Metallurgy and Applications

1st Edition - March 26, 1992

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  • Author: D. T. Llewellyn
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144764

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Steels: Metallurgy and Applications deals with the metallurgy and applications of steel and covers the broad spectrum of the mainstream commercial grades as well as the service or manufacturing requirements that govern their use. Standard specifications and some of the design considerations that provide satisfactory service performance are considered. Brief reference is also made to some of the steel prices that were effective on January 1, 1991. Comprised of five chapters, this book begins with an overview of technological trends in the steelmaking industry since 1980s, paying particular attention to energy conservation, iron-making, continuous casting, and product requirements. The next chapter is devoted to low-carbon strip steels and their cold-forming behavior, applications, and metallurgical factors affecting cold formability. The third chapter focuses on low-carbon structural steels and their strengthening mechanisms, while the fourth chapter considers engineering steels and their heat treatment aspects. The final chapter describes stainless steels and their composition-structure relationships, commercial grades, corrosion resistance, welding, and cold working. The mechanical properties of stainless steels at elevated and sub-zero temperatures are also examined. This monograph will be of interest to students and practicing metallurgists.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Technological Trends in the Steelmaking Industry

    The Turbulent 1980s

    Energy Conservation



    Basic Oxygen Steelmaking

    Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

    Secondary Steelmaking

    Continuous Casting

    Product Requirements

    2 Low-Carbon Strip Steels


    Cold-Forming Behavior

    True Stress-True Strain

    Deep Drawing

    Stretch Forming


    Forming Limit Diagrams

    Finite Element Modeling

    Metallurgical Factors Affecting Cold Formability

    Process Route

    Batch-Annealed Strip

    Continuous Annealing

    Compositional Effects

    High-Strength Strip Steels

    Precipitation-Strengthened/Grain-Refined Steels

    Solid Solution Strengthened Steels

    Dual-Phase Steels

    Bake-Hardened Steels

    Work-Hardened Steels

    Transformation-Strengthened Steels

    Formability of High-Strength Strip Steels

    Standard Specifications

    Zinc-Coated Steels

    Production Methods

    Corrosion Resistance

    Cold-Forming Behavior

    Standard Specifications

    Zinc Alloy Coatings

    Organic-Coated Steels

    Steel Prices


    Method of Manufacture

    Canmaking Processes

    Resistance Spot Welding

    Weldability Lobes

    Rephosphorized Steels

    Precipitation-Strengthened Grades

    Zinc-Coated Steels

    Strip Steels in Automotive Applications

    Weight Reduction

    Improved Corrosion Resistance

    Strip Steels in Buildings

    Steel-Framed Houses

    Steel Cladding

    Steel Lintels

    Other Applications for Strip Steels

    Domestic Appliances

    Steel Drums

    Vitreous Enamelled Products

    3 Low-Carbon Structural Steels


    Strengthening Mechanisms in Structural Steels

    Ferrite Grain Refinement

    Solid Solution Strengthening

    Precipitation Strengthening

    Transformation Strengthening

    Structure-Property Relationships in Ferrite-Pearlite Steels

    Controlled Rolling/Thermomechanical Processing

    Outline of Process

    Slab Reheating


    Transformation to Ferrite

    Standard Specifications

    Steel Prices

    Weathering Steels

    Corrosion Resistance

    Steel Specifications

    Clean Steels and Inclusion Shape Control


    Standard-Strength Steels

    Higher Strength Steels

    Design Considerations

    Offshore Structures

    Design Considerations

    Steel Selection

    Cast Steel Nodes

    Reinforcing Bars

    Standard Specifications

    Traditional Reinforcing Steels

    Controlled-Cooled Bars

    Steel Bridges

    Design Against Brittle Fracture

    Steel in Multi-Storey Buildings

    Building Code Requirements

    Steels for Pipelines

    Specifications and Property Requirements

    Linepipe Manufacturing Processes

    Steel Compositions for Linepipe

    Pipeline Fittings

    Steels for Sour Gas Service

    4 Engineering Steels


    Heat Treatment Aspects

    Isothermal Transformation Diagrams

    Continuous-Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagrams

    Hardenability Testing

    Factors Affecting Hardenability

    Tempering Tesistance

    Surface-Hardening Treatments

    Distortion in Case-Carburized Components

    Standard Specifications

    Steel Prices

    Machinable Steels

    Machinability Testing

    Role of Free Cutting Additives

    Low-Carbon Free Cutting Steels

    Medium-Carbon Free Cutting Steels

    Machinable Low-Alloy Steels

    Machinable Stainless Steels

    Steels for Gas Containers

    Steel Compositions

    Design and Manufacture

    Hydrogen Gas Containers

    Higher Strength Steels

    Bearing Steels

    Bearing Fatigue Testing

    Factors Affecting Fatigue Performance

    Modern Steelmaking Methods

    High-Speed Steels

    Role of Alloying Elements

    Heat Treatment

    Standard Specifications and Uses

    Maraging Steels


    Commercial Grades

    Corrosion Behavior


    Steels for Steam Power Turbines

    Turbine Casings

    HP and IP Rotors

    LP Rotors

    Turbine Generator End Rings

    Turbine Bolts

    Turbine Blades

    Medium-High-Carbon Pearlitic Steels

    Rail Steels

    Rail Steel Specifications

    Wear Resistance of Rails

    Austenitic 14% Mn Rails

    Micro-Alloy Forging Steels

    Metallurgical Considerations

    Commercial Exploitation

    Controlled Processed Bars

    Normalized Steels

    Quenched and Tempered Steels

    High-Carbon Wire Rod

    Rod Rolling and Conditioning

    Wire Drawing

    Micro-Alloy High-Carbon Rod

    5 Stainless Steels


    Composition-Structure Relationships

    Iron-Chromium Alloys

    Iron-Chromium-Nickel Alloys

    Other Alloy Additions

    Commercial Grades of Stainless Steels

    Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Controlled Transformation Stainless Steels

    Steel Prices

    Corrosion Resistance

    Intergranular Corrosion

    Pitting Corrosion

    Stress Corrosion Cracking

    High-Alloy Stainless Steels

    High-Alloy Austenitic/Duplex Grades

    High-Alloy Ferritic Grades

    Welding of Stainless Steels

    Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Variable Weld Penetration

    Cold Working of Stainless Steels

    Role of Alloying Elements

    Work Hardening of Commercial Grades

    Optimization of Cold-Forming Properties

    Mechanical Properties at Elevated and Sub-Zero Temperatures

    Tensile Properties

    Impact Properties

    Steels for Boilers and Pressure Vessels

    Steel Specifications

    Pressure Vessel Codes

    Steels for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Steels for Low-Temperature Applications

    Steels in Fossil-Fired Power Plant

    Boiler Layout and Operation

    Steel Selection

    Co-Extruded Tubing

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Equipment

    Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Corrosion/Abrasion-Resistant Grades

    Automotive Exhausts/Catalytic Converters

    Architectural Applications

Product details

  • No. of pages: 314
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1994
  • Published: March 26, 1992
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144764

About the Author

D. T. Llewellyn

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