Structural Biology Using Electrons and X-Rays discusses the diffraction and image-based methods used for the determination of complex biological macromolecules. The book focuses on the Fourier transform theory, which is a mathematical function that is computed to transform signals between time and frequency domain. Composed of five parts, the book examines the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allows the calculation of the images of a certain protein. Parts 1 to 4 provide the basic information and the applications of Fourier transforms, as well as the different methods used for image processing using X-ray crystallography and the analysis of electron micrographs. Part 5 focuses entirely on the mathematical aspect of Fourier transforms. In addition, the book examines detailed structural analyses of a specimen’s symmetry (i.e., crystals, helices, polyhedral viruses and asymmetrical particles). This book is intended for the biologist or biochemist who is interested in different methods and techniques for calculating the images of proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is also suitable for readers without a background in physical chemistry or mathematics.

Key Features

*Emphasis on common principles underlying all diffraction-based methods

*Thorough grounding in theory requires understanding of only simple algebra

*Visual representations and explanations of challenging content

*Mathematical detail offered in short-course form to parallel the text


Graduate and advanced undergraduate students in biochemistry, molecular biology, and biological and medical physics; research biologists using electron microscopy

Table of Contents

Preface Chapter 1: Overview 1.1 Role of Structural (Molecular) Biology 1.2 A Short History of Structural (Molecular) Biology 1.2.1 The Nature of the Problem 1.2.2 ‘Imaging’ Techniques 1.2.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1.2.4 Fundamental Limitations to Finding Macromolecule Structures Part I: Fourier Transforms Chapter 2: Correlations and Convolutions 2.1 Introducing Correlations 2.2 Function Parity 2.3 Auto-Correlation Function Chapter 3: Fourier Fundamentals 3.1 Component Functions 3.2 Fourier Analysis of Periodic Even Functions 3.3 Sines and Phasors 3.4 Fourier Transforms 3.5 Summary of Rules Chapter 4: Digital Fourier Transforms 4.1 Data Preparation 4.2 Digital Fourier Transform Features 4.3 Digital Fourier Transform Calculations 4.4 Appendix Chapter 5: Filters 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Blurring Filters 5.3 Digital-to-Analog Conversion 5.4 Correcting Blurring Filters 5.5 Gradients and Derivatives Chapter 6: Two-Dimensional FTs 6.1 Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms Rules 6.2 Points and Lines 6.3 Polygons 6.4 Polar Coordinates Part II: Optics Chapter 7: Microscopy with Rays 7.1 Light Microscopy 7.2 Electron Microscopy 7.3 Electron Lens Aberrations 7.4 Contrast Mechanisms Chapter 8: Waves 8.1 Wave Properties 8.2 The Quantum Electron 8.3 Fresnel Diffraction 8.4 Fraunhofer Diffraction 8.5 Appendix Chapter 9: Wave Imaging 9.1 Overview of Wave Imaging 9.2 Defocus 9.3 Other Aberrations 9.4 Appendix: Aberration Phase-Shift Geometry Part III: General Structural Methods Chapter 10: Symmetry


No. of pages:
© 2011
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN: