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Steels - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750610902, 9781483144764


1st Edition

Metallurgy and Applications

Author: D. T. Llewellyn
eBook ISBN: 9781483144764
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 26th March 1992
Page Count: 314
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Steels: Metallurgy and Applications deals with the metallurgy and applications of steel and covers the broad spectrum of the mainstream commercial grades as well as the service or manufacturing requirements that govern their use. Standard specifications and some of the design considerations that provide satisfactory service performance are considered. Brief reference is also made to some of the steel prices that were effective on January 1, 1991.

Comprised of five chapters, this book begins with an overview of technological trends in the steelmaking industry since 1980s, paying particular attention to energy conservation, iron-making, continuous casting, and product requirements. The next chapter is devoted to low-carbon strip steels and their cold-forming behavior, applications, and metallurgical factors affecting cold formability. The third chapter focuses on low-carbon structural steels and their strengthening mechanisms, while the fourth chapter considers engineering steels and their heat treatment aspects. The final chapter describes stainless steels and their composition-structure relationships, commercial grades, corrosion resistance, welding, and cold working. The mechanical properties of stainless steels at elevated and sub-zero temperatures are also examined.

This monograph will be of interest to students and practicing metallurgists.

Table of Contents

1 Technological Trends in the Steelmaking Industry

The Turbulent 1980s

Energy Conservation



Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

Secondary Steelmaking

Continuous Casting

Product Requirements

2 Low-Carbon Strip Steels


Cold-Forming Behavior

True Stress-True Strain

Deep Drawing

Stretch Forming


Forming Limit Diagrams

Finite Element Modeling

Metallurgical Factors Affecting Cold Formability

Process Route

Batch-Annealed Strip

Continuous Annealing

Compositional Effects

High-Strength Strip Steels

Precipitation-Strengthened/Grain-Refined Steels

Solid Solution Strengthened Steels

Dual-Phase Steels

Bake-Hardened Steels

Work-Hardened Steels

Transformation-Strengthened Steels

Formability of High-Strength Strip Steels

Standard Specifications

Zinc-Coated Steels

Production Methods

Corrosion Resistance

Cold-Forming Behavior

Standard Specifications

Zinc Alloy Coatings

Organic-Coated Steels

Steel Prices


Method of Manufacture

Canmaking Processes

Resistance Spot Welding

Weldability Lobes

Rephosphorized Steels

Precipitation-Strengthened Grades

Zinc-Coated Steels

Strip Steels in Automotive Applications

Weight Reduction

Improved Corrosion Resistance

Strip Steels in Buildings

Steel-Framed Houses

Steel Cladding

Steel Lintels

Other Applications for Strip Steels

Domestic Appliances

Steel Drums

Vitreous Enamelled Products

3 Low-Carbon Structural Steels


Strengthening Mechanisms in Structural Steels

Ferrite Grain Refinement

Solid Solution Strengthening

Precipitation Strengthening

Transformation Strengthening

Structure-Property Relationships in Ferrite-Pearlite Steels

Controlled Rolling/Thermomechanical Processing

Outline of Process

Slab Reheating


Transformation to Ferrite

Standard Specifications

Steel Prices

Weathering Steels

Corrosion Resistance

Steel Specifications

Clean Steels and Inclusion Shape Control


Standard-Strength Steels

Higher Strength Steels

Design Considerations

Offshore Structures

Design Considerations

Steel Selection

Cast Steel Nodes

Reinforcing Bars

Standard Specifications

Traditional Reinforcing Steels

Controlled-Cooled Bars

Steel Bridges

Design Against Brittle Fracture

Steel in Multi-Storey Buildings

Building Code Requirements

Steels for Pipelines

Specifications and Property Requirements

Linepipe Manufacturing Processes

Steel Compositions for Linepipe

Pipeline Fittings

Steels for Sour Gas Service

4 Engineering Steels


Heat Treatment Aspects

Isothermal Transformation Diagrams

Continuous-Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams

Hardenability Testing

Factors Affecting Hardenability

Tempering Tesistance

Surface-Hardening Treatments

Distortion in Case-Carburized Components

Standard Specifications

Steel Prices

Machinable Steels

Machinability Testing

Role of Free Cutting Additives

Low-Carbon Free Cutting Steels

Medium-Carbon Free Cutting Steels

Machinable Low-Alloy Steels

Machinable Stainless Steels

Steels for Gas Containers

Steel Compositions

Design and Manufacture

Hydrogen Gas Containers

Higher Strength Steels

Bearing Steels

Bearing Fatigue Testing

Factors Affecting Fatigue Performance

Modern Steelmaking Methods

High-Speed Steels

Role of Alloying Elements

Heat Treatment

Standard Specifications and Uses

Maraging Steels


Commercial Grades

Corrosion Behavior


Steels for Steam Power Turbines

Turbine Casings

HP and IP Rotors

LP Rotors

Turbine Generator End Rings

Turbine Bolts

Turbine Blades

Medium-High-Carbon Pearlitic Steels

Rail Steels

Rail Steel Specifications

Wear Resistance of Rails

Austenitic 14% Mn Rails

Micro-Alloy Forging Steels

Metallurgical Considerations

Commercial Exploitation

Controlled Processed Bars

Normalized Steels

Quenched and Tempered Steels

High-Carbon Wire Rod

Rod Rolling and Conditioning

Wire Drawing

Micro-Alloy High-Carbon Rod

5 Stainless Steels


Composition-Structure Relationships

Iron-Chromium Alloys

Iron-Chromium-Nickel Alloys

Other Alloy Additions

Commercial Grades of Stainless Steels

Martensitic Stainless Steel

Ferritic Stainless Steels

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Controlled Transformation Stainless Steels

Steel Prices

Corrosion Resistance

Intergranular Corrosion

Pitting Corrosion

Stress Corrosion Cracking

High-Alloy Stainless Steels

High-Alloy Austenitic/Duplex Grades

High-Alloy Ferritic Grades

Welding of Stainless Steels

Martensitic Stainless Steels

Austenitic Stainless Steels

Ferritic Stainless Steels

Variable Weld Penetration

Cold Working of Stainless Steels

Role of Alloying Elements

Work Hardening of Commercial Grades

Optimization of Cold-Forming Properties

Mechanical Properties at Elevated and Sub-Zero Temperatures

Tensile Properties

Impact Properties

Steels for Boilers and Pressure Vessels

Steel Specifications

Pressure Vessel Codes

Steels for Elevated-Temperature Applications

Steels for Low-Temperature Applications

Steels in Fossil-Fired Power Plant

Boiler Layout and Operation

Steel Selection

Co-Extruded Tubing

Flue Gas Desulfurization Equipment

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant

Corrosion/Abrasion-Resistant Grades

Automotive Exhausts/Catalytic Converters

Architectural Applications


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1992
26th March 1992
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

D. T. Llewellyn

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