Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126918502, 9781483273860

Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics

1st Edition

Prepared under the Direction of the American Institute of Biological Sciences for the Office of Information Services, United States Atomic Energy Commission

Editors: Cornelius A. Tobias Paul Todd
eBook ISBN: 9781483273860
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1974
Page Count: 664
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Description

Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of space radiation biology. This book discusses space radiation hazards as well as the importance of natural radiations in the processes of biogenesis.

Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of radiobiology. This text then discusses the theoretical treatments of the chronic radiation response and the applicability of some of its features in extended manned space missions. Other chapters review the literature on models for recovery from radiation damage to some cellular systems. This book discusses as well the effects of radiations on mammals, with emphasis on those effects pertinent to the space-flight situation. The final chapter deals with the safety of nuclear power in space and explains the three types of nuclear devices designed for power production in space.

This book is a valuable resource for radiologists, radiobiologists, and radiotherapists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1. Historical Survey of Space Radiation Biology

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Radiation from beyond the Earth

1.3 Radiation around the Earth

1.4 Particles from the Sun

1.5 Study of Space Radiation Hazards

1.6 Space Radiations in Chemical and Biological Evolution

References

Chapter 2. Radiation Physics and Evaluation of Current Hazards

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sources of Radiation

2.3 Interaction of Radiation with Matter

2.4 Dose and Dose-Rate Profiles in Space Flight

2.5 Trapped Particle Dose Profiles

2.6 Active Shielding Concepts

2.7 Planetary Radiation Environments

2.8 Summary

References

Chapter 2A. Solar Electromagnetic Radiation

2A.1 General Features of Solar Radiation

2A.2 Solar Radio Emissions

2A.3 Solar X-Rays

2A.4 Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

References

Chapter 3. Particle Irradiation Methods

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Heavy Charged-Particle Properties

3.3 Detectors

3.4 Beam Measurements

3.5 Irradiation Techniques

3.6 Future Accelerator Capabilities

References

Chapter 4. Cellular Radiation Biology

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Molecules of Biological Interest

4.3 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Viruses

4.4 Heavy-Particle Irradiation of Microorganisms

4.5 Genetic Effects of Heavy Charged Particles

4.6 Effects of Heavy Charged Particles on Mammalian Cells in Vitro

4.7 Summary of Heavy Charged-Particle Effects

4.8 Effects of Radiations of Various LETs on Mammalian Cells in Vivo

4.9 Some Heavy-Ion Experiments with Natural Radiation

4.10 Cellular Effects of Ultraviolet Light

References

Chapter 5. Radiation and Molecular and Biological Evolution

5.1 Interactions of Radiations with the Earth's Atmosphere

5.2 Radiation and Chemical Evolution

5.3 Evolution of Genetic Information

5.4 Radiation and the Evolution of Microorganisms

5.5 Space Radiation and Evolutionary Catastrophes

5.6 Radiation and Extraterrestrial Origins of Life

References

Chapter 6. Magnetic Fields and Their Biological Effects

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Effects Involving Magnetic Fields, Electromotive Forces, and Moving Conductors

6.3 Magnetic Effects on the Physical Chemistry of Biosystems

6.4 Magnetic Field Observations on Organisms

6.5 Conclusions and Future Paths of Inquiry

References

Chapter 6A. Relevant Principles of Magnetism and Biomagnetics

6A.1 Concept of Magnetism

6A.2 Magnetic Field Definitions

6A.3 Molecular Basis of Magnetism

6A.4 Quantum Energetics

6A.5 Chemical Bonding

6A.6 Thermodynamics

6A.7 Types of Magnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems

6A.8 Proposed Molecular Mechanisms

References

Chapter 7. Results of Radiobiological Experiments on Satellites

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Satellites

7.3 Description of Experiments

7.4 Results of Satellite Experiments

7.5 Future Work

References

Chapter 8. Mammalian Radiobiology and Space Flight

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Acute Radiation Syndrome

8.3 Acute Central Nervous System Syndrome

8.4 Gastrointestinal Syndrome

8.5 Acute Hematopoietic Syndrome

8.6 Prodromal Response

8.7 General Cellular, Tissue, and Metabolic Effects

8.8 Radiation Effects on Skin

8.9 Effects of Radiation on Functional Performance

8.10 Combined Stresses

References

Chapter 9. Cireadian Rhythmometry of Mammalian Radiosensitivity

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Pitfalls in Radiobiological Rhythmometry

9.3 Some New Results in Radiobiological Rhythmometry

9.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 10. Human Radiation Tolerance

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Acute Radiation Syndrome

10.3 Human Central Nervous System Syndrome

10.4 Human Gastrointestinal Syndrome—Lethality

10.5 Acute Hematopoietic Syndrome

10.6 Prodromal Syndrome (Radiation Sickness)

10.7 Other Tissue Radiation Effects in Man

10.8 Quantitation of Human Radiation Tolerances

10.9 Multiple Exposures

10.10 Radiation Policy in Space

References

Chapter 11. Mathematical Models of Mammalian Radiation Response for Space Applications

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Existing Physiological Recovery Models

11.3 Longevity—Observations and Models

11.4 Radiation Exposure Status

References

Chapter 11A. Cell Kinetics and Radiation Recovery Models

11A.1 Introduction

11A.2 Sacher's Division Delay Model

11A.3 Von Foerster Equation

11A.4 Diffusion Equation Model

11A.5 State Vector Model

11A.6 Monte Carlo Model

11A.7 Age Transfer Model

11A.8 Summary

References

Chapter 12 Current Topics in Space Radiation Biology

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Artificial Radiation Sources in Space

12.3 Radiation and Weightlessness

12.4 Phosphenes in Space Flight

12.5 Soviet View of Space Radiation Hazards and Policies

12.6 Cosmic Abiogenesis

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
664
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1974
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483273860

About the Editor

Cornelius A. Tobias

Paul Todd