Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123971579, 9780123977786

Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences

1st Edition

Editors: Ajaykumar Vishwakarma Paul Sharpe Songtao Shi Murugan Ramalingam
eBook ISBN: 9780123977786
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971579
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st November 2014
Page Count: 932
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Description

Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences bridges the gap left by many tissue engineering and stem cell biology titles to highlight the significance of translational research in this field in the medical sciences.  It compiles basic developmental biology with keen focus on cell and matrix biology, stem cells with relevance to tissue engineering biomaterials including nanotechnology and current applications in various disciplines of dental sciences; viz., periodontology, endodontics, oral & craniofacial surgery, dental implantology, orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics, organ engineering and transplant medicine. In addition, it covers research ethics, laws and industrial pitfalls that are of particular importance for the future production of tissue constructs.

Tissue Engineering is an interdisciplinary field of biomedical research, which combines life, engineering and materials sciences, to progress the maintenance, repair and replacement of diseased and damaged tissues.  This ever-emerging area of research applies an understanding of normal tissue physiology to develop novel biomaterial, acellular and cell-based technologies for clinical and non-clinical applications. As evident in numerous medical disciplines, tissue engineering strategies are now being increasingly developed and evaluated as potential routine therapies for oral and craniofacial tissue repair and regeneration. 

Key Features

  • Diligently covers all the aspects related to stem cell biology and tissue engineering in dental sciences: basic science, research, clinical application and commercialization
  • Provides detailed descriptions of new, modern technologies, fabrication techniques employed in the fields of stem cells, biomaterials and tissue engineering research including details of latest advances in nanotechnology
  • Includes a description of stem cell biology with details focused on oral and craniofacial stem cells and their potential research application throughout medicine
  • Print book is available and black and white, and the ebook is in full color

Readership

Basic and clinical researchers in the fields of biomedical science, cell biology, nanoscience, nanotechnology, biomaterial science and engineering, bioengineering, and cell biology working within dental sciences research

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Chapter 1: An Introduction to Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 The Emergence of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
    • 1.3 Research Themes Underlying Tissue Engineering Technology
    • 1.4 Stem Cell-Based Therapy
    • 1.5 Translational Tissue Engineering
    • 1.6 Conclusion
  • Part I: Developmental Biology: A Blueprint for Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 2: Developmentally Inspired Regenerative Organ Engineering: Tooth as a Model
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Understanding Generation for Regeneration Strategies: A Tooth Model
      • 2.3 Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions During Odontogenesis
      • 2.4 ECM and Mechanical Forces as Regulators of Organogenesis
      • 2.5 Engineering Approaches for Tooth Organ Regeneration
      • 2.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: Extracellular Matrix Molecules
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Collagens
      • 3.3 Glycoproteins
      • 3.4 Elastin and Elastic Fibers
      • 3.5 Basement Membranes
      • 3.6 Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans
      • 3.7 Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 4: Cell-Matrix Interactions and Signal Transduction
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Receptors
      • 4.3 Cell-Matrix Signaling Transduction
      • 4.4 Control Over Cell-Matrix Interactions
      • 4.5 Cell-Matrix Interactions and Signal Transductions Viewed in Three Dimensions
      • 4.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 5: Cell Adhesion and Movement
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Overview
      • 5.2 Cell Adhesions
      • 5.3 Cell Movements
      • 5.4 Conclusion
  • Part II: In Vitro Regulation of Cell Behaviour and Tissue Development
    • Chapter 6: Genetic Manipulation Via Gene Transfer
      • Abstract
      • 6.1 Introduction to Basic Biology of Gene Transfer
      • 6.2 Gene Transfer Methodologies
      • 6.3 Host Response to Gene Transfer
      • 6.4 Examples of Successful Genetic Manipulation via in Vivo Gene Transfer
      • 6.5 Pathway to Clinical Implementation of Therapeutic Gene Transfer
      • 6.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 7: Growth Factors: Biochemical Signals for Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Growth Factors and Signal Transduction
      • 7.2 Growth Factors and Signaling in Tissue Development
      • 7.3 Overview of the Signaling Pathways
      • 7.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 8: Mechanical and Physical Regulation of Cell Behavior
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Tensile Stretch Regulation of Cell Behavior
      • 8.3 Compression/Pressurization Regulation of Cell Behavior
      • 8.4 Fluid Flow Regulation of Cell Behavior
      • 8.5 Alternative Stimulation Techniques
      • 8.6 Synergy of Physical Cues and Other Factors
      • 8.7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Bioreactor Technology for Engineering Craniofacial Tissues
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction: Rationale for Using Bioreactors in Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering
      • 9.2 Principles of Bioreactor Design
      • 9.3 Case Studies
      • 9.4 Future Perspectives
      • 9.5 Conclusion
  • Part III: Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 10: Considerations on Designing Scaffold for Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction to Scaffold-Based Tissue Engineering
      • 10.2 Importance of Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering and Their Role
      • 10.3 Scaffold Designing Criteria
      • 10.4 Cell Matrix (scaffold) Interactions
      • 10.5 Fabrication Techniques for Three-Dimensional Scaffolds
      • 10.6 Conclusion and Future Trends
    • Chapter 11: Polymeric Biomaterials as Tissue Scaffolds
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Non-Biodegradable Synthetic Biomaterials
      • 11.3 Degradable Synthetic Biomaterials
      • 11.4 Bone Tissue Engineering in the Oral Cavity
      • 11.5 Tissue Engineering of the Gingiva and Other Soft Tissues
      • 11.6 Dental Nerve Injuries
      • 11.7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 12: Ceramic Biomaterials as Tissue Scaffolds
      • Abstract
      • 12.1 Introduction to Bioceramic Scaffolds
      • 12.2 Calcium Phosphates
      • 12.3 Bioactive Glasses and Glass-Ceramics
      • 12.4 Processing Methods for Scaffold Production
      • 12.5 Naturally-Derived Implant Materials
      • 12.6 Interaction of Bioceramics with Cells
      • 12.7 Summary
    • Chapter 13: Gradient Biomaterials as Tissue Scaffolds
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 The Concept of Gradient Biomaterials
      • 13.3 Chemical/Biological Gradients
      • 13.4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 14: Surface Functionalization of Biomaterials
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Responses to Biomaterial Implantation
      • 14.3 Surface Modification Techniques
      • 14.4 Anti-Fouling Surface Modification Strategies
      • 14.5 Biomimetic Surface Modification Strategies
      • 14.6 Bioactive Surface Modification Strategies
      • 14.7 Hybrid Strategies
      • 14.8 Challenges in Three-Dimensional (3D) Surface Modification
    • Chapter 15: Microfabrication and Nanofabrication Techniques
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Delivery of Soluble Factors Using Micro- and Nanofabrication Techniques
      • 15.3 Microfabrication and Nanofabrication of Scaffolds
      • 15.4 Micro- and Nanofabrication Techniques for Direct Fabrication of Cell-Laden Constructs
      • 15.5 Elucidation of Stem Cell Biology Using Micro- and Nanofabrication Techniques
      • 15.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 16: Nanobiomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications
      • Abstract
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Two-Dimensional Nanotechnology for Dental Application
      • 16.3 Three-Dimensional Nanotechnology for Dental Applications
      • 16.4 Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
      • 16.5 Conclusions
  • Part IV: Oral and Craniofacial Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 17: The Basic Principles of Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction to Stem Cells
      • 17.2 A Brief History of Stem Cell Research
      • 17.3 Characterization of Stem Cells
      • 17.4 Biological Properties of Stem Cells
      • 17.5 Stem Cell Niche
      • 17.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 18: Embryonic Versus Adult Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Embryonic Stem Cells
      • 18.3 Adult Stem Cells
      • 18.4 Applications of Adult Stem Cells
      • 18.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 19: Dental Epithelial Stem
      • Abstract
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Differentiation of Epithelial Cell Lineages in the Developing Tooth
      • 19.3 Epithelial Stem Cells in the Continuously Growing Mouse Incisor
      • 19.4 Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells for Tooth Replacement
      • 19.5 Dental Lamina as the Origin of Epithelial Cells in Teeth
      • 19.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 20: Dental Follicle Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Dental Follicle Cell Culture
      • 20.3 Stem Cells of the Human Dental Follicle
      • 20.4 Dental Follicle Cells for Regenerative Dentistry
      • 20.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 21: Dental Pulp Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Human Dental Pulp-Derived Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells
      • 21.3 Properties of Stem Cell Populations from Dental Pulp Tissue
      • 21.4 Conclusion
    • Chapter 22: Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs)
      • 22.3 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Periodontal Ligaments
      • 22.4 Epithelial Stem Cells from Periodontal Ligament
      • 22.5 Clinical Regeneration Properties and Potential of PDLSCs
    • Chapter 23: Oral Mucosal Progenitor Cells
      • Abstract
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Geno- and Phenotypic Characteristics of Oral Mucosal Fibroblasts
      • 23.3 Oral Mucosa Progenitor Cells
      • 23.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 24: Oral Mucosal Stem Cells: Identification, Characterization, and Clinical and Disease Implications
      • Abstract
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Molecular and Phenotypic Markers for KSC Identification
      • 24.3 Generation of Keratinocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells
      • 24.4 Molecular Pathways Regulating KSC Stemness
      • 24.5 Epithelial Tissue Engineering Using OKSCs
      • 24.6 Control of Replication, Senescence, and Differentiation of Oral Keratinocytes
      • 24.7 Mechanisms Involving Cellular Immortalization of Oral Mucosal Keratinocytes
      • 24.8 Relevance of KSCS for Oral Carcinogenesis
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 25: Optimization of Stem Cell Expansion, Storage, and Distribution
      • Abstract
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Key Concepts
      • 25.3 Optimization of Stem Cell Expansion Processes
      • 25.4 Development of Cell Storage Technologies
      • 25.5 Distribution of Tissue-Engineered Products
  • Part V: Tooth Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 26: Development of Tooth and Associated Structures
      • Abstract
      • 26.1 Odontogenesis
      • 26.2 Odontogenesis and Osteogenesis
    • Chapter 27: Dental Stem Cells for Tooth Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Embryonic and Postnatal Tooth Bud Cells
      • 27.3 Dental Epithelial Progenitor/Stem Cell from the Enamel Organ
      • 27.4 Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez (ERM)
      • 27.5 Dental Papilla Progenitor Cells
      • 27.6 Dental Follicle Stem Cells
      • 27.7 Dental Pulp Stem Cells
      • 27.8 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 28: Tooth Organ Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 Tooth Organ Engineering Using Dental Embryonic Cells
      • 28.3 Tooth Engineering Using Non-Dental Cells
      • 28.4 Human Dental Stem Cells
      • 28.5 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part VI: Tissue Engineering in Endodontics
    • Chapter 29: Biology of the Dentin-Pulp Complex
      • Abstract
      • 29.1 Introduction
      • 29.2 Dentin Structure and its Biochemical Properties
      • 29.3 Components of the Dentin Extracellular Matrix
      • 29.4 Growth Factors and Cytokines within the Dentin ECM
      • 29.5 The Dental Pulp
    • Chapter 30: Odontoblasts and Dentin Formation
      • Abstract
      • 30.1 Key Concepts
      • 30.2 Odontoblast Life Cycle
      • 30.3 Primary and Secondary Dentinogenesis
      • 30.4 Tertiary Dentinogenesis
      • 30.5 Non-Dentinogenic Function of Odontoblasts
      • 30.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 31: Pulp Injury and Changing Trends in Treatment
      • Abstract
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 Biological Basis for Regeneration
      • 31.3 Regeneration Versus Revascularization
      • 31.4 Overview of Current Literature from A Tissue Engineering Perspective
      • 31.5 Are we There Yet? Considerations of Current Clinical Protocols
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 32: Cellular Signaling in Dentin Repair and Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 32.1 Introduction
      • 32.2 Microbial Signaling in Caries
      • 32.3 Dentin-Derived Molecular Signals in Caries
      • 32.4 Dentin-Pulp Signaling and the Inflammatory Response
      • 32.5 Signaling in Tertiary Dentinogenesis
      • 32.6 Angiogenic and Neurogenic Signaling During Repair and Regeneration
      • 32.7 Cellular Signaling and Clinical Opportunities
    • Chapter 33: Tissue Engineering Strategies for Endodontic Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 33.1 Introduction
      • 33.2 Treatment of Dental Pulp Necrosis in Immature Teeth
      • 33.3 Dental Pulp Tissue Engineering
      • 33.4 Concluding Remarks
  • Part VII: Periodontal Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 34: Periodontium and Periodontal Disease
      • Abstract
      • 34.1 Introduction
      • 34.2 Functional Anatomy of the Periodontal Tissues
      • 34.3 Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Diseases
      • 34.4 Etiology of Periodontal Disease
      • 34.5 Pathogenesis
      • 34.6 Management of Periodontal Diseases
      • 34.7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 35: Morphogenesis and Wound Healing in the Periodontium
      • Abstract
      • 35.1 Introduction
      • 35.2 Morphogenesis
      • 35.3 Periodontal Wound Healing
      • 35.4 Current and Future Wound Healing Strategies in the Periodontium
      • 35.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 36: Periodontal Regeneration: Current Therapies
      • Abstract
      • 36.1 Introduction
      • 36.2 Bone Grafts
      • 36.3 Guided Tissue Regeneration (gtr)
      • 36.4 Biologics
      • 36.5 Recent Advances
      • 36.6 Summary and Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 37: Periodontal Tissue Engineering: Current Approaches and Future Therapies
      • Abstract
      • 37.1 Introduction
      • 37.2 Periodontal Tissue Engineering
      • 37.3 Stem Cells for Periodontal Tissue Engineering
      • 37.4 Cell Therapy for Periodontal Tissue Engineering
      • 37.5 Gene Therapy for Periodontal Tissue Engineering
      • 37.6 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part VIII: Craniofacial Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 38: Molecular Strategies in the Study and Repair of Palatal Defects
      • Abstract
      • 38.1 Introduction
      • 38.2 Genetic and Environmental Influences
      • 38.3 Signal Transduction and Orofacial Development
      • 38.4 Tissue Engineering Strategies for the Repair of Palatal and Other Craniofacial Defects
      • 38.5 Summary
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 39: Molecular Genetics and Biology of Craniofacial Craniosynostoses
      • Abstract
      • 39.1 Craniofacial Synostosis Overview
      • 39.2 Molecular Genetics of Craniosynostosis
      • 39.3 Impact of Craniosynostosis Mutations on Protein Structure and Function
      • 39.4 Integration of Molecular Genetics and Suture Biology
      • 39.5 Targets for Stem Cell Therapies and Tissue Engineering Strategies in Craniofacial Disorders
    • Chapter 40: Tissue Engineering Craniofacial Bone Products
      • Abstract
      • 40.1 Introduction: The Need for Tissue-Engineered Bone Products
      • 40.2 Strategies for TISSUE ENGINEERING of Bone Substitutes
      • 40.3 Components of Te Bone Products
      • 40.4 The Properties and Clinical Use of Te Bone Products
      • 40.5 Future Challenges in the Development and Application of Te Bone Products
      • 40.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 41: Craniofacial Cartilage Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 41.1 Introduction
      • 41.2 Cartilage as a Tissue Source
      • 41.3 Cell Expansion in Monolayer Culture
      • 41.4 Three-Dimensional Culture Systems
      • 41.5 Optimizing the Growth Environment
      • 41.6 Stem Cells: An Alternative Cell Source
      • 41.7 In Vivo Maturation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage
      • 41.8 Future Challenges
      • 41.9 Conclusion
    • Chapter 42: Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 42.1 Introduction and Current Treatment
      • 42.2 Tissue Engineering Strategies
      • 42.3 Mechanical Signals
      • 42.4 Gene Transfer for Ligament/Tendon Regeneration
      • 42.5 Animal Studies
      • 42.6 Human Trials
      • 42.7 Conclusions
    • Chapter 43: Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Skeletal Muscle Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 43.1 Introduction
      • 43.2 Skeletal muscle
      • 43.3 Introduction to craniofacial growth, as well as common congenital and acquired craniofacial muscle abnormalities and injuries
      • 43.4 Engineering skeletal muscle
      • 43.5 Advancing maturation and function of engineered skeletal muscle
      • 43.6 Novel technologies for in vivo muscle regeneration, repair, and replacement
      • 43.7 Future clinical implications
      • 43.8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 44: Multi-Tissue Interface Bioengineering
      • Abstract
      • 44.1 Introduction
      • 44.2 Monolithic Scaffold-Based Approaches
      • 44.3 Scaffolds with Discrete Functional Regions
      • 44.4 Tissue Engineering Technologies to Improve Current Surgical Techniques
      • 44.5 Future Directions
      • 44.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 45: Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Adipose Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 45.1 Introduction
      • 45.2 Anatomy and Function of Adipose Tissue
      • 45.3 Current Approach to Soft Tissue Reconstruction in The Craniofacial Region
      • 45.4 Adipose Tissue Engineering: Biomaterials, Stem Cells, and the Era of Regenerative Medicine
      • 45.5 Current Research
      • 45.6 Ethics
      • 45.7 Conclusion
  • Part IX: Bioengineering Organs in Head and Neck
    • Chapter 46: Salivary Gland Tissue Engineering and Repair
      • Abstract
      • 46.1 Introduction
      • 46.2 Salivary Gland Structure and Function
      • 46.3 Salivary Gland Atrophy and Repair
      • 46.4 Biomaterial Scaffolds
      • 46.5 Recent Advances in Salivary Gland TISSUE ENGINEERING
      • 46.6 Conclusion and Future Work
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 47: Tissue Engineering of Larynx
      • Abstract
      • 47.1 Introduction
      • 47.2 Laryngeal Anatomy
      • 47.3 Vocal Fold Microstructure Restoration
      • 47.4 Larynx Superstructure Bioengineering
      • 47.5 Neuromuscular Regeneration
      • 47.6 Conclusion
    • Chapter 48: The Bio-Artificial Trachea
      • Abstract
      • 48.1 Introduction
      • 48.2 In Vitro Scaffold Assessment for Trachea Tissue Engineering
      • 48.3 In Vivo Scaffold Assessment for Trachea Tissue Engineering
      • 48.4 Tissue Engineering The Trachea
      • 48.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 49: Tissue Engineering of the Esophagus
      • Abstract
      • 49.1 Introduction
      • 49.2 Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology
      • 49.3 Tissue Engineering
      • 49.4 Conclusion
  • Part X: Tissue Engineering Skin and Oral Mucosa
    • Chapter 50: Cell and Molecular Biology of Wound Healing
      • Abstract
      • 50.1 Introduction
      • 50.2 Evolutionary Perspective to Mucosal and Skin Wound Healing
      • 50.3 Inflammation and Wound Healing
      • 50.4 Re-Epithelialization of Wounds
      • 50.5 Connective Tissue Wound Healing: Granulation Tissue Formation and Remodeling
      • 50.6 Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 51: Models of Differential Wound Healing
      • Abstract
      • 51.1 Introduction
      • 51.2 Cutaneous Wound Healing (Adult Vs. Fetal)
      • 51.3 Oral Mucosa
      • 51.4 Summary
    • Chapter 52: Bioengineering Skin Constructs
      • Abstract
      • 52.1 Introduction
      • 52.2 Traditional Treatments for Skin Injuries
      • 52.3 Tissue Engineering Approach for Skin Repair
      • 52.4 Current Progress
      • 52.5 Important Challenges and Strategies
      • 52.6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 53: Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Oral Mucosa: Tissue Engineering Strategies
      • Abstract
      • 53.1 Introduction
      • 53.2 Conventional Treatment for Reconstruction of Oral Mucosa Defects
      • 53.3 Goals of Oral Mucosa Tissue Engineering
      • 53.4 Strategies for Tissue Engineering of Oral Mucosa
      • 53.5 Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies on Teoms for Intraoral and Extraoral Applications
      • 53.6 Regulatory Issues of Tissue-Engineered Product Manufacturing
      • 53.7 Challenges
      • 53.8 Future Strategies
      • 53.9 Conclusions
  • Part XI: Tissue Engineered Implant Dentistry
    • Chapter 54: Dental Implantology and Implants: Basic Aspects and Tissue Interface
      • Abstract
      • 54.1 Introduction
      • 54.2 History and Readers
      • 54.3 Anatomy of Dental Implants and Clinical Aspects
      • 54.4 “Stem cells” and Tissue Engineering in Implant Dentistry
      • 54.5 Tooth Versus Dental Implant
      • 54.6 Biological Principles of Hard and Soft Tissue Integration
      • 54.7 Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants
      • 54.8 Implant Failures
      • 54.9 Alternative Materials
      • 54.10 Future Aspects
    • Chapter 55: Dental Implant-Guided Bone Tissue Engineering
      • Abstract
      • 55.1 Introduction: Key Concepts
      • 55.2 Dental Implants
      • 55.3 Alveolar Ridge Bone Loss: the Clinical Problem
      • 55.4 Current Approaches for Alveolar Ridge Augmentation
      • 55.5 The Concept of Implant-Guided Alveolar Ridge Bone Tissue Engineering
      • 55.6 Animal Models and Pre-Clinical Testing Results for Implant-Guided Bone Tissue Engineering
      • 55.7 Bioactive Osteogenic Molecules for Use in Alveolar Ridge Augmentation
      • 55.8 Delivery of Osteogenic Molecules from Dental Implants and Scaffolds
      • 55.9 Cell-Based Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Approaches
      • 55.10 Conclusions
    • Chapter 56: Periodontal Tissue Engineering Around Dental Implants
      • Abstract
      • 56.1 Introduction
      • 56.2 PDL Development
      • 56.3 Tissue Engineering PDL Tissues
      • 56.4 Review of Literature
      • 56.5 Conclusion
  • Part XII: Tissue Engineering in Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics
    • Chapter 57: Biological and Molecular Mediators During Orthodontic Tooth Movement
      • Abstract
      • 57.1 Introduction
      • 57.2 Molecular Activities During OTM
      • 57.3 Challenges and Future Directions
      • 57.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 58: Accelerated Tooth Movement
      • Abstract
      • 58.1 Introduction
      • 58.2 Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) and Inflammatory Markers
      • 58.3 Inflammatory Markers as a Method of Increasing the Rate of Tooth Movement
      • 58.4 Physical Stimulation as a Method of Increasing the Rate of Tooth Movement
      • 58.5 Chemical Agents to Increase the Rate of Tooth Movement
      • 58.6 Summary and Future Directions
    • Chapter 59: Stem Cell Therapy for Orthodontists: A Conceptual Introduction
      • Abstract
      • 59.1 Introduction
      • 59.2 Tissue Engineering: A Relevant Science in Orthodontics
      • 59.3 Tissue Engineering: Recent Clinical Background
      • 59.4 To Extract or not to Extract
      • 59.5 Cluster Identification, Pharmaco-orthodontics, and Genetic Manipulation
      • 59.6 Challenges/Considerations in Orthodontic Tissue Engineering
      • 59.7 Mechanobiology and the Peri-Orthodontic Hypothesis: Ote as Applied Molecular Biology
      • 59.8 Beyond the Ligament: A New Perspective on Bone Behavior
      • 59.9 Future Strategies
      • 59.10 Epilogue as Prologue
      • Dedication
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 60: Ultrasound Applications in Orthodontics
      • Abstract
      • 60.1 Introduction
      • 60.2 Orthodontics and Stem Cells
      • 60.3 Applications of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
      • 60.4 Conclusions
  • Part XIII: Transplantation of Engineered Tissue Constructs
    • Chapter 61: Immunotherapy in Transplantation
      • Abstract
      • 61.1 Introduction
      • 61.2 Immunomodulation Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
      • 61.3 Immunomodulation Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Dentistry
      • 61.4 Conclusion and Future Aspects
    • Chapter 62: Non-Invasive In Vivo Imaging of Transplanted Cells and Biomaterials
      • Abstract
      • 62.1 Introduction
      • 62.2 Diagnostic Imaging in Dentistry
      • 62.3 The Challenge of Non-Invasive Imaging in Regenerative Dentistry
      • 62.4 Approaches to Non-Invasively Visualize Implanted Cells
      • 62.5 Visualizing Cells in the Context of Tissue Engineering/Regenerative Medicine
      • 62.6 Conclusion
  • Part XIV: Research Ethics and Law
    • Chapter 63: Ethics and Emerging Laws in Stem Cell Science
      • Abstract
      • 63.1 Introduction
      • 63.2 Early Responses from Philosophical Ethics
      • 63.3 Some Early Regulatory Responses to Human Embryonic Stem Cells
      • 63.4 The Emergence of SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER and the Demand for Ova
      • 63.5 Forgotten Fetuses
      • 63.6 Interspecies Embryos
      • 63.7 The Fall of Professor Hwang Woo-Suk
      • 63.8 The Arrival of Induced Pluripotency Stem Cells
      • 63.9 Ongoing Issues
      • 63.10 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 64: Ethical Aspects of Tissue Engineered Products
      • Abstract
      • 64.1 Introduction
      • 64.2 Ethical Challenges in Cell Based Therapies
      • 64.3 Safety
      • 64.4 Informed Consent
      • 64.5 Clinical Trials of TE Products
      • 64.6 Intellectual Property Protection
      • 64.7 Discussion
    • Chapter 65: Problems and Pitfalls in Tissue-Engineered Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 65.1 Introduction
      • 65.2 “Classic” Development Pathway
      • 65.3 Real World Examples
      • 65.4 Lessons and Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
  • Glossary
  • Nomenclature
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
932
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123977786
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123971579

About the Editor

Ajaykumar Vishwakarma

Dr Ajay Vishwakarma is a researcher in the fields of stem cell bio-engineering, biomaterials, tissue engineering, cancer immunology and immuno-engineering; working with Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School and an affiliate at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr Vishwakarma earned a Doctors degree in Dental Surgery at Maharashtra University of Health Sciences and Masters degree in Tissue Engineering at Cardiff University, UK where he primarily studied signaling pathways involved in musculoskeletal repair and regeneration. He continued mesenchymal stem cell and tissue-engineering research during his fellowship in the Khademhosseini laboratory at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, USA. Currently he is pursuing a PhD in Cancer Biology with training in Cancer Immunology at the Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa in Prof. Weizhou Zhang’s Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Holden Cancer Center wherein he is studying how regulatory T cells impact cancer progression and metastasis in humanized cancer models. He was a recipient of a stem cell training fellowship from CCMB, a CSIR Indian institute, a graduate research fellowship by National Blood Foundation and National Cancer Institute government grant agencies. In addition to the long-term academic interest; he is committed to translating next generation cell-based therapies and has held key industrial positions in Europe and Asia. He is a co-founder of OCTE Technologies, a biotech start-up utilizing cell and tissue engineering technology platform to solve medical problems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

Paul Sharpe

Professor Paul Sharpe is the Dickinson Professor of Craniofacial Biology at Kings College London. He graduated with a degree in biology from York University (1977) and a PhD in biochemistry from Sheffield University (1981). Following postdocs in Sheffield, Wisconsin and Cambridge he became lecturer in molecular embryology at the University of Manchester in 1987 where he established a research group working on the molecular control of tooth development. Following promotion to Reader in 1991 he was recruited to his present Chair at the Dental Institute of Guy’s Hospital (later to merge with Kings College), where he established a new basic research department, the Department of Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology. The department, of which he remains head, now consists of 13 academic research groups with over 80 research staff. From 2002-2008 he was Director of Research for the Dental Institute.

His main research interests are the molecular control of tooth development, dental stem cell biology and tooth bioengineering. He has published over 270 research papers including articles in Nature, Science, PNAS and Cell press. He has supervised over 40 PhD students and receives funding from the MRC. He is a member of the MRC Centre for Transplantation and Biomedical Research Centre.

In 2004 he was awarded the Craniofacial Biology Research Award by the International Association for Dental Research in recognition of his contribution to the understanding of how teeth develop and in 2006 his paper “Stem cell-based tissue engineering of teeth” received the William J Gies award for best publication is Biomaterials and Bioengineering from the same organisation. He is on the editorial boards of several journals including J. Dent. Res. and J. Clin. Perio.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dental Institute, Kings College, London, UK

Songtao Shi

Songtao Shi, D.D.S., Ph.D., is Professor at the University of Southern California Ostrow School of Dentistry. Dr. Shi received his D.D.S. degree and certificate in Pediatric Dentistry from the Peking University School of Stomatology and Ph.D. in Craniofacial Biology from the University of Southern California. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Southern California, he served as a Principal Investigator and Clinical Fellow for nine years at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. His research program focuses on understanding mechanism of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-associated diseases, developing new experimental disease models, and exploring feasibility of translating these bench discoveries to clinical therapies.

His group and his collaborators were the first to identify dental pulp stem cells, baby tooth stem cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, root apical papilla stem cells, tendon stem cells, gingiva stem cells, sclera MSCs, and benign tumor MSCs from keloid and ossifying fibroma. In translational study, Dr. Shi’s team has used these stem cells to regenerate a variety of tissues, including dentin, pulp, periodontal ligament, tendon, bone, bio-root. Dr. Shi and his collaborators were the first to use MSCs to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), periodontitis, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw-like disease (BRONJ) in animal models and patients. Additionally, Dr. Shi and his collaborators were the first to generate BRONJ, osteoradionecrosis, keloid, and ossifying fibroma diseases in mouse and swine models. To understand mechanisms of MSC-based therapies, Dr. Shi’s team revealed that MSC mediated bone regeneration was regulated by recipient T cell, which is the pioneer study showing association between cell-based tissue engineering and immune response. Additionally, Dr. Shi and his collaborators discovered that MSC-mediated immunotherapy in human and mouse model is associated the interplay between the donor cells and recipient T cells via Fas/FasL pathway. Recently, Dr. Shi’s team first time showed that MSCs contribute to orofacial benign tumor development via an epigenetic regulation network.

Dr. Shi has published more than 150 peer-reviewed articles in a variety of high-impact scientific journals, of which he served as the corresponding author in Nat Medicine, Cell Stem Cell, Lancet, J Clin Invest, Nat Biotechnol, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Cell Research, Blood, J Bone Miner Res, Stem Cells, PLoS ONE, and J Dent Res. Dr. Shi’s research is supported by NIH grants and funding from California Institute of Regenerative Medicine.

Dr. Shi has served on several local and national committees and boards including Scientific Editor for the PLoS ONE and Associate Editor for Oral Diseases. He is recipient of the 2013 IADR Distinguished Scientist Award for Pulp Biology & Regeneration. He is on the editorial board of Stem Cell Research & Therapy, the editorial board of World Journal of Stem Cells, and the editorial board of Chinese Journal of Dental Research. Dr. Shi is Changjing Scholar in the Fourth Military Medical University, Distinguished Visiting Professor in Tongji University, Visiting Professor in XiangYa School of Medicine & Stomatology, Central South University (CSU), and distinguished visiting professor in Dankook University, Korea.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA

Murugan Ramalingam

Dr. Murugan Ramalingam is Associate Professor at the Centre for Stem Cell Research (a unit of the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine-Bengaluru), Christian Medical College Campus, India. Concurrently he is Adjunct Associate Professor at the Tohoku University, Japan. Prior to joining the CSCR, he was Associate Professor of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering at the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, France. He has worked at the WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Japan, as an Assistant Professor. He has also worked at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under the U.S. National Academies Associateship program. He received his Ph.D. in Biomaterials from the University of Madras. He has also undergone training in Ethical and Policy issues on Stem Cells from Harvard University, USA, and in Operations Management from the University of Illinois-Chicago. His current research interests are focused on the development of multiphase biomedical materials, through conventional to nanotechnology to biomimetic approaches, microfabrication, cell patterning, stem cell differentiation, tissue engineering and drug delivery. He is the author of over 190 publications, including peer-reviewed journal papers, conference proceedings, book chapters, authored books, edited books, and patents relevant to biomaterials, stem cells, and tissue engineering. His current h-index is 22. He has organized several international conferences and chaired Biomaterials, Nanobiotechnology, Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering sessions. He also serves as a board member of several international scientific and research committees in various public and private bodies and grant reviewer of various international funding agencies. He serves on the editorial boards of multiple biomaterials and tissue engineering-related journals, including as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, the Journal of Bionanoscience and the American Journal of Stem Cell Research. He is a recipient of several prestigious fellowships and awards, including CSIR Fellowship (India), SMF Fellowship (Singapore), NRC National Academies Fellowship (USA), Nationale Professeur des Universités (France), Fellow of Institute of Nanotechnology (UK) and Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry (UK).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France