Stem Cell Regulators - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123860156, 9780123860163

Stem Cell Regulators, Volume 87

1st Edition

Serial Editors: Gerald Litwack
eBook ISBN: 9780123860163
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123860156
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 12th December 2011
Page Count: 520
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Table of Contents



Factors Regulating Pluripotency and Differentiation in Early Mammalian Embryos and Embryo-derived Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. From Totipotency to Pluripotency

III. Inner Cell Mass (ICM): Pluripotent Cells in the Mammalian Embryo

IV. Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

V. Transcriptional Regulators of Pluripotency in Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

VI. Extrinsic Factors and Signaling Pathways Regulating Pluripotency and Differentiation

VII. Conclusions


Molecular Mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

I. Introduction

II. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

III. Differentiation of MSCs

IV. Self-Renewal

V. MSC Therapy

VI. Immunomodulatory Properties

VII. MI Therapy

VIII. Molecular Mediators of MSC Biology

IX. Enhancing MSC Survival in the Wound

X. Secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins

XI. Mediating MSC Self-Renewal

XII. Conclusions

Insulin and Germline Proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans

I. Germline Proliferation in C. elegans: A Model for Developmental, Physiological, and Environmental Control of Cell Proliferation

II. C. elegans Germline Development

III. The C. elegans Germ line “Proliferation Versus Differentiation” Decision Is Mediated from the Soma to the Germ line by a Conserved Notch Signaling Pathway

IV. Evidence for Notch-Independent Soma-Germline Signaling Mechanisms That Modulate Germline Proliferation

V. A Counter-Intuitive Assay to Indentify Potential Notch-Independent Mechanisms That Promote the Expansion of the Larval Germline Progenitor Pool

VI. Identification of the Insulin/IGF-Like Receptor (IIR) Pathway Role in Germline Proliferation

VII. IIR Signaling in C. elegans

VIII. Insulin Signaling Promotes the Larval Germline Cell Division Cycle

IX. C. elegans Insulins

X. Many Target Tissues for IIR Signaling

XI. Other Germline Roles for the IIR Pathway

XII. IIR Role in Larval Germline Proliferation: A Reproductive Timing and Lifespan Connection?

XIII. A Current Model and Future Directions


Generating Mature β-Cells From Embryonic Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Signaling Pathways in β-Cell Differentiation

III. Summary and Conclusions


Activation and Regulation of Reserve Liver Progenitor Cells

I. Introduction

II. Activation and Regulation of Mature Hepatocytes in Normal Liver Regeneration

III. Reserve Liver Progenitor Cells

IV. Hierarchical Responses in Liver Disease and Regeneration

Adult Cardiac-Derived Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. c-kit-Positive Cardiac Cells

III. Conclusions and Future Prospects


TGF-β1 Regulates Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

II. The Role of TGF-β1 in Differentiation of Bone Marrow MSCs

III. Summary


Maternal Intake of Folic Acid and Neural Crest Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Role of FA in Human Health

III. Mouse Models of NTD

IV. Neural Crest Development and Neural Crest Stem Cells

V. Role of FA in Neural Crest Development

VI. Folate Nonresponsive Genetic Mouse Models

VII. Conclusions and Future Directions


Modulation of the Generation of Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Neural Stem Cells by Bcl-XL

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Human DAn for Cell Replacement in PD

III. Epigenetic Cues and Genetic Manipulations to Improve hNSCs Differentiation Toward the A9 DA Phenotype

IV. Concluding Remarks


Glucocorticoid Hedgehog Agonists in Neurogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Select Glucocorticoids as Smoothened Agonists: Potential Effects for Neurogenesis

III. Mechanism of Action

IV. Structure–Activity Relationships (SAR) of Glucocorticoid Smoothened Agonists

V. Conclusion

Effect of Progesterone on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. Biological Roles of Progesterone

III. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

IV. Multipotent MSCs in Human Endometrium

V. Interaction Between Progesterone and MSCs

VI. Conclusions and Future Directions


Regulation of Muscle Stem Cells Activation

I. Cells Participating in Muscle Growth and Repair: Mechanisms of Activation

II. The Unique Ability of Skeletal Muscles to Regenerate

III. Muscle Stem Cells Activation: The Importance of Satellite Cell Niche

IV. The Interactions with ECM

V. Growth Factors Regulating Activation of Satellite Cells: The Case of HGF

VI. Other ECM-bound Growth Factors Regulating Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

VII. Concluding Remarks


Thymosins and Muscle Regeneration

I. Introduction

II. Basic Properties of Thymosins

III. Physiological Activities of Tβ4

IV. Roles of Tβ4 in Skin Tissue Regeneration

V. Roles of Tβ4 in Heart Regeneration

VI. Roles of Tβ4 in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

VII. Signaling Mechanism Involved in the Chemotactic Activity of Tβ4

VIII. Concluding Remarks

MicroRNAs and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

I. Introduction

II. MicroRNAs

III. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

IV. miRNAs and Stem Cells

V. Role of miRNAs in MSC Differentiation

VI. The Role of miRNAs in Cell-to-Cell Communication

VII. Conclusions


MicroRNA and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

I. Introduction

II. miRNA Biogenesis and Mechanism

III. miRNA and VSMC Differentiation

IV. miRNA and VSMC Phenotypic Switch

V. miRNA and VSMC Neointima Hyperplasia

VI. miRNA and VSMC-Related Diseases

VII. Prospective Application of miRNAs as Therapeutics for Vascular Disease


Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Superfamily in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal

I. Introduction

II. Overview of TGF-Beta-Related Signaling

III. ES Cell Regulation by the BMP Pathway

IV. ES Cell Regulation by the Nodal Pathway

V. Interactions of TGF-Beta Signaling with Other Pluripotency Pathways

VI. TGF-Beta Signaling in Other Pluripotent Cells

VII. Conclusions and Future Directions


The Biology of HIFα Proteins in Cell Differentiation and Disease

I. Introduction

II. HIF and Cancer

III. HIF and Stem

IV. HIF and Neurodegenerative Diseases

V. HIFs in Cardiac Ischemic Diseases

VI. HIFs as Target

VII. Conclusion

Regulatory Role of Klf5 in Early Mouse Development and in Embryonic Stem Cells

I. Klf5: A Krüppel-Like Transcription Factor

II. Multiple Functions of Klf5

III. Klfs in Reprogramming

IV. Gene Expression Network for the Maintenance of ESC Pluripotent State

V. Klf5 Function in ESCs

VI. Klf5 Role in Early Embryonic Development

VII. Klf5 Targets

VIII. Klf5 Connection to the Core Pluripotency Network

IX. Conclusions


Bam and Bgcn in Drosophila Germline Stem Cell Differentiation

I. Introduction

II. Bam Repression of Stem Cell Maintenance Factors

III. Conclusion


The Effects of Mechanical Loading on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Production

I. Introduction

II. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

III. Mechanical Loading

IV. Experimental Results

V. Conclusions and Future Directions



First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms.

Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines.

This volume focuses on stem cell regulators.

Key Features

  • Longest running series published by Academic Press
  • Contributions by leading international authorities


Researchers, faculty, and graduate students interested in cutting-edge review concerning the molecular and cellular biology of vitamins, hormones, and related factors and co-factors. Libraries and laboratories at institutes with strong programs in cell biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, gene regulation, hormone control, and signal transduction are likely to be interested.


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About the Serial Editors

Gerald Litwack

Gerald Litwack Serial Editor

Dr. Gerald Litwack obtained M.S. and PhD degrees from the University of Wisconsin Department of Biochemistry and remained there for a brief time as a Lecturer on Enzymes. Then he entered the Biochemical Institute of the Sorbonne as a Fellow of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. He next moved to Rutgers University as an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and later as Associate Professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Medicine. After four years he moved to the Temple University School of Medicine as Professor of Biochemistry and Deputy Director of the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, soon after, becoming the Laura H. Carnell Professor. Subsequently he was appointed chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the Jefferson Medical College as well as Vice Dean for Research and Deputy Director of the Jefferson Cancer Institute and Director of the Institute for Apoptosis. Following the move of his family, he became a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Biological Chemistry of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and then became the Founding Chair of the Department of Basic Sciences at the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, becoming Professor of Molecular and Cellular Medicine and Associate Director of the Institute for Regenerative Medicine at the Texas A&M Health Science Center as his final position. During his career he was a visiting scientist at the University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley, Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, London and the Wistar Institute. He was appointed Emeritus Professor and/or Chair at Rutgers University, Thomas Jefferson University and the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. He has published more than 300 scientific papers, authored three textbooks and edited more than sixty-five books. Currently he lives with his family and continues his authorship and editorial work in Los Angeles.

Affiliations and Expertise

Toluca Lake, North Hollywood, California, USA