Sound and Structural Vibration - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123736338

Sound and Structural Vibration

2nd Edition

Radiation, Transmission and Response

Authors: Frank Fahy Paolo Gardonio
Paperback ISBN: 9780123736338
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th December 2006
Page Count: 656
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The first edition of Sound and Structural Vibration was written in the early 1980s. Since then, two major developments have taken place in the field of vibroacoustics. Powerful computational methods and procedures for the numerical analysis of structural vibration, acoustical fields and acoustical interactions between fluids and structures have been developed and these are now universally employed by researchers, consultants and industrial organisations. Advances in signal processing systems and algorithms, in transducers, and in structural materials and forms of construction, have facilitated the development of practical means of applying active and adaptive control systems to structures for the purposes of reducing or modifying structural vibration and the associated sound radiation and transmission. In this greatly expanded and extensively revised edition, the authors have retained most of the analytically based material that forms the pedagogical content of the first edition, and have expanded it to present the theoretical foundations of modern numerical analysis. Application of the latter is illustrated by examples that have been chosen to complement the analytical approaches to solving fairly simple problems of sound radiation, transmission and fluid-structural coupling that are presented in the first edition. The number of examples of experimental data that relate to the theoretical content, and illustrate important features of vibroacoustic interaction, has been augmented by the inclusion of a selection from the vast amount of material published during the past twenty five years. The final chapter on the active control of sound and vibration has no precursor in the first edition.

Key Features

  • Covers theoretical approaches to modeling and analysis
  • Highly applicable to challenges in industry and academia
  • For engineering students to use throughout their career


For undergraduates, postgraduates and those working in sound and vibration studies

Table of Contents

List of Contents

Preface to First Edition

Preface to Second Edition



Chapter One

  1. Wave in Fluids and Structures

1.1 Frequency and Wavenumber 1.2 Sound Waves in Fluids 1.3 Longitudinal Waves in Solids 1.4 Quasi-longitudinal Waves in Solids 1.5 Transverse (Shear) Waves in Solids 1.6 Bending Waves in Bars 1.7 Bending Waves in Thin Plates 1.8 Dispersion Curves 1.9 Flexural Waves in Thin-walled Circular Cylindrical Shells 1.10 Natural frequencies and Modes of Vibration 1.11 Forced Vibration Resonance 1.12 Modal density and Modal Overlap 1.13 The Role of Modal Density in Vibroacoustics


Chapter Two

  1. Structural Mobility, Impedance, Vibrational Energy and Power

2.1 Mobility and Impedance Representations 2.2 Concepts and General Forms of Mobility and Impedance of Lumped Mechanical Elements 2.3 Mobility Functions of Uniform Beams in Bending 2.3.1 Infinite beam 2.3.2 Finite beam (closed form) 2.3.3 Finite beam (modal summation) 2.4 Mobility and Impedance Functions of Thin Uniform Flat Plates 2.4.1 Infinite plate 2.4.2 Finite plate 2.5 Radial Driving-point Mobility of Thin-walled Circular Cylindrical Shells 2.6 Mobility and Impedance Matrix Models 2.7 Structural Power 2.8 Energy Density and Energy Flux of Vibrational Waves


Chapter Three

  1. Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures

3.1 The Importance and Mechanism of Sound Radiation by Vibrating Structures 3.2 The Simple Volume Source 3.3 Sound Radiation by a Pair of Elementary Surface Sources 3.4 The Baffled Piston 3.5 Sound Radiation by Flexural Modes of Plates 3.6 Sound Radiation by Plates in Multi-mode Flexural Vibration 3.6.1 Formulation in terms of structural modes 3.6.2 Formulation in terms of elementary radiators 3.7 Independent Radiation Modes 3.7.1 Formulation in terms of structural modes 3.7.2 Formulation in terms of elementary radiators 3.7.3 Radiation modes and efficiencies 3.7.4 A comparison of self- and mutual radiation by plate modes 3.8 Sound Radiation by Flexural Waves in Plates 3.9 The Frequency-average Radiation Efficiency of Plates 3.10 Sound Radiation Due to Concentrated Forces and Displacements 3.11 Sound Radiation by Non-uniform plate structures 3.11.1 Beam-stiffened plates 3.11.2 Corrugated plates 3.11.3 Sandwich plates 3.11.4 Composite sound insulation panels 3.12 Sound Radiation by Curved Shells 3.13 Sound Radiation by Irregularly Shaped Vibrating Bodies


Chapter Four

  1. Fluid Loading of Vibrating Structures

4.1 Practical Aspects of Fluid Loading 4.2 Pressure Fields on Vibrating Surfaces 4.3 Wave Impedances of Structures and Fluids 4.4 Fluid Loading of Vibrating Plates 4.5 Natural Frequencies of Fluid-loaded Plates 4.6 Effects of Fluid loading on Sound Radiation from Point-excited Plates 4.7 Natural Frequencies of Fluid-loaded, Thin-walled, Circular Cylindrical Shells 4.8 Effects of Fluid Loading on Sound radiation by Thin-walled, Circular Cylindrical Shells 4.9 Damping of Thin Plates by Porous Sheets


Chapter Five

  1. Transmission of Sound Through Partitions

5.1 Practical Aspects of Sound Transmission through Partitions 5.2 Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Partition 5.3 Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Flexible Partition 5.4 Transmission of Diffuse Sound through a Bounded Partition in a Baffle 5.5 Transmission of Sound through a Partition between Two Rooms 5.6 Double-leaf Partitions 5.7 Transmission of Normally Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Double-leaf partition 5.8 The Theoretical Effect of Cavity Sound Absorption on Normal Incidence Transmission Loss 5.9 Transmission of Obliquely Incident Plane Waves through an Unbounded Double-leaf Partition 5.10 Mechanical Stiffening and Coupling of Double Partition Leaves 5.11 Close-fitting Enclosures 5.12 Transmission of Sound through Stiffened, Composite, Multi-layer and Non-uniform Panels 5.13 Transmission of Sound through Circular Cylindrical Shells 5.14 Coupling between Shell Modes and Acoustic Modes of a Contained Fluid 5.15 Vibrational Response of Pipes to Internal Acoustic Excitation 5.16 Transmission of Internally Generated Sound through Pipe Walls 5.17 Transmission of Externally Incident Sound through Large-diameter, Thin-walled Cylinders


Chapter Six

  1. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures

6.1 Practical Aspects of Acoustically Induced Vibration 6.2 Decomposition of a Sound Field 6.3 Response of a Baffled Plate to Plane Sound Waves 6.4 The Principle of Vibroacoustic Reciprocity 6.5 Modal Reciprocity: Radiation and Response 6.6 Radiation Due to Point Forces and Response to Point Sources 6.7 An Application of Response Theory to Building Acoustics


Chapter Seven

  1. Acoustic Coupling between Structures and Enclosed Volumes of Fluid

7.1 Practical Importance of the Problem 7.2 A Simple Case of Fluid-Structure Interaction 7.3 Harmonic Sound Fields in an Enclosed Volume of Fluid 7.4 Sound Field in a Closed Space with Rigid Surfaces 7.5 Interaction by Green’s Function 7.6 Modal-interaction model 7.7 Solutions of the Modal-interaction Model 7.8 Power Flow and Statistical Energy Analysis 7.9 Wave Propagation in Plates Loaded by Confined Fluid Layers 7.10 Wave Propagation in Fluid-filled Tubes of Circular Cross Section


Chapter Eight

  1. Introduction to Numerically Based Analyses of Fluid-Structure Interaction

8.1 The Role of Numerical Analysis 8.2 Numerical Analysis of Vibration in Solids and Fluids 8.3 Finite Element Analysis 8.4 Finite Element Analysis of Vibrations in Solid Structures 8.4.1 Flexural vibration of slender beams: Rayleigh-Ritz method 8.4.2 Flexural vibration of slender beams: Finite Element Analysis 8.4.3 Flexural vibration of thin plates :Finite Element Analysis 8.4.4 Finite element models for other types of structure 8.5 Finite Element Analysis of Acoustic Vibration of Fluids in Cavities 8.5.1 One-dimensional acoustic vibration of a fluid in a uniform straight pipe:Rayleigh-Ritz method 8.5.2 One-dimensional acoustic vibration of a fluid in a uniform straight pipe: Finite Element Analysis 8.5.3 Acoustic vibration of a fluid in a three-dimensional cavity: Finite Element Analysis 8.6 Coupled Fluid-Structure Analysis 8.7 Boundary Element Analysis for Vibroacoustic Problems 8.7.1 Direct Boundary Element Method 8.8 Coupled Structure-Fluid Analysis


Chapter Nine

  1. Introduction to Active Control of Sound Radiation and Transmission

9.1 Introduction to Active Control 9.2 Fundamentals of Active Control Theory 9.2.1 Feed-forward control 9.2.2 Feedback control 9.3 Sensor-Actuator Transducers 9.3.1 Strain actuators 9.3.2 Inertial electro-dynamic actuators 9.3.3 Strain sensors 9.3.4 Inertial sensors (accelerometers) 9.4 From Active Noise Control to Active Structural Acoustic Control and Active Vibration Control 9.4.1 Feed-forward Active Noise Control (ANC) and Active Noise-Vibration Control (ANVC) 9.4.2 Feed-forward Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) 9.4.3 Feedback Active Structural Acoustics Control (ASAC) 9.4.4 Decentralised Feedback Active Vibration Control (AVC) 9.5 Smart Panels for ASAC and AVC Systems 9.5.1 Models of smart panels 9.5.2 Smart panels with feed-forward MIMO and SISO control system 9.5.3 Smart panel ` with feed-forward SISO control systems using a volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator 9.5.4 Smart panels with feedback MIMO and SISO control systems 9.5.5 Smart panel with feedback SISO control system using a volume velocity sensor and uniform force actuator


Answers to Questions



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About the Author

Frank Fahy

Frank Fahy has been teaching and researching at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, Southampton, England, for nearly forty years. He is Emeritus Professor of Engineering Acoustics, signifying both his training and professionalmotivation. He is a Rayleigh Medal holder and Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Acoustics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton, UK

Paolo Gardonio

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Sound and Vibrational Research, University of Southampton, UK


"This book is an outstanding contribution to the acoustics and vibration literature. Although it is written at an advanced level, almost anyone undertaking serious work in acoustics or vibration is sure to learn something of value by reading it. However, for researchers and PhD students working in acoustics and vibration, it is an essential reference and well worth the cost." -Colin H. Hansen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide