Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics

Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics

Prepared under the Direction of the American Institute of Biological Sciences for the Office of Information Services, United States Atomic Energy Commission

1st Edition - January 1, 1974

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  • Editors: Cornelius A. Tobias, Paul Todd
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273860

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Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of space radiation biology. This book discusses space radiation hazards as well as the importance of natural radiations in the processes of biogenesis. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of radiobiology. This text then discusses the theoretical treatments of the chronic radiation response and the applicability of some of its features in extended manned space missions. Other chapters review the literature on models for recovery from radiation damage to some cellular systems. This book discusses as well the effects of radiations on mammals, with emphasis on those effects pertinent to the space-flight situation. The final chapter deals with the safety of nuclear power in space and explains the three types of nuclear devices designed for power production in space. This book is a valuable resource for radiologists, radiobiologists, and radiotherapists.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Chapter 1. Historical Survey of Space Radiation Biology

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Radiation from beyond the Earth

    1.3 Radiation around the Earth

    1.4 Particles from the Sun

    1.5 Study of Space Radiation Hazards

    1.6 Space Radiations in Chemical and Biological Evolution


    Chapter 2. Radiation Physics and Evaluation of Current Hazards

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Sources of Radiation

    2.3 Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    2.4 Dose and Dose-Rate Profiles in Space Flight

    2.5 Trapped Particle Dose Profiles

    2.6 Active Shielding Concepts

    2.7 Planetary Radiation Environments

    2.8 Summary


    Chapter 2A. Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

    2A.1 General Features of Solar Radiation

    2A.2 Solar Radio Emissions

    2A.3 Solar X-Rays

    2A.4 Solar Ultraviolet Radiation


    Chapter 3. Particle Irradiation Methods

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Heavy Charged-Particle Properties

    3.3 Detectors

    3.4 Beam Measurements

    3.5 Irradiation Techniques

    3.6 Future Accelerator Capabilities


    Chapter 4. Cellular Radiation Biology

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Molecules of Biological Interest

    4.3 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Viruses

    4.4 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Microorganisms

    4.5 Genetic Effects of Heavy Charged Particles

    4.6 Effects of Heavy Charged Particles on Mammalian Cells in Vitro

    4.7 Summary of Heavy Charged-Particle Effects

    4.8 Effects of Radiations of Various LETs on Mammalian Cells in Vivo

    4.9 Some Heavy-Ion Experiments with Natural Radiation

    4.10 Cellular Effects of Ultraviolet Light


    Chapter 5. Radiation and Molecular and Biological Evolution

    5.1 Interactions of Radiations with the Earth's Atmosphere

    5.2 Radiation and Chemical Evolution

    5.3 Evolution of Genetic Information

    5.4 Radiation and the Evolution of Microorganisms

    5.5 Space Radiation and Evolutionary Catastrophes

    5.6 Radiation and Extraterrestrial Origins of Life


    Chapter 6. Magnetic Fields and Their Biological Effects

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Effects Involving Magnetic Fields, Electromotive Forces, and Moving Conductors

    6.3 Magnetic Effects on the Physical Chemistry of Biosystems

    6.4 Magnetic Field Observations on Organisms

    6.5 Conclusions and Future Paths of Inquiry


    Chapter 6A. Relevant Principles of Magnetism and Biomagnetics

    6A.1 Concept of Magnetism

    6A.2 Magnetic Field Definitions

    6A.3 Molecular Basis of Magnetism

    6A.4 Quantum Energetics

    6A.5 Chemical Bonding

    6A.6 Thermodynamics

    6A.7 Types of Magnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems

    6A.8 Proposed Molecular Mechanisms


    Chapter 7. Results of Radiobiological Experiments on Satellites

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Satellites

    7.3 Description of Experiments

    7.4 Results of Satellite Experiments

    7.5 Future Work


    Chapter 8. Mammalian Radiobiology and Space Flight

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Acute Radiation Syndrome

    8.3 Acute Central Nervous System Syndrome

    8.4 Gastrointestinal Syndrome

    8.5 Acute Hematopoietic Syndrome

    8.6 Prodromal Response

    8.7 General Cellular, Tissue, and Metabolic Effects

    8.8 Radiation Effects on Skin

    8.9 Effects of Radiation on Functional Performance

    8.10 Combined Stresses


    Chapter 9. Cireadian Rhythmometry of Mammalian Radiosensitivity

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Pitfalls in Radiobiological Rhythmometry

    9.3 Some New Results in Radiobiological Rhythmometry

    9.4 Conclusions


    Chapter 10. Human Radiation Tolerance

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Acute Radiation Syndrome

    10.3 Human Central Nervous System Syndrome

    10.4 Human Gastrointestinal Syndrome—Lethality

    10.5 Acute Hematopoietic Syndrome

    10.6 Prodromal Syndrome (Radiation Sickness)

    10.7 Other Tissue Radiation Effects in Man

    10.8 Quantitation of Human Radiation Tolerances

    10.9 Multiple Exposures

    10.10 Radiation Policy in Space


    Chapter 11. Mathematical Models of Mammalian Radiation Response for Space Applications

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Existing Physiological Recovery Models

    11.3 Longevity—Observations and Models

    11.4 Radiation Exposure Status


    Chapter 11A. Cell Kinetics and Radiation Recovery Models

    11A.1 Introduction

    11A.2 Sacher's Division Delay Model

    11A.3 Von Foerster Equation

    11A.4 Diffusion Equation Model

    11A.5 State Vector Model

    11A.6 Monte Carlo Model

    11A.7 Age Transfer Model

    11A.8 Summary


    Chapter 12 Current Topics in Space Radiation Biology

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Artificial Radiation Sources in Space

    12.3 Radiation and Weightlessness

    12.4 Phosphenes in Space Flight

    12.5 Soviet View of Space Radiation Hazards and Policies

    12.6 Cosmic Abiogenesis


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 664
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1974
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273860

About the Editors

Cornelius A. Tobias

Paul Todd

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