Stress, Neuropeptides, and systemic disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124824904, 9780323148009

Stress, Neuropeptides, and systemic disease

1st Edition

Editors: James McCubbin
eBook ISBN: 9780323148009
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1990
Page Count: 502
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Stress, Neuropeptides, and Systemic Disease traces the development of the neuropeptide hypothesis from its anatomical substrate to its functional correlates in animal and pre-clinical human models of stress-induced disease.

The book contains articles that discuss the different aspects and findings on the study of neuropeptides such as the histochemical localization of peptide-containing cells and peptidergic receptors; the current concepts in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation; neuropeptides involved in stress and their distribution in the mammalian central nervous system; and neuropeptide-mediated regulation of the neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress. The methods of measuring neuropeptides and their metabolism; stress responses and the pathogenesis of arthritis; brain peptides and gastrointestinal transit; and diminished opioid inhibition of blood pressure and pituitary function in hypertension development are presented as well.

Physicians, neurobiologists, pharmacologists, and biological scientists will find the book very interesting.

Table of Contents



I Basic Mechanisms

1. A Tale of Three Peptides: Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-, Oxytocin-, and Vasopressin-Containing Pathways Mediating Integrated Hypothalamic Responses to Stress

I. Introduction

II. Effector Neuron Organization

III. Afferent Control

IV. Integration


2. Current Concepts in Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Regulation

I. Basal Regulation of the HPA Axis

II. Physiological Role of CRF and Vasopressin

III. Central Regulation of the HPA Axis

IV. Neural Pathways Mediating HPA Responses to Stimuli

V. Neurotransmitter Mechanisms of the Neural Control of the HPA Axis

VI. Feedback Regulation of the HPA Axis

VII. Summary


3. Amygdala: Role in Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress

I. Introduction

II. Anatomical and Functional Studies

III. Amygdala and Peptides

IV. Amygdala and Catecholamines

V. Amygdala and Neuroendocrine Responses

VI. Summary and Conclusions


4. Neuropeptides Involved in Stress and Their Distribution in the Mammalian Central Nervous System



5. Neuropeptide-Mediated Regulation of the Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Responses to Stress

I. Introduction

II. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor

III. Thyrotropin-Releasing Factor

IV. Bombesin and Related Peptides

V. Somatostatin-Related Peptides


6. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Autonomic-Cardiovascular Responses to Stress

I. Introduction

II. CRF Neuronal Systems

III. CNS Actions of CRF

IV. Conclusions


7. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, Stress, and Animal Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Centrally Administered CRF

III. Role of Endogenous CRF in Behavior

IV. Suggestions for Future Research


8. Methods of Measuring Neuropeptides and Their Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Chromatographic Methods

III. Mass Spectrometric Methods

IV. Capillary Electrophoresis

V. Application to Measurements of Neuropeptide Metabolism

VI. Conclusions


II Endocrine Regulation

9. Stress, the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, and Depression

I. Introduction

II. CRF and the Stress Response

III. CRF and Depression

IV. Summary


10. Use of Neuroendocrine Tests in the Psychiatric Assessment of the Medically Ill Patient

I. Introduction

II. Neuroendocrine Challenge Tests in Mood Disorders

III. Neuroendocrine Findings in Patients with Medical Illness and Mood Disorders

IV. Summary and Conclusions


III Immune Function

11. The Role of Stress and Opioids as Regulators of the Immune Response

I. Introduction

II. In Vitro Effect of Opioids on the Immune System

III. Do Immune Cells Produce Opioids?

IV. Physiological Regulation of NK Cells during Stress in Humans

V. Conclusion


12. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors in the Brain-Pituitary-Immune Axis

I. Introduction

II. CRF Receptors in Brain, Pituitary, and Spleen

III. Summary


13. Modulation of Immunity and Neoplasia by Neuropeptides Released by Stressors

I. The Concept of Stress

II. Stress, Immunity, and Cancer

III. Modulation of Immunity by Neuropeptides and Pituitary Hormones Released by Stressors

IV. Conclusions


14. Stress Responses and the Pathogenesis of Arthritis

I. Introduction

II. Depression and Arthritis

III. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis: The Final Common Pathway of Stress

IV. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Major Depressive Syndromes: Potential Relevance to the Depression Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

V. Differential Function of the CRH Neuron in Subtypes of Depression

VI. HPA Axis-Immune System Interactions

VII. HPA Axis and Susceptibility to Arthritis

VIII. Summary


IV Gastrointestinal Function

15. Brain Peptides and Gastrointestinal Transit

I. Introduction

II. Opioids

III. Bombesin

IV. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor

V. Other Peptides

VI. Conclusion


16. Stress, Peptides, and Regulations of Ingestive Behavior

I. Introduction

II. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Consummatory Behaviors

III. Opioid-Induced Changes in Eating Behavior

IV. Other Regulations of Stress-Induced Eating

V. Effect of Stress on Consummatory Behavior in Humans

VI. Stress-Induced Consummatory Behaviors in Animals

VII. Conclusion


V Cardiovascular Regulation

17. Peptides Derived From ACTH and the N-Terminal Region of Pro-Opiomelanocortin in the Regulation of Central Autonomic Drive

I. Introduction

II. Hypertensive and Natriuretic Activities of ACTH(4-10)

III. Conformation-Activity Relationships of ACTH(4-10)

IV. Naturally Occurring Analogs of ACTH(4-10): Gamma MSH

V. Physiological Significance of Circulation Gamma MSH

VI. Conclusions


18. Atrial Natriuretic Factor Systems and Experimental Hypertension

I. Introduction

II. Dahl Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Resistant Rats

III. ANF Systems in Dahl Rats

IV. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

V. ANF Systems in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

VI. Summary and Conclusions


19. Stress, Opioid Peptides, and Cardiac Arrhythmias

I. Introduction

II. Endorphins and Receptors in Cardiovascular Control

III. Opioids and Arrhythmogenesis

IV. Baroreceptor Modulation and Opioids

V. Cellular Studies

VI. Peripheral Opioid Interactions

VII. Summary and Conclusion


20. The Role of Endogenous Opioids in Chronic Congestive Heart Failure

I. Introduction

II. The Endogenous Opioid System in a Canine Model of CHF

III. Effect of Opioids and Opioid Antagonists on Myocardial Contractility

IV. Studies of Opioid Antagonists in Humans with CHF

V. Implications and Future Directions


21. Diminished Opioid Inhibition of Blood Pressure and Pituitary Function in Hypertension Development

I. Introduction

II. Anatomical Distribution of Opioid Peptides and Receptors

III. Functional Significance of Opioid Mechanisms

IV. Opioids and Hypertension

V. A Model of Opioid Dysfunction in Hypertension Development




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© Academic Press 1991
Academic Press
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About the Editor

James McCubbin

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