    Chapter 15 Corrosion Prevention

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Fundamentals of Cathodic Protection

    15.3 Pipeline Coatings

    15.4 CP Design Parameters

    5.5 Galvanic Anodes System Design

    15.6 References

    Chapter 16 Asgard Flowlines Design Examples

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Wall-thickness and Linepipe Material Selection

    16.3 Limit State Strength Criteria

    16.4 Installation and On-bottom Stability

    16.5 Design for Global Buckling, Fishing Gear Loads and VIV

    16.6 Asgard Transport Project

    16.7 References

    Part III: Flow Assurance

    Chapter 17 Subsea System Engineering

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Typical Flow Assurance Process

    17.3 System Design and Operability

    17.4 References

    Chapter 18 Hydraulics

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Composition and Properties of Hydrocarbons

    18.3 Emulsion

    18.4 Phase Behavior

    18.5 Hydrocarbon Flow

    18.6 Slugging and Liquid Handling

    18.7 Pressure Surge

    18.8 Line Sizing

    18.9 References

    Chapter 19 Heat Transfer and Thermal Insulation

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Heat Transfer Fundamentals

    19.3 U-value

    19.4 Steady State Heat Transfer

    19.5 Transient Heat Transfer

    19.6 Thermal Management Strategy and Insulation

    19.7 References

    19.8 Appendix: U-value and Cooldown Time Calculation Sheet

    Chapter 20 Hydrates

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Physics and Phase Behavior

    20.3 Hydrate Prevention

    20.4 Hydrate Remediation

    20.5 Hydrate Control Design Philosophies

    20.6 Recover of Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors

    20.7 References

    Chapter 21 Wax and Asphaltenes

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Wax

    21.3 Wax Management

    21.4 Wax Remediation

    21.5 Asphaltenes

    21.7 References

    Part IV: Riser Engineering

    Chapter 22 Design of Deepwater Risers

    22.1 Description of a Riser System

    22.2 Riser Analysis Tools

    22.3 Steel Catenary Riser for Deepwater Environments

    22.4 Stresses and Service Life of Flexible Pipes

    22.5 Drilling and Workover Risers

    22.6 Reference

    Chapter 23 Design Codes for Risers and Subsea Systems

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Design Criteria for Deepwater Metallic Risers

    23.3 Limit State Design Criteria

    23.4 Loads, Load Effects and Load Cases

    23.5 Improving Design Codes and Guidelines

    23.6 Regulations and Standards for Subsea Production Systems

    23.7 References

    Chapter 24 VIV and Wave Fatigue of Risers

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Fatigue Causes

    24.3 Riser VIV Analysis and Suppression

    24.4 Riser Fatigue due to Vortex-induced Hull Motions (VIM)

    24.5 Challenges and Solutions for Fatigue Analysis

    24.6 Conclusions

    24.7 References

    Chapter 25 Steel Catenary Risers

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 SCR Technology Development History

    25.3 Material Selection, Wall-thickness Sizing, Source Services and Clap Pipe

    25.4 SCR Design Analysis

    25.5 Welding Technology, S-N Curves and SCF for Welded Connections

    25.6 UT Inspections and ECA Criteria

    25.7 Flexjoints, Stressjoints and Pulltubes

    25.8 Strength Design Challenges and Solutions

    25.9 Fatigue Design Challenges and Solutions

    25.10 Installation and Sensitivity Considerations

    25.11 Integrity Monitoring and Management Systems

    25.12 References

    Chapter 26 Top Tensioned Risers

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Top Tension Risers Systems

    26.3 TTR Riser Components

    26.4 Modelling and Analysis of Top Tensioned Risers

    26.5 Integrated Marine Monitoring System

    26.6 References

    Chapter 27 Steel Tube Umbilical & Control Systems

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Control Systems

    27.3 Cross-sectional Design of the Umbilical

    27.4 Steel Tube Design Capacity Verification

    27.5 Extreme Wave Analysis

    27.6 Manufacturing Fatigue Analysis

    27.7 In-place Fatigue Analysis

    27.8 Installation Analysis

    27.9 Required On-seabed Length for Stability

    27.10 References

    Chapter 28 Flexible Risers and Flowlines

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Flexible Pipe Cross Section

    28.3 End Fitting and Annulus Venting Design

    28.4 Flexible Riser Design

    28.5 References

    Chapter 29 Hybrid Risers

    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 General Description of Hybrid Risers

    29.3 Sizing of Hybrid Risers

    29.4 Preliminary Analysis

    29.5 Strength Analysis

    29.6 Fatigue Analysis

    29.7 Structural and Environmental Monitoring System

    29.8 References

    Chapter 30 Drilling Risers

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Floating Drilling Equipments

    30.3 Key Components of Subsea Production Systems

    30.4 Riser Design Criteria

    30.5 Drilling Riser Analysis Model

    30.6 Drilling Riser Analysis Methodology

    30.7 References

    Chapter 31 Integrity Management of Flexibles and Umbilicals

    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Failure Statistics

    31.3 Risk Management Methodology

    31.4 Failure Drivers

    31.5 Failure Modes

    31.6 Integrity Management Strategy

    31.7 Inspection Measures

    31.8 Monitoring

    31.9 Testing and Analysis Measures

    31.10 Steel Tube Umbilical Risk Analysis and Integrity Management

    31.11 References

    Part V: Welding and Installation

    Chapter 32 Use of High Strength Steel

    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Review of Usage of High Strength Steel Linepipes

    32.3 Potential Benefits and Disadvantages of High Strength Steel

    32.4 Welding of High Strength Linepipe

    32.5 Cathodic Protection

    32.6 Fatigue and Fracture of High Strength Steel

    32.7 Material Property Requirements

    32.8 References

    Chapter 33 Welding and Defect Acceptance

    33.1 Introduction

    33.2 Weld Repair Analysis

    33.3 Allowable Excavation Length Assessment

    33.4 Conclusions

    33.5 References

    Chapter 34 Installation Design

    34.1 Introduction

    34.2 Pipeline Installation Vessels

    34.3 Software OFFPIPE and Code Requirements

    34.4 Physical Background for Installation

    34.5 Finite Element Analysis Procedure for Installation of In-line Valves

    34.6 Two Medium Pipeline Design Concept

    34.7 References

    Chapter 35 Route Optimization, Tie-in and Protection

    35.1 Introduction

    35.2 Pipeline Routing

    35.3 Pipeline Tie-ins

    35.4 Flowline Trenching/Burying

    35.4.1 Jet Sled

    35.5 Flowline Rockdumping

    35.6 Equipment Dayrates

    35.7 References

    Chapter 36 Pipeline Inspection, Maintenance and Repair

    36.1 Operations

    36.2 Inspection by Intelligent Pigging

    36.3 Maintenance

    36.4 Pipeline Repair Methods

    36.5 Deepwater Pipeline Repair

    36.6 References

    Part VI: Integrity Management

    Chapter 37 Reliability-based Strength Design of Pipelines

    37.1 Introduction

    37.2 Uncertainty Measures

    37.3 Calibration of Safety Factors

    37.4 Reliability-based Determination of Corrosion Allowance

    37.5 References

    Chapter 38 Corroded Pipelines

    38.1 Introduction

    38.2 Corrosion Defect Predictions

    38.3 Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe

    38.4 New Remaining Strength Criteria for Corroded Pipe

    38.5 Reliability-based Design

    38.6 Re-qualification Example Applications

    38.7 References

    Chapter 39 Residual Strength of Dented Pipes with Cracks

    39.1 Introduction

    39.2 Limit-state based Criteria for Dented Pipe

    39.3 Fracture of Pipes with Longitudinal Cracks

    39.4 Fracture of Pipes with Circumferential Cracks

    39.5 Reliability-based Assessment

    39.6 Design Examples

    39.7 References

    Chapter 40 Integrity Management of Subsea Systems

    40.1 Introduction

    40.2 Acceptance Criteria

    40.3 Identification of Initiating Events

    40.4 Cause Analysis

    40.5 Probability of Initiating Events

    40.6 Causes of Risks

    40.7 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Qualitative Review and Databases

    40.8 Failure Probability Estimation Based on Structural Reliability Methods

    40.9 Consequence Analysis

    40.10 Example 1: Risk Analysis for a Subsea Gas Pipeline

    40.11 Example 2: Dropped Object Risk Analysis

    40.11.4 Results

    40.12 Example 3: Example Use of RBIM to Reduce Operation Costs

    40.13 References

    Chapter 41 LCC Modeling as a Decision Making Tool in Pipeline Design

    41.1 Introduction

    41.2 Initial Cost

    41.3 Financial Risk

    41.4 Time Value of Money

    41.5 Fabrication Tolerance Example Using the Life-cycle Cost Model

    41.6 On-Bottom Stability Example

    41.7 References

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 840
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2005
  • Published: November 21, 2005
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445663
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080524191

About the Editors

Yong Bai

Professor Yong Bai is the President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers, Inc. in Houston, and also the director of the Offshore Engineering Research Center at Zhejiang University. He has previously taught at Stavanger University in Norway and has also worked with ABS as manager of the Offshore Technology Department and DNV as the JIP project manager. Yong obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. Yong has authored more than 100 papers on the design and installation of subsea pipelines and risers and is the author of Marine Structural Design and Subsea Pipelines and Risers.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR) Inc., Houston, TX, USA

Qiang Bai

Dr. Qiang Bai obtained a doctorate for Mechanical Engineering at Kyushu University, Japan in 1995. He has more than 20 years of experience in subsea/offshore engineering including research and engineering execution. He has worked at Kyushu University in Japan, UCLA, OPE, JP Kenny, and Technip. His experience includes various aspects of flow assurance and the design and installation of subsea structures, pipelines and riser systems. Dr. Bai is the coauthor of Subsea Pipelines and Risers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR) Inc.

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