Steel and Its Heat Treatment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408709347, 9781483163369

Steel and Its Heat Treatment

1st Edition

Bofors Handbook

Authors: Karl-Erik Thelning
eBook ISBN: 9781483163369
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 584
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Steel and its Heat Treatment: Bofors Handbook describes the fundamental metallographic concepts, materials testing, hardenability, heat treatment, and dimensional changes that occur during the hardening and tempering stages of steel. The book explains the boundaries separating the grain contents of steel, which are the low-angle grain boundaries, the high-angle grain boundaries, and the twinning boundaries. Engineers can determine the hardenability of steel through the Grossman test or the Jominy End-Quench test. Special hardening and tempering methods are employed for steel that are going to be fabricated into tools. The different methods of hardening are manual hardening for a small surface (the tip of a screw); spin hardening for objects with a rotational symmetry (gears with 5 modules or less); and progressive hardening (or a combination with spin hardening) for flat surfaces. The hardening and tempering processes cause changes in size and shape of the substance. The text presents examples of dimensional changes during the hardening and tempering of tool steels such as those occurring in plain-carbon steels and low-alloy steels. The book is a source of reliable information needed by engineers, tool and small equipment designers, as well as by metallurgists, structural, and mechanical engineers.

Table of Contents

1 Fundamental Metallographic Concepts

1.1 The Transformation and Crystal Structures of Iron

1.2 The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

1.2.1 Heating

1.2.2 Cooling

1.3 Time-Temperature-Transformation

1.3.1 Heating

1.3.2 Cooling

1.3.3 Formation of Pearlite

1.3.4 Formation of Bainite

1.3.5 Formation of Martensite

1.3.6 Retained Austenite

1.3.7 TTT Diagrams

1.4 Decomposition of Martensite and Retained Austenite on Tempering

1.5 Diffusion

1.5.1 The Nature of Diffusion

1.5.2 Factors that Influence the Rate of Diffusion

1.5.3 Calculation of Diffusion Distance

1.6 Dislocations

1.7 Grain Size

1.7.1 Grain Boundaries

1.7.2 Methods of Determining Grain Size

1.7.3 Examples of Grain Size Determinations

2 Materials Testing

2.1 The Hardness Test

2.1.1 The Brinell Test

2.1.2 The Vickers Test

2.1.3 The Knoop Test

2.1.4 The Rockwell Test

2.1.5 The Scleroscope Test

2.1.6 Conversion Tables for Various Scales of Hardness

2.2 The Tensile Test

2.2.1 Comparison Between Mechanical Properties Obtained According to Different Specifications

2.3 The Impact Test

2.4 The Torsion Impact Test

2.5 The Fatigue Test

2.5.1 Fatigue in General

2.5.2 Test Procedure

2.5.3 Different Types of Fatigue Fractures

2.5.4 Goodman Diagram

2.5.5 Endurance Limit—Ultimate Tensile Strength

2.5.6 Surface Finish

2.5.7 Influence of Change of Section

2.5.8 Ways of Increasing the Endurance Limit

2.6 The Creep Test

2.7 Brittle and Ductile Fractures

2.8 Fracture Toughness

2.8.1 The Implication of Fracture Toughness

3 Alloying Elements in Steel

3.1 Solids

3.1.1 Austenite-Forming Elements

3.1.2 Ferrite-Forming Elements

3.1.3 Multi-Alloyed Steels

3.1.4 Carbide-Forming Elements

3.1.5 Carbide Stabilizers

3.1.6 Nitride-Forming Elements

3.1.7 Effect on Ferrite Hardness

3.1.8 Effect on Grain Growth

3.1.9 Effect on the Eutectoid Point

3.1.10 Effect on the Temperature of Martensite Formation

3.1.11 Effect on the Formation of Pearlite and Bainite during the Isothermal Transformation

3.1.12 Effect on Resistance to Tempering

3.2 Gases

3.2.1 Hydrogen

3.2.2 Nitrogen

3.2.3 Oxygen

3.3 New Steelmaking Processes

3.3.1 Vacuum Remelting

3.3.2 Electroslag Refining

3.3.3 Vacuum Degassing

3.3.4 The Bofors Method of Sulphur Removal

3.3.5 Effect of Sulphur on the Properties of Steel

4 Hardenability

4.1 General Remarks

4.2 The Grossmann Hardenability Test

4.2.1 Calculation of Di-Values from Chemical Composition

4.3 The Jominy End-Quench Hardenability Test

4.3.1 Calculation of Jominy Curves from the Chemical Composition

4.3.2 Practical Applications of Jominy Curves

4.4 Practical Application of the TTT and the CCT Diagrams

4.5 Practical Application of Hardenability

4.5.1 High Hardenability

4.5.2 Low Hardenability

4.6 The Influence of the Depth of Hardening on the Stress Pattern

5 Heat Treatment—General

5.1 Annealing

5.1.1 Annealing for Maximum Softness or Spheroidizing Anneal

5.1.2 Recrystallization Annealing

5.1.3 Stress-Relief Annealing

5.1.4 Isothermal Annealing

5.1.5 Quench Annealing

5.1.6 Homogenizing Annealing

5.1.7 Hydrogen Annealing

5.1.8 Hydrogen Expulsion

5.2 Normalizing

5.3 Hardening

5.3.1 Heating Media

5.3.2 Rate of Heating

5.3.3 Hardening Temperature

5.3.4 Holding Time at Temperature

5.3.5 Methods of Cooling

5.3.6 Quenching Media

5.3.7 Quenching Equipment

5.4 Tempering

5.4.1 Heating to Temperature

5.4.2 Rate of Heating

5.4.3 Holding Time

5.4.4 Double Tempering

5.4.5 Temper Brittleness

5.5 Transformation of Retained Austenite

5.6 Precipitation Hardening

5.7 Straightening

5.8 Machining Allowances

6 Heat Treatment—Special

6.1 Hardening and Tempering of Tool Steels

6.1.1 Carbon Steels and Vanadium-Alloyed Steels

6.1.2 Low-Alloy Cold-Work Steels

6.1.3 Low-Alloy Cold-Work and Hot-Work Steels

6.1.4 High-Alloy Cold-Work Steels

6.1.5 Hot-Work Steels

6.1.6 High-Speed Steels

6.2 Quenching and Tempering of Constructional Steels

6.2.1 Definitions

6.2.2 Plain Carbon Steels

6.2.3 Alloy Steels

6.2.4 Stainless Steels

6.2.5 Spring Steels

6.2.6 High-Strength Steels

6.2.7 Hadfield Steel

6.3 Case Hardening

6.3.1 Definitions

6.3.2 Grades of Steel

6.3.3 Methods of Carburizing

6.3.4 Influence of Heat Treatment and Steel Composition on Case Depth, Surface Hardness and Core Hardness

6.3.5 Recommendations for Case Hardening

6.3.6 Case Hardening of Tool Steels

6.3.7 Protecting Against Carburization (Selective Carburizing)

6.3.8 Choice of Case-Hardening Depth

6.4 Nitriding

6.4.1 Methods of Nitriding

6.4.2 Comparison Between Gas and Salt-Bath Nitriding

6.4.3 Nitridability

6.4.4 Determination of Depth of Nitriding

6.4.5 Nitriding Different Types of Steel

6.4.6 Properties of Nitrided Steels

6.5 Carbonitriding

6.5.1 Definition

6.5.2 Theoretical Background

6.5.3 Conclusions

6.6 Induction Hardening

6.6.1 Fundamental Principles

6.6.2 Steel Grades for Induction Hardening

6.6.3 Equipment for Induction Hardening

6.6.4 Working Coils and Fixtures

6.6.5 Procedure During Induction Hardening

6.6.6 The Influence of Various Factors on Hardness and Depth of Hardening

6.6.7 Examples of Induction-Hardened Machine Components

6.6.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Induction Hardening

6.7 Flame Hardening

6.7.1 Methods of Hardening

6.7.2 Hardness and Depth of Hardening

6.7.3 Examples of Flame-Hardened Machine Components and Tools

7 Dimensional Changes during Hardening and Tempering

7.1 Dimensional Changes during Hardening

7.1.1 Thermal Stresses

7.1.2 Transformation Stresses

7.2 Dimensional Changes during Tempering

7.2.1 Changes in Volume

7.2.2 Changes in Stress Conditions

7.3 Examples of Dimensional Changes during the Hardening and Tempering of Tool Steels

7.3.1 Plain Carbon Steels

7.3.2 Low-Alloy Steels

7.3.3 High-Alloy Cold-Work Steels

7.3.4 Hot-Work Steels

7.3.5 High-Speed Steels

7.4 Dimensional Changes during Case Hardening

7.5 Dimensional Changes during Nitriding

7.6 Ageing

7.7 Designing for Heat Treatment

8 Tables

8.1 Some Steel Standard Specifications and Comparable Bofors and Uddeholm (UHB) Steels

Table 8.1 American Steel Standard Specifications

Table 8.2 British Steel Standard Specifications

Table 8.3 German Steel Standard Specifications

Table 8.4 Swedish Steel Standard Specifications

Table 8.5 Afnor Designations (French)

Table 8.6 ASSAB Designations (Associated Swedish Steels AB)

8.2 Weight Tables for Steel Bars

Table 8.7 Round and Square Bars. Metric Units

Table 8.8 Hexagonal and Octagonal Bars. Metric Units

Table 8.9 Flat Bars, 10 to 40 mm. Metric Units

Table 8.10 Flat Bars, 45 to 130 mm. Metric Units

Table 8.11 Flat Bars, 140 to 350 mm. Metric Units

Table 8.12 Round and Square Bars. Inch Units

Table 8.13 Hexagonal and Octagonal Bars. Inch Units

Table 8.14 Flat Bars, Width 3/8 to 1/2 in. Inch Units

Table 8.15 Flat Bars, Width 1 5/8 to 5 in. Inch Units

Table 8.16 Flat Bars, Width 5 1/2 to 15 in. Inch Units

8.3 Conversion Tables for Temperature

Table 8.17 Conversion Table for °Celsius (Centigrade) and °Fahrenheit

8.4 Conversion Table for Size

Table 8.18 Inches to Millimetres

Table 8.19 Decimals of Inches to Millimetres

8.5 Conversion Tables for Weight (Mass)

Table 8.20 Pounds to Kilogrammes

Table 8.21 British Units to Kilogrammes

8.6 Conversion Table for Stress (Pressure)

Table 8.22 Tons Per Square Inch to Kiloponds Per Square Millimetre

Table 8.23 Tons Per Square Inch to Newtons Per Square Millimetre

Table 8.24 Kiloponds Per Square Millimetre to Newtons Per Square Millimetre

Table 8.25 Pounds Per Square Inch to Kiloponds Per Square Millimetre

8.7 Conversion Tables for Energy

Table 8.26 Kilopond Metres to Footpounds

Table 8.27 Footpounds to Kilopond Metres

Table 8.28 Kilopond Metres to Joules

Table 8.29 Footpounds to Joules

8.8 Conversion Table for Fracture Toughness Units

Table 8.30 Fracture Toughness Units

8.9 Conversions for Some Common Units

Table 8.31 Common SI Units to British Units

Table 8.32 Common Non-SI Units to British Units

Table 8.33 Non-SI Metric Units to SI Units

8.10 Elements

Table 8.34 Atomic Number and Atomic Weight



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About the Author

Karl-Erik Thelning

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