Sturkie's Avian Physiology

Sturkie's Avian Physiology

7th Edition - November 6, 2021

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  • Editors: Colin Scanes, Sami Dridi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128197707
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323853514

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Description

Sturkie's Avian Physiology, Seventh Edition is the classic comprehensive single volume on the physiology of domestic as well as wild birds. This latest edition is thoroughly revised and updated and features several new chapters with entirely new content on such topics as vision, sensory taste, pain reception, evolution, and domestication. Chapters throughout have been greatly expanded due to the many recent advances in the field. This book is written by international experts in different aspects of avian physiology. For easy reading and searches, this book is structured under a series of themes, beginning with genomic studies, sensory biology and nervous systems, and major organs. The chapters then move on to investigate metabolism, endocrine physiology, reproduction, and finally cross-cutting themes such as stress and rhythms. New chapters on feathers and skin are featured as well. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, Seventh Edition is an important resource for ornithologists, poultry scientists, and other researchers in avian studies. It is also useful for students in avian or poultry physiology, as well as avian veterinarians.

Key Features

  • Stands out as the only single volume devoted to bird physiology
  • Features updates, revisions, or additions to each chapter
  • Written and edited by international leaders in avian studies

Readership

Orinthologists, immunologists, cell biologists, pathologists, poultry scientists, vaccinologists and veterinarians Zoologists, ecologists, ornithologists and evolutionary biologists interested in using immunological parameters as selection traits for studies on survival and evolution

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Part I. Undergirding themes
  • Chapter 1. The importance of avian physiology
  • 1.1. Specific examples of the importance of avian physiology
  • 1.2. Conclusions
  • Chapter 2. Avian genomics
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Genome
  • 2.3. Genome assemblies
  • 2.4. Connecting genome sequence to phenotype
  • 2.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 3. Transcriptomic analysis of physiological systems
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Early efforts
  • 3.3. Nervous system
  • 3.4. Endocrine system
  • 3.5. Reproductive system
  • 3.6. Immune system
  • 3.7. Muscle, liver, adipose, and gastrointestinal tissues
  • 3.8. Cardiovascular system
  • 3.9. Hurdles and future developments
  • Chapter 4. Avian proteomics
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Protein identification and analysis
  • 4.3. Quantitative proteomics
  • 4.4. Structural proteomics
  • 4.5. Application of proteomics in avian research
  • 4.6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. Avian metabolomics
  • 5.1. Introduction to metabolomics
  • 5.2. Methods of metabolomics
  • 5.3. Applications of metabolomics to avian physiology
  • 5.4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 6. Mitochondrial physiology—Sturkie's book chapter
  • 6.1. Overview of mitochondria
  • 6.2. Mitochondrial inefficiencies, oxidative stress, and antioxidants
  • 6.3. Signal transduction and reverse electron transport
  • 6.4. Matching energy production to energy need
  • Chapter 7. Evolution of birds
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. The dinosaur–bird transition
  • 7.3. The Mesozoic avifauna
  • 7.4. Assembling the modern bird
  • 7.5. Reproduction and development
  • 7.6. The rise of modern birds
  • 7.7. The shape of modern bird diversity
  • 7.8. The impact of humans on birds
  • Chapter 8. Domestication of poultry
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Domestication
  • 8.3. Conclusions
  • Part II. Sensory biology and nervous system theme
  • Chapter 9. The avian somatosensory system: a comparative view
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Body somatosensory primary afferent projections in different species
  • 9.3. Ascending projections of the dorsal column nuclei
  • 9.4. Telencephalic projections of thalamic nuclei receiving somatosensory input
  • 9.5. Somatosensory primary afferent projections from the beak, tongue, and syrinx to the trigeminal column
  • 9.6. Nucleus basorostralis
  • 9.7. The meeting of the spinal and trigeminal systems
  • 9.8. The somatosensorimotor system in birds
  • 9.9. Somatosensory projections to the cerebellum
  • 9.10. Magnetoreception and the trigeminal system
  • 9.11. Summary and conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Avian vision
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. What vision does?
  • 10.3. Variations in avian vision
  • 10.4. Variations in eyes
  • 10.5. Bird eyes: function, structure, and variations
  • 10.6. The visual fields of birds
  • 10.7. Spatial resolution in birds
  • 10.8. Contrast sensitivity
  • 10.9. Closing remarks
  • Chapter 11. Avian hearing
  • 11.1. Introduction: what do birds hear?
  • 11.2. Outer and middle ear
  • 11.3. Basilar papilla (cochlea)
  • 11.4. The auditory brain
  • 11.5. Summary
  • Chapter 12. Chemesthesis and olfaction
  • 12.1. Chemical senses
  • 12.2. Chemesthesis
  • 12.3. Neural organization
  • 12.4. Olfaction
  • 12.5. Summary
  • Chapter 13. Taste in birds
  • 13.1. Introduction
  • Chapter 14. Avian nociception and pain
  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. What evidence is required to demonstrate the capacity for pain?
  • 14.3. Conclusions
  • Chapter 15. Magnetoreception in birds and its use for long-distance migration
  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Magnetic fields
  • 15.3. The Earth's magnetic field
  • 15.4. Changing magnetic fields for experimental purposes
  • 15.5. Birds use information from the Earth's magnetic field for various behaviors
  • 15.6. The magnetic compass of birds
  • 15.7. Do birds possess a magnetic map?
  • 15.8. Interactions with other cues
  • 15.9. How do birds sense the Earth's magnetic field?
  • 15.10. The induction hypothesis
  • 15.11. The magnetic-particle–based hypothesis
  • 15.12. The light-dependent hypothesis
  • 15.13. Irreproducible results and the urgent need for independent replication
  • 15.14. Where do we go from here?
  • Chapter 16. The avian subpallium and autonomic nervous system
  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Components of the subpallium
  • 16.3. Components of the autonomic nervous system
  • 16.4. Integration of the subpallium and ANS in complex neural circuits in birds: two examples involving vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a regulator
  • 16.5. Summary and conclusions
  • Part III. Organ system theme
  • Chapter 17. Blood
  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Plasma
  • 17.3. Erythrocytes
  • 17.4. Blood gases
  • 17.5. Leukocytes
  • 17.6. Thrombocytes
  • 17.7. Other cells types in avian plasma
  • 17.8. Parasites and blood cells
  • 17.9. Clotting
  • Chapter 18. The cardiovascular system
  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Heart
  • 18.3. General circulatory hemodynamics
  • 18.4. The vascular tree
  • 18.5. Control of the cardiovascular system
  • 18.6. Environmental cardiovascular physiology
  • Chapter 19. Renal and extrarenal regulation of body fluid composition
  • 19.1. Introduction
  • 19.2. Intake of water and solutes
  • 19.3. The kidneys
  • 19.4. Extrarenal organs of osmoregulation: introduction
  • 19.5. The lower intestine
  • 19.6. Salt glands
  • 19.7. Evaporative water loss
  • Chapter 20. Respiration
  • 20.1. Overview
  • 20.2. Anatomy of the avian respiratory system
  • 20.3. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics
  • 20.4. Pulmonary circulation
  • 20.5. Gas transport by blood
  • 20.6. Pulmonary gas exchange
  • 20.7. Tissue gas exchange
  • 20.8. Control of breathing
  • 20.9. Defense systems in avian lungs
  • Chapter 21. Gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology
  • 21.1. Anatomy of the digestive tract
  • 21.2. Anatomy of the accessory organs
  • 21.3. Motility
  • 21.4. Neural and hormonal control of motility
  • 21.5. Secretion and digestion
  • 21.6. Absorption
  • 21.7. Age-related effects on gastrointestinal function
  • 21.8. Gastrointestinal microbiota
  • 21.9. Intestinal barrier
  • Chapter 21A. Functional properties of avian intestinal cells
  • 21A.1. Organization of the small intestine
  • 21A.2. Development of the small intestine from the late embryonic to early posthatch period in chickens
  • 21A.3. Cellular organization of the intestinal crypt and villi
  • 21A.4. Expression of host defense peptides in intestinal cells
  • 21A.5. Effect of intestinal pathogens and environmental factors on nutrient transporter and host defense peptide expression
  • 21A.6. Tight junction complex between intestinal epithelial cells
  • 21A.7. Chicken intestinal microbiota
  • 21A.8. In ovo delivery of biomolecules
  • 21A.9. In vitro systems: intestinal epithelial cell cultures and organoids
  • 21A.10. Conclusion
  • Chapter 22. Avian bone physiology and poultry bone disorders
  • 22.1. Introduction
  • 22.2. Embryonic skeletal differentiation
  • 22.3. Cartilage
  • 22.4. Bone
  • 22.5. Poultry bone disorders
  • 22.6. Conclusion
  • Chapter 23. Skeletal muscle
  • 23.1. Introduction
  • 23.2. Diversity of avian skeletal muscle
  • 23.3. Muscle structure and contraction
  • 23.4. Skeletal muscle fiber types
  • 23.5. Embryonic development of skeletal muscle
  • 23.6. Postnatal or posthatch skeletal muscle development
  • 23.7. Muscle development: function of myogenic regulatory factors
  • 23.8. Growth factors affecting skeletal muscle myogenesis
  • 23.9. Satellite cells and myoblast heterogeneity
  • 23.10. Novel genes involved in avian myogenesis
  • 23.11. Recent emerging breast muscle necrotic and fibrotic myopathies
  • 23.12. The effect of fibrillar collagen on the phnotype of necrotic breast muscle myopathies resulting in fibrosis
  • 23.13. Relationship of fibrillar collagen organization to the phnotype of breast muscle necrotic/fibrotic myopathies
  • 23.14. Regulation of muscle growth properties by cell-membrane associated extracellular matrix macromolecules
  • 23.15. Strategies to reduce myopathies
  • 23.16. Summary
  • Chapter 24. Immunophysiology of the avian immune system
  • 24.1. Introduction
  • 24.2. Innate immune system recognition, sensing, and function
  • 24.3. Acquired immune recognition and function
  • 24.4. Gastrointestinal tract and immune system of poultry
  • 24.5. Tissue immunometabolism: tissue homeostasis and tissue resident immune cells
  • Part IV. Metabolism theme
  • Chapter 25. Carbohydrate metabolism
  • 25.1. Overview of carbohydrate metabolism in birds
  • 25.2. Carbohydrate chains in glycoproteins
  • 25.3. Lactate and pyruvate
  • 25.4. Glycerol
  • 25.5. Glycogen
  • 25.6. Glucose and fructose utilization
  • 25.7. Glucose transporters
  • 25.8. Intermediary metabolism
  • 25.9. Gluconeogenesis
  • 25.10. Carbohydrate digestion and absorption
  • 25.11. Putative roles of other monosaccharides
  • 25.12. Conclusions
  • Chapter 26. Adipose tissue and lipid metabolism
  • 26.1. Introduction
  • 26.2. Development of adipose tissue
  • 26.3. Structure, cellularity
  • 26.4. Body composition
  • 26.5. Functions of adipose tissue
  • 26.6. Lipid metabolism
  • 26.7. Factors affecting fat metabolism and deposition
  • 26.8. Summary and conclusions
  • Chapter 27. Protein metabolism
  • 27.1. Introduction
  • 27.2. Major proteins
  • 27.3. Muscle proteins
  • 27.4. Other proteins
  • 27.5. Digestion of proteins
  • 27.6. Protein synthesis
  • 27.7. Protein degradation
  • 27.8. Control of protein synthesis and degradation
  • 27.9. Proteins and reproduction
  • 27.10. Amino acids and metabolism
  • 27.11. Nitrogenous waste
  • 27.12. Amino acid derivatives
  • 27.13. Extranutritional effects of amino acids
  • 27.14. Other uses of avian proteins
  • Chapter 28. Food intake regulation
  • 28.1. Introduction
  • 28.2. Peripheral regulation of food intake
  • 28.3. Central nervous system control of food intake
  • 28.4. Classical neurotransmitters
  • 28.5. Peptides
  • 28.6. Selection for single growth-related traits alters food intake control mechanisms
  • 28.7. Other pathways involved in central appetite regulation
  • Part V. Endocrine theme
  • Chapter 29. Overviews of avian neuropeptides and peptides
  • 29.1. Introduction
  • 29.2. Summary
  • Chapter 30. Pituitary gland
  • 30.1. Introduction
  • 30.2. Embryonic development of the pituitary gland
  • 30.3. Anatomy of the pituitary gland
  • 30.4. Gonadotropins
  • 30.5. Thyrotropin
  • 30.6. Growth hormone
  • 30.7. Prolactin
  • 30.8. Pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides—adrenocorticotropic hormone, lipotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and β-endorphin
  • 30.9. Other anterior pituitary gland peptides/proteins
  • 30.10. Pars tuberalis
  • 30.11. Neurohypophysis
  • Chapter 31. Thyroid gland
  • 31.1. Introduction
  • 31.2. Thyroid gland structure and development
  • 31.3. Thyroid hormone synthesis and release
  • 31.4. Thyroid hormone metabolism and action
  • 31.5. Physiological effects of thyroid hormones
  • 31.6. Environmental influences on thyroid function
  • Chapter 32. Mechanisms and hormonal regulation of shell formation: supply of ionic and organic precursors, shell mineralization
  • 32.1. Introduction
  • 32.2. Structure, composition, and formation of the eggshell
  • 32.3. Mineral supply: a challenge for calcium metabolism
  • 32.4. Hormones involved in calcium metabolism of laying hens: vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and fibroblast growth factor-23
  • 32.5. Intestinal absorption of calcium
  • 32.6. Medullary bone
  • 32.7. Uterine secretions of Calcium
  • 32.8. Mineralization of the eggshell
  • Chapter 33. Adrenals
  • 33.1. Anatomy
  • 33.2. Adrenocortical hormones
  • 33.3. Physiology of adrenocortical hormones
  • 33.4. Adrenal chromaffin tissue hormones
  • Chapter 34. Endocrine pancreas
  • 34.1. Introduction
  • 34.2. Pancreas embryogenesis and development
  • 34.3. Factors controlling pancreatic insulin and glucagon release in birds
  • 34.4. Insulin and glucagon peptides
  • 34.5. Glucagon and insulin receptors
  • 34.6. General effects of glucagon and insulin
  • 34.7. Experimental or genetical models
  • 34.8. Conclusion
  • Part VI. Reproductive theme
  • Chapter 35. Reproduction in the female
  • 35.1. Introduction
  • 35.2. The ovary
  • 35.3. The oviduct
  • 35.4. The ovulatory cycle
  • 35.5. Egg transportation and oviposition
  • 35.6. The egg
  • Chapter 36. Reproduction in male birds
  • 36.1. Introduction
  • 36.2. Reproductive tract anatomy
  • 36.3. Ontogeny of the reproductive tract
  • 36.4. Development and growth of the testis
  • 36.5. Hormonal control of testicular function
  • 36.6. Spermatogenesis and extragonadal sperm maturation
  • 36.7. Seasonal gonadal recrudescence and regression
  • Chapter 37. The physiology of the avian embryo
  • 37.1. Introduction
  • 37.2. The freshly laid egg
  • 37.3. Incubation
  • 37.4. Development of physiological systems
  • 37.5. Artificial incubation
  • 37.6. Conclusions and future directions
  • Part VII. Cross-cutting themes
  • Chapter 38. Stress ecophysiology
  • 38.1. Introduction
  • 38.2. Stress, energy, and glucocorticoids
  • 38.3. Adrenocortical response to environmental change
  • 38.4. Phenotypic plasticity and selection on the stress response
  • 38.5. Field methods to study adrenocortical function
  • Glossary of terms
  • Chapter 39. Avian welfare: fundamental concepts and scientific assessment
  • 39.1. Introduction
  • 39.2. What is animal welfare?
  • 39.3. Birds are sentient and their welfare should be considered
  • 39.4. How can bird welfare be scientifically assessed?
  • 39.5. Avian welfare research to date
  • 39.6. Case study—evaluation of the potential for chickens to experience negative states due to carbon dioxide stunning
  • 39.7. General conclusions
  • Chapter 40. Reproductive behavior
  • 40.1. Introduction
  • 40.2. Regulation of reproductive behavior
  • 40.3. Environmental factors
  • 40.4. Social factors
  • 40.5. Age and experience
  • 40.6. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behavior
  • Chapter 41. Growth
  • 41.1. Introduction
  • 41.2. Evolutionary perspectives of avian growth
  • 41.3. Altricial versus precocial birds
  • 41.4. Sexual dimorphism in growth
  • 41.5. Growth hormone
  • 41.6. Insulin-like growth factors
  • 41.7. Thyroid hormones (hypothalamo–pituitary–thyroid axis)
  • 41.8. Sex steroid hormones
  • 41.9. Adrenocorticotropin and glucocorticoids (hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenocortical axis)
  • 41.10. Insulin
  • 41.11. Growth factors
  • 41.12. Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α
  • 41.13. Transforming growth factor-β
  • 41.14. Bone morphogenetic protein
  • 41.15. Fibroblast growth factors
  • 41.16. Neurotrophins
  • 41.17. Cytokines
  • 41.18. Genetics and growth
  • 41.19. Nutrition and growth
  • 41.20. Environment and growth
  • Chapter 42. Circadian rhythms
  • 42.1. Environmental cycles
  • 42.2. Circadian rhythms
  • 42.3. Photoreceptors
  • 42.4. Pacemakers
  • 42.5. Sites of melatonin action
  • 42.6. Avian circadian organization
  • 42.7. Molecular biology
  • 42.8. Conclusion and perspective
  • Chapter 43. Circannual cycles and photoperiodism
  • 43.1. Annual cycles
  • 43.2. Annual cycles of birds
  • 43.3. Circannual rhythms
  • 43.4. Photoperiodism
  • 43.5. Neuroendocrine regulation of photoperiodic time measurement
  • 43.6. Molecular mechanisms of photoperiodism
  • 43.7. Comparison to other vertebrate taxa
  • 43.8. Conclusion
  • Chapter 44. Annual schedules
  • 44.1. Introduction
  • 44.2. Background: patterns of environmental variation and avian annual schedules
  • 44.3. Effects of environmental cues on annual scheduling and underlying mechanisms
  • 44.4. Adaptive variation in cue processing mechanisms as it relates to life in different environments
  • 44.5. Integrated coordination of stages and carryover effects
  • 44.6. Variation in scheduling mechanisms and responses to rapid environmental change
  • 44.7. Effects of seasonality on constitutive processes
  • Chapter 45. Regulation of body temperature: patterns and processes
  • 45.1. Introduction
  • 45.2. The evolution of avian endothermy
  • 45.3. Models of avian thermoregulation
  • 45.4. Body temperature
  • 45.5. Avenues of heat transfer and behavioral modifications
  • 45.6. Metabolic heat production
  • 45.7. Physiological control of thermoregulation
  • 45.8. Development of thermoregulation
  • 45.9. Avian thermoregulation and global heating
  • Chapter 46. Flight
  • 46.1. Introduction
  • 46.2. Scaling effects of body size
  • 46.3. Energetics of bird flight
  • 46.4. The flight muscles of birds
  • 46.5. Development of locomotor muscles and preparation for flight
  • 46.6. Metabolic substrates for endurance flight
  • 46.7. The cardiovascular system
  • 46.8. The respiratory system
  • 46.9. Migration and long-distance flight performance
  • 46.10. Flight at high altitude
  • Chapter 47. Physiological challenges of migration
  • 47.1. Introduction
  • 47.2. Adaptations of birds for long-duration migratory flights
  • 47.3. Endocrinology of migration
  • 47.4. Physiological aspects of migratory preparation and long-duration flight: fueling/flight cycle
  • 47.5. Beyond systems
  • Chapter 48. Actions of toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals in birds
  • 48.1. Introduction
  • 48.2. Environmental chemicals: utilities and hazards?
  • 48.3. Life cycle of chemicals: endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment
  • 48.4. Classes of endocrine disrupting chemicals and their physiological actions
  • 48.5. Methods for assessing risk
  • 48.6. Frameworks for visualizing risk and effects from endocrine disrupting chemical exposure
  • 48.7. Why are birds unique?
  • 48.8. Investigating endocrine disrupting chemical effects in an avian model: the Japanese quail two-generation test
  • 48.9. Conclusions
  • Chapter 49. Blood supplement
  • Chapter 50. Carbohydrate supplementary materials
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: November 6, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128197707
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323853514

About the Editors

Colin Scanes

Colin G. Scanes was formerly editor of the journal Poultry Science and has held senior faculty and/or administrative positions at the University of Leeds, Rutgers—the State University of New Jersey, Iowa State University, Mississippi State University, and University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Dr. Scanes was also the editor for the latest (sixth) edition of Sturkie’s Avian Physiology for Elsevier/Academic Press. He has extensive experience in teaching undergraduates and research with more than 600 publications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin, Biosciences/Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, Milwaukee, USA

Sami Dridi

Sami Dridi received his Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR) in Structural Biology, Biochemistry, and Cell Signaling from the University of Paris XI. He got his PhD and master’s degrees in Molecular and Cellular Biology and Poultry Science from the National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine (INPL) and National Institute for Agronomic Researches (INRA), France. He joined several international teams such as UNC-Chapel Hill, University of Kentucky, University of Leuven (Belgium), ENITA Bordeaux (France), ENV Nantes (France), and West Virginia University as a postdoctoral fellow, contractual professor, or main investigator. He joined the University of Arkansas in 2013. He is currently a full professor in avian endocrinology and molecular genetics. He strives to consistently rise the next generation of poultry scientists and produce significant research that will bring both fundamental understanding as well as practical solutions to ongoing poultry problems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

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