Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121343507, 9781483266053

Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms

1st Edition

An Introduction to a Comparative Substructural Anatomy of Cellular Organization

Authors: E. M. Brieger
eBook ISBN: 9781483266053
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 344
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Structure and Ultrastructure of Microorganisms: An Introduction to a Comparative Substructural Anatomy of Cellular Organization presents the structure or principle of operation of the electron microscope. This book provides an introduction to the submicroscopical anatomy of the cell in ultrathin sections of tissues or of single-cell organisms. Organized into 30 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the structures discovered by the use of an optical tool for observation. This text then examines the anatomical principle to the nucleus. Other chapters consider the structural organization of chromatin as revealed in electron micrographs of thin sections through cells in different stages of division. This book discusses as well the macronuclei of the ciliates, which plays a significant part in the reproductive mechanism. The final chapter deals with the micromolecular organization of bacterial flagella. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, biologist, physicists, protozoologists, cytologists, biochemists, biophysicists, and research workers.

Table of Contents


1. Ultrastructure of the Cell

I. Reconstruction of Classical Concepts

II. Survey Map of the Cell

Section I: The Nucleus

2. The Nuclear Envelope

I. Introduction

II. Microdissection of the Nucleus

III. Electron Micrographs of Whole Mounts

IV. Electron Micrographs of Thin Sections

V. Relation to Endoplasmic Reticulum

VI. The Nuclear Envelope in Single Cell Organisms

VII. The Dissolution and Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope during Cytokinesis

VIII. The Absence of a Nuclear Envelope in Bacteria

3. Chromatin and Chromosomes

I. Chromatin in Non-Dividing Tissue Cells

II. Organization of Chromatin in Actively Dividing Cells

III. Electron Microscopy of the Mitotic Cycle

IV. Submicroscopical Organization of Prophase Chromosomes in Meiotic Division

V. The Organization of the DNA in Chromosomes

VI. The A-Chromatic Apparatus

4. The Structure of the Macronucleus of Protozoa

I. The Fine Structure of the Macronucleus

II. The Fine Structure of the Nucleus in Amoeba and in Dinoflagellates

III. Summary

5. The Fine Structure of the Nucleus in Green Algae, Cyanophyceae and Fungi

I. Nuclear Organization in Some Phytoflagellates

II. The Nuclear Organization in the Blue-Green Algae

III. The Fungal Nucleus

6. The Problems of the Bacterial Nucleus

I. The Historical Aspect

II. Structure in the Living Organism

III. Feulgen's "Nucleal Reaction"

IV. The "Chromatinic Bodies"

7. Techniques Applied to the Special Problems Studied by Electron Microscopy of Whole (Unsectioned) Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Support Films

III. Inoculation

IV. Fixation

V. Photography of the Same Organism in the Light and Electron Microscope

VI. Preparation Techniques for Studying Growth Changes by Electron Microscopy

8. Attempts to Demonstrate the Bacterial Nucleus in Electron Micrographs of Unsectioned Bacilli

I. Nuclear Sites

II. The Nucleoids or Nuclei of Bacteria

9. Structure of the DNP-Carrying Substrate

I. The Technique of Preparing Thin Sections of Bacteria for Electron Microscopy

II. The Nuclear Apparatus

III. The Nuclear Vacuole

10. Standardization of the Preparation Technique for the Demonstration of the Nuclear Material in Bacteria

I. The First Attempts to Improve Preparation Techniques

II. The Ryter and Kellenberger Technique

III. Comments on the Ryter and Kellenberger Technique

11. The Standard Image of the Nuclear Organelle of Bacteria

I. The Nuclear Organelle in Gram-Negative Organisms

II. The Organization of the Nuclear Organelle in Cocci

III. Bacillus subtilis

IV. The Nuclear Element in Caryophanon Latum

V. The Nuclear Organelle of Mycobacteria

12. Bacterial Genetics and the Nuclear Organization in "Streptomyces Coelicolor"

13. Variations of the "Standard Image"

I. The Nuclear Region in Spirillum Serpens

II. The Apparent Absence of a Nuclear Element in Mycobacterium Leprae

III. The Nuclear Element in an "Unidentified Bacterium"

IV. The Absence of a Nuclear Element in a Bacterie Sulfureuse

14. Experimentally Produced Changes in the DNA-Carrying Substrate

I. The Effect of Ultra-Violet on the Nuclear Organelle

II. Antibiotics and the Nuclear Organelle

III. Magnesium Deficiency

IV. Summing Up

15. Omnis Nucleus e Nucleo?

16. Integration

I. Have Bacteria a Nucleus?

II. Have Bacteria Chromosomes?

III. The DNA Pool in Phage-Infected Bacteria

IV. Have Bacteria a Reproductive Organelle?

Section II: Enzyme Carrying Structures

17. Mitochondria

I. Mitochondrial Function

II. Structural Organization of Mitochondria

III. The Sites of Enzyme Activity in Mitochondria

IV. Physiological Changes in Structure

V. Omne Mitochondrion e Mitochondrio

18. Plastids and Preplastids

I. The Fine Structure of Chloroplasts

II. Preplastids

19. Have Bacteria Mitochondria?

I. Cytochemical Evidence of the Sites of Respiratory Enzyme Activity

20. Identification of the Microsomal Fraction in Tissue Homogenates

I. The Microsomal Fraction in Homogenates of Liver

II. Endoplasmic Reticulum

III. Endoplasmic Reticulum and Basophilia

IV. The Palade Granules

V. The Specificity of the Palade Granules

21. Identification of Granular Components of Submicroscopical Size in the Bacterial Cytoplasm

I. The Granular Texture of the Bacterial Cytoplasm as Revealed in Electron Micrographs of Thin Section

II. Isolation of Cytoplasmic Granules in Bacteria

III. The Ribosomes

IV. Have Bacteria "Respirosomes"?

V. The Problem of the "Large" Granules

VI. Are Respiratory Enzymes Structure-Bound?

VII. The Cytoplasmic Membrane as Carrier of the Respiratory Enzyme System

22. The Identification of the Granular Inclusions of Microscopical Size

I. Introduction

II. The Metachromatic Granules

III. The "Granules" of the Mycobacteria

IV. Sulphur Granules

V. Fatty Inclusions

Section III: The Cell Envelopes

23. The Plasma Membrane or Plasmalemma of Cells of Higher Organisms

I. Theories of its Architecture

II. Electron Microscopy of Whole Mounts

III. Plasma Membrane in Thin Sections

24. The Cytoplasmic Membrane in Bacteria

I. Cytological Evidence

II. The Cytoplasmic Membrane in the Electron Microscope

III. The Cytoplasmic Membrane of Protoplasts

25. Fine Architecture of the Cell Wall

I. The Structure of the Plant Cell Wall

II. The Primary Cell Wall in Growing Cells

26. The Macromolecular Organization of the Cell Wall in Algae and Fungi

27. Bacterial Cell Wall

I. Chemical Constituents

II. The Macromolecular Pattern

III. The Bacterial Cell Wall in Thin Sections

IV. The Morphogenesis of the Bacterial Cell Wall

V. Capsule Formation

VI. The Cell Envelope of Blue-Green Algae

28. Electron Microscopy of Cell Division

I. Bud Formation in Yeast

29. The Mechanism of Cell Division in Bacteria

I. Electron Microscopy of Whole Mounts

II. Electron Microscopy of Thin Sections

30. A Comparative Study of the Structural Organization of Flagella

I. Flagella of Protozoa

II. Flagella of Bacteria

III. The Trichocysts of Protozoa


Appendix: The Structure of Viruses

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1963
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

E. M. Brieger