Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

1st Edition - February 24, 2014

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  • Editor: Atta-ur Rahman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444632821

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Description

Natural products in the plant and animal kingdom offer a huge diversity of chemical structures that are the result of biosynthetic processes that have been modulated over the millennia through genetic effects. With the rapid developments in spectroscopic techniques and accompanying advances in high-throughput screening techniques, it has become possible to isolate and then determine the structures and biological activity of natural products rapidly, thus opening up exciting new opportunities in the field of new drug development to the pharmaceutical industry.The series also covers the synthesis or testing and recording of the medicinal properties of natural products, providing cutting edge accounts of the fascinating developments in the isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, biosynthesis and pharmacology of a diverse array of natural products.

Key Features

  • Describes the chemistry of bioactive natural products
  • Contains contributions by leading authorities in the field
  • Presents exciting sources of new pharmacophores

Readership

Natural product chemists, medicinal chemists, pharmacologists as well as researchers particularly those in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
    Preface
    Chapter 1: Glycosphingolipid Ligands for Invariant Natural Killer T cells as Immunostimulants
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Synthesis of KRN7000

    X-Ray Crystallographic Analysis

    Stereostructure of the Sphingosine Part of KRN7000

    SAR Studies on KRN7000

    Th1-Type Analogs of KRN7000

    Th2-Type Analogs of KRN7000

    Summary of SAR Study

    Evaluation of the Binding Affinity by SPR Spectroscopy

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Research Intended to Discover the Natural Microbial and Endogenous Ligands of NKT Cells

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 2: Synthesis of Imidazole Alkaloids Originated in Marine Sponges
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Syntheses of Naamidines A–I

    Syntheses of Preclathridine A and Clathridine A

    Syntheses of Naamines

    Syntheses of Isonaamines and Isonaamidines

    Synthesis of Pyronaamidine

    Discovered, but not yet Synthesized Imidazole Alkaloids

    Chapter 3: Cerebrosides from Marine Organisms
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Isolation and Purification

    Structural Elucidation

    Chemical Structures

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 4: Isolation and Analysis of Lignin–Carbohydrate Complexes Preparations with Traditional and Advanced Methods: A Review
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Isolation of LCC Preparations from Wood and Pulps

    LCC Analysis

    Quantification of LCC Linkages

    General Discussion

    Implementation of Enzymes in LCC Studies

    Conclusions

    Chapter 5: Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants and Mushrooms
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Molecular Basis of Cancer Formation and Development

    Isolation and Purification of Polysaccharides

    Polysaccharide Structure–Function Relationship and Mechanism of Action

    Rational and Targeted Design and Screening Programs for Chemotherapeutics

    Polysaccharides from Plants and Mushrooms with Immunomodulatory and Anticancer Activities

    Concluding Remarks and Direction for Future Research

    Chapter 6: Natural Compounds (Small Molecules) as Potential and Real Drugs of Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Pathophysiology of AD

    Perspectives of Small Molecules Effect Study

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 7: Natural Antiviral Compounds
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Virus

    Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 8: Chemopreventive Properties of Fruit Phenolic Compounds and Their Possible Mode of Actions
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Cancer

    Fruit Phenolic Compounds

    Chemoprevention

    Chemopreventive Properties of Fruit Phenolic Compounds

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 9: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Structure–Activity Relationships in Human Health Prevention and Treatment of Common Diseases
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Nutraceuticals

    Plant Chemical Defenses

    Natural Products in Medicine

    Phenolic Compounds

    α,β-Unsaturated δ-Lactones

    Terpenoids

    Nitrogen Compounds

    Sulfur Compounds

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 10: Assignment of Regio- and Stereochemistry of Natural Products Using Mass Spectrometry Chlorogenic Acids and Derivatives as a Case Study
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Chlorogenic Acids

    MS and Identification of CGAs

    LC–MS and LC–MSn Identification of CGAs in Green Coffee Beans

    Identification of Monoacyl Quinic Acids

    Identification of Di- and Triacyl Quinic Acids

    Mechanistic Considerations

    Assignment of Side Chain Regiochemistry Feruloyl Versus Isoferuloylquinic Acids

    Cinnamoyl Shikimic Acids

    Quinic Acid Lactones

    Quinic Acid Esters

    Epimers of Quinic Acid—Distinction of Diastereoisomeric Compounds

    Distinguishing Multiple Isomers in Direct Infusion Experiments

    Energy-Resolved Mass Spectra

    General Experimental Considerations in Tandem MS

    Outlook and Conclusion

    Chapter 11: Tetrapyrrole Compounds of Cyanobacteria
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Synthesis of Macrocyclic and Linear Tetrapyrrole Compounds

    Corrinoid Compounds in Edible Cyanobacteria

    Physiological Functions of Corrinoid Compounds in Cyanobacteria

    Phycobilins in Edible Cyanobacteria

    Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 12: Recent Progress in the Synthesis of 2,6-Disubstituted Hydroxypiperidine Alkaloids
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Metal-Catalyzed Formation of the Piperidine Ring

    Piperidine Ring Formation via Intramolecular Nucleophilic Attack

    Piperidine Ring Formation by Intramolecular Nucleophilic Displacement

    Piperidine Ring Formation from Furan Derivatives

    Piperidine Ring Formation via Amidomercuration

    Other Methods for Formation of the Piperidine Ring

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgment

    Chapter 13: Structure, Biological Properties, and Total Synthesis of Polyhydroxylated Pyrrolizidines of the Hyacinthacines Family
    Introduction

    Natural Occurrence, Isolation, and Structure Determination of Hyacinthacines

    Biological Activities of Hyacinthacines

    Total Syntheses of Hyacinthacines

    Conclusion

    Chapter 14: The Synthesis of Seven-Membered Rings in Natural Products
    Abstract

    Introduction

    Synthetic Methodology Directed to Seven-Membered Rings

    One-Carbon Ring Expansion Methodologies

    Natural Product Syntheses with Seven-Membered Ring Incorporation

    Conclusion and Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 500
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: February 24, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444632821

About the Series Volume Editor

Atta-ur Rahman

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS, D.Phil., TI, SI HI, NI, is a leading scientist and scholar in the field of organic chemistry from Pakistan, especially renowned for his research in the various areas relating to natural product chemistry. With over 909 publications in the field of his expertise including 116 books largely published by leading publishers in Europe and USA and 27 patents, he is also credited for reviving the higher education and research practices in Pakistan.

Prof. Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in July 2006 thereby becoming one of the 4 scientists from the Muslim world to have ever won this honor in the last 350 years when the Royal Society was established. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been conferred the UNESCO Science Prize in 1999.[11] He has been conferred honorary doctorate degrees by many universities including the degree of Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) by Cambridge University (UK) (1987) and an Honorary degree of Doctor of Education by Coventry University UK in November 2007. He was elected Honorary Life Fellow of Kings College, Cambridge University, UK in 2007. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was conferred the TWAS Prize for Institution Building in Durban, South Africa in October 2009 in recognition of his contributions for bringing about revolutionary changes in the higher education sector in Pakistan. He was awarded the Engro Excellence Award in Science & Technology 2011 for meritorious contributions.

He is President of Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) and the Vice-President (Central & South Asia) of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) Council, and Foreign Fellow of Korean Academy of Sciences. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–06), and was again elected President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences in January 2011.

He was the Federal Minister for Science and Technology (14 March 2000 – 20 November 2002), Federal Minister of Education (2002) and Chairman of the Higher Education Commission with the status of a Federal Minister from 2002-2008. The Austrian government also honoured him with its highest civil award ("Das Große Goldene Ehrenzeichen am Bande", 2007) in recognition of his eminent contributions.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the Coordinator General of COMSTECH, an OIC Ministerial Committee comprising the 57 Ministers of Science & Technology from 57 OIC member countries during 1996-2012. He is also the Patron of International Centre of Chemical and Biological Sciences (which comprises a number of institutes, including the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and the Dr. Panjwani Center of Molecular Medicine and Drug Development) at Karachi University.

He established a research center on Genomics in Karachi University. In recognition of the eminent contributions of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, a number of institutions have been named after him within and outside Pakistan. These include a natural product chemistry institute (Atta-ur-Rahman Research Institute of Natural Product Discovery, RiND) at the University of Technology Mara in Malaysia, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad, and Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Building at the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi. The Academy of Sciences in the Developing World (TWAS) based in Trieste, Italy has introduced a Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Prize in Chemistry to a scientist from the developing world each year. The Prize carries a cash award of $ 5,000 and a Certificate.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Karachi, Pakistan

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