Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis

Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis

Butterworths Monographs in Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1978

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  • Author: Malcolm S. Cresser
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161143

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Description

Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis provides an introductory discussion on the technique of solvent extraction in flame spectrometry. The book is comprised of six chapters the cover the various aspects and applications of solvent extraction. The text first covers the role of solvent extraction in flame spectrometric analysis, and then proceeds to describing the solvent suitable for flame spectrometry. Next, the book discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of the solvent extraction technique. The text also covers the application of the technique on various elements. The book will be of great use to researchers and professionals who require a good understanding of the various techniques in spectrometry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    The Role of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometric Analysis

    Flame Emission Spectrometry

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Other Uses of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometry

    Existing Applications of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometry

    References

    Solvents Suitable for Flame Spectrometry

    Nebulization Rate

    Nebulization Efficiency

    Solvent Combustion Characteristics

    Solvent Toxicity and Handling Characteristics

    Salting Out

    High Extraction Efficiency

    Solvent Availability and Purity

    The Final Choice

    Solvents for Use with Electrothermal Atomizers

    Flame-Heated Cups and Boats

    Solvent Extractants as Liquid Fuels

    Some Comments on Solvent Nomenclature

    Ketones

    Esters

    Alcohols

    Ethers

    Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Nitro-Compounds

    Chlorinated Solvents

    Other Solvents 38

    Conclusions

    References

    Some theoretical aspects

    Partition Coefficient

    Distribution Ratio

    Percentage Extraction

    Extraction Systems

    Effect of pH on Chelate Extraction Systems

    Metal Chelates as Extractants

    Observations on Possible Interference Mechanisms

    Kinetic Aspects

    Importance of Temperature

    Flame Spectrometry in the Investigation of Extraction Systems

    References

    Some Practical Spects

    Apparatus Requirements

    Need for Rigid pH Control

    Factors Governing Choice of Extraction Ratio

    Salting Out

    Sample Handling and Preparation

    Contamination

    Losses of Trace Elements

    Some Side-Effects of Solvent Extraction

    Optimization of Flame Conditions

    Handling and Storage of Organic Solvents

    Preparation of Standards and Blanks

    Stability of Reagents and Standards

    Drying and Centrifugation of Extracts

    Methods of Improving Selectivity

    Checking Recovery

    Methods for Studying Solvent Enhancement Effects

    References

    Applications

    Aluminum

    Antimony

    Arsenic

    Barium

    Beryllium

    Bismuth

    Boron

    Bromine

    Cadmium

    Cesium

    Calcium

    Cerium

    Chlorine

    Chromium

    Cobalt

    Copper

    Fluorine

    Gallium

    Germanium

    Gold

    Hafnium

    Indium

    Iodine

    Iridium

    Iron

    Lead

    Lithium

    Magnesium

    Manganese

    Mercury

    Molybdenum

    Nickel

    Niobium

    Osmium

    Palladium

    Phosphorus

    Platinum

    Rare Earths

    Rhenium

    Rhodium

    Ruthenium

    Scandium

    Selenium

    Silicon

    Silver

    Strontium

    Tantalum

    Tellurium

    Thallium

    Thorium

    Tin

    Titanium

    Tungsten

    Uranium

    Vanadium

    Yttrium

    Zinc

    Zirconium

    References

    Scope for Future Applications and Developments

    Special Facilities

    Pulse Nebulization

    Safety Aspects

    Alternative Techniques

    The Need for a Systematic Approach

    A Cautionary Note

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 210
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1978
  • Published: January 1, 1978
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483161143

About the Author

Malcolm S. Cresser

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