Studies in Natural Products Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444632814, 9780444632821

Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Volume 42

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Atta-ur- Rahman
eBook ISBN: 9780444632821
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444632814
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 24th February 2014
Page Count: 500
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Table of Contents

Contributors
Preface
Chapter 1: Glycosphingolipid Ligands for Invariant Natural Killer T cells as Immunostimulants
Abstract

Introduction

Synthesis of KRN7000

X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis

Stereostructure of the Sphingosine Part of KRN7000

SAR Studies on KRN7000

Th1-Type Analogs of KRN7000

Th2-Type Analogs of KRN7000

Summary of SAR Study

Evaluation of the Binding Affinity by SPR Spectroscopy

Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

Research Intended to Discover the Natural Microbial and Endogenous Ligands of NKT Cells

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Chapter 2: Synthesis of Imidazole Alkaloids Originated in Marine Sponges
Abstract

Introduction

Syntheses of Naamidines A–I

Syntheses of Preclathridine A and Clathridine A

Syntheses of Naamines

Syntheses of Isonaamines and Isonaamidines

Synthesis of Pyronaamidine

Discovered, but not yet Synthesized Imidazole Alkaloids

Chapter 3: Cerebrosides from Marine Organisms
Abstract

Introduction

Isolation and Purification

Structural Elucidation

Chemical Structures

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

Chapter 4: Isolation and Analysis of Lignin–Carbohydrate Complexes Preparations with Traditional and Advanced Methods: A Review
Abstract

Introduction

Isolation of LCC Preparations from Wood and Pulps

LCC Analysis

Quantification of LCC Linkages

General Discussion

Implementation of Enzymes in LCC Studies

Conclusions

Chapter 5: Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants and Mushrooms
Abstract

Introduction

Molecular Basis of Cancer Formation and Development

Isolation and Purification of Polysaccharides

Polysaccharide Structure–Function Relationship and Mechanism of Action

Rational and Targeted Design and Screening Programs for Chemotherapeutics

Polysaccharides from Plants and Mushrooms with Immunomodulatory and Anticancer Activities

Concluding Remarks and Direction for Future Research

Chapter 6: Natural Compounds (Small Molecules) as Potential and Real Drugs of Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review
Abstract

Introduction

Pathophysiology of AD

Perspectives of Small Molecules Effect Study

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 7: Natural Antiviral Compounds
Abstract

Introduction

Virus

Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8: Chemopreventive Properties of Fruit Phenolic Compounds and Their Possible Mode of Actions
Abstract

Introduction

Cancer

Fruit Phenolic Compounds

Chemoprevention

Chemopreventive Properties of Fruit Phenolic Compounds

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

Chapter 9: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Structure–Activity Relationships in Human Health Prevention and Treatment of Common Diseases
Abstract

Introduction

Nutraceuticals

Plant Chemical Defenses

Natural Products in Medicine

Phenolic Compounds

α,β-Unsaturated δ-Lactones

Terpenoids

Nitrogen Compounds

Sulfur Compounds

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

Chapter 10: Assignment of Regio- and Stereochemistry of Natural Products Using Mass Spectrometry Chlorogenic Acids and Derivatives as a Case Study
Abstract

Introduction

Chlorogenic Acids

MS and Identification of CGAs

LC–MS and LC–MSn Identification of CGAs in Green Coffee Beans

Identification of Monoacyl Quinic Acids

Identification of Di- and Triacyl Quinic Acids

Mechanistic Considerations

Assignment of Side Chain Regiochemistry Feruloyl Versus Isoferuloylquinic Acids

Cinnamoyl Shikimic Acids

Quinic Acid Lactones

Quinic Acid Esters

Epimers of Quinic Acid—Distinction of Diastereoisomeric Compounds

Distinguishing Multiple Isomers in Direct Infusion Experiments

Energy-Resolved Mass Spectra

General Experimental Considerations in Tandem MS

Outlook and Conclusion

Chapter 11: Tetrapyrrole Compounds of Cyanobacteria
Abstract

Introduction

Synthesis of Macrocyclic and Linear Tetrapyrrole Compounds

Corrinoid Compounds in Edible Cyanobacteria

Physiological Functions of Corrinoid Compounds in Cyanobacteria

Phycobilins in Edible Cyanobacteria

Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12: Recent Progress in the Synthesis of 2,6-Disubstituted Hydroxypiperidine Alkaloids
Abstract

Introduction

Metal-Catalyzed Formation of the Piperidine Ring

Piperidine Ring Formation via Intramolecular Nucleophilic Attack

Piperidine Ring Formation by Intramolecular Nucleophilic Displacement

Piperidine Ring Formation from Furan Derivatives

Piperidine Ring Formation via Amidomercuration

Other Methods for Formation of the Piperidine Ring

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgment

Chapter 13: Structure, Biological Properties, and Total Synthesis of Polyhydroxylated Pyrrolizidines of the Hyacinthacines Family
Introduction

Natural Occurrence, Isolation, and Structure Determination of Hyacinthacines

Biological Activities of Hyacinthacines

Total Syntheses of Hyacinthacines

Conclusion

Chapter 14: The Synthesis of Seven-Membered Rings in Natural Products
Abstract

Introduction

Synthetic Methodology Directed to Seven-Membered Rings

One-Carbon Ring Expansion Methodologies

Natural Product Syntheses with Seven-Membered Ring Incorporation

Conclusion and Perspectives

Acknowledgments

Index


Description

Natural products in the plant and animal kingdom offer a huge diversity of chemical structures that are the result of biosynthetic processes that have been modulated over the millennia through genetic effects. With the rapid developments in spectroscopic techniques and accompanying advances in high-throughput screening techniques, it has become possible to isolate and then determine the structures and biological activity of natural products rapidly, thus opening up exciting new opportunities in the field of new drug development to the pharmaceutical industry.

The series also covers the synthesis or testing and recording of the medicinal properties of natural products, providing cutting edge accounts of the fascinating developments in the isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, biosynthesis and pharmacology of a diverse array of natural products.

Key Features

  • Describes the chemistry of bioactive natural products
  • Contains contributions by leading authorities in the field
  •  Presents exciting sources of new pharmacophores

Readership

Natural product chemists, medicinal chemists, pharmacologists as well as researchers particularly those in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry


Details

No. of pages:
500
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444632821
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444632814

About the Series Volume Editors

Atta-ur- Rahman Series Volume Editor

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS, D.Phil., TI, SI HI, NI, is a leading scientist and scholar in the field of organic chemistry from Pakistan, especially renowned for his research in the various areas relating to natural product chemistry. With over 909 publications in the field of his expertise including 116 books largely published by leading publishers in Europe and USA and 27 patents, he is also credited for reviving the higher education and research practices in Pakistan.

Prof. Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in July 2006 thereby becoming one of the 4 scientists from the Muslim world to have ever won this honor in the last 350 years when the Royal Society was established. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been conferred the UNESCO Science Prize in 1999.[11] He has been conferred honorary doctorate degrees by many universities including the degree of Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) by Cambridge University (UK) (1987) and an Honorary degree of Doctor of Education by Coventry University UK in November 2007. He was elected Honorary Life Fellow of Kings College, Cambridge University, UK in 2007. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was conferred the TWAS Prize for Institution Building in Durban, South Africa in October 2009 in recognition of his contributions for bringing about revolutionary changes in the higher education sector in Pakistan. He was awarded the Engro Excellence Award in Science & Technology 2011 for meritorious contributions.

He is President of Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) and the Vice-President (Central & South Asia) of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) Council, and Foreign Fellow of Korean Academy of Sciences. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–06), and was again elected President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences in January 2011.

He was the Federal Minister for Science and Technology (14 March 2000 – 20 November 2002), Federal Minister of Education (2002) and Chairman of the Higher Education Commission with the status of a Federal Minister from 2002-2008. The Austrian government also honoured him with its highest civil award ("Das Große Goldene Ehrenzeichen am Bande", 2007) in recognition of his eminent contributions.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the Coordinator General of COMSTECH, an OIC Ministerial Committee comprising the 57 Ministers of Science & Technology from 57 OIC member countries during 1996-2012. He is also the Patron of International Centre of Chemical and Biological Sciences (which comprises a number of institutes, including the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and the Dr. Panjwani Center of Molecular Medicine and Drug Development) at Karachi University.

He established a research center on Genomics in Karachi University. In recognition of the eminent contributions of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, a number of institutions have been named after him within and outside Pakistan. These include a natural product chemistry institute (Atta-ur-Rahman Research Institute of Natural Product Discovery, RiND) at the University of Technology Mara in Malaysia, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad, and Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Building at the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi. The Academy of Sciences in the Developing World (TWAS) based in Trieste, Italy has introduced a Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Prize in Chemistry to a scientist from the developing world each year. The Prize carries a cash award of $ 5,000 and a Certificate.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Karachi, Pakistan