Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms

Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms

An Introduction to a Comparative Substructural Anatomy of Cellular Organization

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Author: E. M. Brieger
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483266053

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Description

Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms: An Introduction to a Comparative Substructural Anatomy of Cellular Organization presents the structure or principle of operation of the electron microscope. This book provides an introduction to the submicroscopical anatomy of the cell in ultrathin sections of tissues or of single-cell organisms. Organized into 30 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the structures discovered by the use of an optical tool for observation. This text then examines the anatomical principle to the nucleus. Other chapters consider the structural organization of chromatin as revealed in electron micrographs of thin sections through cells in different stages of division. This book discusses as well the macronuclei of the ciliates, which plays a significant part in the reproductive mechanism. The final chapter deals with the micromolecular organization of bacterial flagella. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, biologist, physicists, protozoologists, cytologists, biochemists, biophysicists, and research workers.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    1. Ultrastructure of the Cell

    I. Reconstruction of Classical Concepts

    II. Survey Map of the Cell

    Section I: The Nucleus

    2. The Nuclear Envelope

    I. Introduction

    II. Microdissection of the Nucleus

    III. Electron Micrographs of Whole Mounts

    IV. Electron Micrographs of Thin Sections

    V. Relation to Endoplasmic Reticulum

    VI. The Nuclear Envelope in Single Cell Organisms

    VII. The Dissolution and Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope during Cytokinesis

    VIII. The Absence of a Nuclear Envelope in Bacteria

    3. Chromatin and Chromosomes

    I. Chromatin in Non-Dividing Tissue Cells

    II. Organization of Chromatin in Actively Dividing Cells

    III. Electron Microscopy of the Mitotic Cycle

    IV. Submicroscopical Organization of Prophase Chromosomes in Meiotic Division

    V. The Organization of the DNA in Chromosomes

    VI. The A-Chromatic Apparatus

    4. The Structure of the Macronucleus of Protozoa

    I. The Fine Structure of the Macronucleus

    II. The Fine Structure of the Nucleus in Amoeba and in Dinoflagellates

    III. Summary

    5. The Fine Structure of the Nucleus in Green Algae, Cyanophyceae and Fungi

    I. Nuclear Organization in Some Phytoflagellates

    II. The Nuclear Organization in the Blue-Green Algae

    III. The Fungal Nucleus

    6. The Problems of the Bacterial Nucleus

    I. The Historical Aspect

    II. Structure in the Living Organism

    III. Feulgen's "Nucleal Reaction"

    IV. The "Chromatinic Bodies"

    7. Techniques Applied to the Special Problems Studied by Electron Microscopy of Whole (Unsectioned) Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Support Films

    III. Inoculation

    IV. Fixation

    V. Photography of the Same Organism in the Light and Electron Microscope

    VI. Preparation Techniques for Studying Growth Changes by Electron Microscopy

    8. Attempts to Demonstrate the Bacterial Nucleus in Electron Micrographs of Unsectioned Bacilli

    I. Nuclear Sites

    II. The Nucleoids or Nuclei of Bacteria

    9. Structure of the DNP-Carrying Substrate

    I. The Technique of Preparing Thin Sections of Bacteria for Electron Microscopy

    II. The Nuclear Apparatus

    III. The Nuclear Vacuole

    10. Standardization of the Preparation Technique for the Demonstration of the Nuclear Material in Bacteria

    I. The First Attempts to Improve Preparation Techniques

    II. The Ryter and Kellenberger Technique

    III. Comments on the Ryter and Kellenberger Technique

    11. The Standard Image of the Nuclear Organelle of Bacteria

    I. The Nuclear Organelle in Gram-Negative Organisms

    II. The Organization of the Nuclear Organelle in Cocci

    III. Bacillus subtilis

    IV. The Nuclear Element in Caryophanon Latum

    V. The Nuclear Organelle of Mycobacteria

    12. Bacterial Genetics and the Nuclear Organization in "Streptomyces Coelicolor"

    13. Variations of the "Standard Image"

    I. The Nuclear Region in Spirillum Serpens

    II. The Apparent Absence of a Nuclear Element in Mycobacterium Leprae

    III. The Nuclear Element in an "Unidentified Bacterium"

    IV. The Absence of a Nuclear Element in a Bacterie Sulfureuse

    14. Experimentally Produced Changes in the DNA-Carrying Substrate

    I. The Effect of Ultra-Violet on the Nuclear Organelle

    II. Antibiotics and the Nuclear Organelle

    III. Magnesium Deficiency

    IV. Summing Up

    15. Omnis Nucleus e Nucleo?

    16. Integration

    I. Have Bacteria a Nucleus?

    II. Have Bacteria Chromosomes?

    III. The DNA Pool in Phage-Infected Bacteria

    IV. Have Bacteria a Reproductive Organelle?

    Section II: Enzyme Carrying Structures

    17. Mitochondria

    I. Mitochondrial Function

    II. Structural Organization of Mitochondria

    III. The Sites of Enzyme Activity in Mitochondria

    IV. Physiological Changes in Structure

    V. Omne Mitochondrion e Mitochondrio

    18. Plastids and Preplastids

    I. The Fine Structure of Chloroplasts

    II. Preplastids

    19. Have Bacteria Mitochondria?

    I. Cytochemical Evidence of the Sites of Respiratory Enzyme Activity

    20. Identification of the Microsomal Fraction in Tissue Homogenates

    I. The Microsomal Fraction in Homogenates of Liver

    II. Endoplasmic Reticulum

    III. Endoplasmic Reticulum and Basophilia

    IV. The Palade Granules

    V. The Specificity of the Palade Granules

    21. Identification of Granular Components of Submicroscopical Size in the Bacterial Cytoplasm

    I. The Granular Texture of the Bacterial Cytoplasm as Revealed in Electron Micrographs of Thin Section

    II. Isolation of Cytoplasmic Granules in Bacteria

    III. The Ribosomes

    IV. Have Bacteria "Respirosomes"?

    V. The Problem of the "Large" Granules

    VI. Are Respiratory Enzymes Structure-Bound?

    VII. The Cytoplasmic Membrane as Carrier of the Respiratory Enzyme System

    22. The Identification of the Granular Inclusions of Microscopical Size

    I. Introduction

    II. The Metachromatic Granules

    III. The "Granules" of the Mycobacteria

    IV. Sulphur Granules

    V. Fatty Inclusions

    Section III: The Cell Envelopes

    23. The Plasma Membrane or Plasmalemma of Cells of Higher Organisms

    I. Theories of its Architecture

    II. Electron Microscopy of Whole Mounts

    III. Plasma Membrane in Thin Sections

    24. The Cytoplasmic Membrane in Bacteria

    I. Cytological Evidence

    II. The Cytoplasmic Membrane in the Electron Microscope

    III. The Cytoplasmic Membrane of Protoplasts

    25. Fine Architecture of the Cell Wall

    I. The Structure of the Plant Cell Wall

    II. The Primary Cell Wall in Growing Cells

    26. The Macromolecular Organization of the Cell Wall in Algae and Fungi

    27. Bacterial Cell Wall

    I. Chemical Constituents

    II. The Macromolecular Pattern

    III. The Bacterial Cell Wall in Thin Sections

    IV. The Morphogenesis of the Bacterial Cell Wall

    V. Capsule Formation

    VI. The Cell Envelope of Blue-Green Algae

    28. Electron Microscopy of Cell Division

    I. Bud Formation in Yeast

    29. The Mechanism of Cell Division in Bacteria

    I. Electron Microscopy of Whole Mounts

    II. Electron Microscopy of Thin Sections

    30. A Comparative Study of the Structural Organization of Flagella

    I. Flagella of Protozoa

    II. Flagella of Bacteria

    III. The Trichocysts of Protozoa

    References

    Appendix: The Structure of Viruses

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 344
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483266053

About the Author

E. M. Brieger

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