Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408713078, 9781483161143

Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis

1st Edition

Butterworths Monographs in Chemistry

Authors: Malcolm S. Cresser
eBook ISBN: 9781483161143
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 210
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Description

Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectroscopic Analysis provides an introductory discussion on the technique of solvent extraction in flame spectrometry. The book is comprised of six chapters the cover the various aspects and applications of solvent extraction. The text first covers the role of solvent extraction in flame spectrometric analysis, and then proceeds to describing the solvent suitable for flame spectrometry. Next, the book discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of the solvent extraction technique. The text also covers the application of the technique on various elements.
The book will be of great use to researchers and professionals who require a good understanding of the various techniques in spectrometry.

Table of Contents


Preface

The Role of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometric Analysis

Flame Emission Spectrometry

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

Other Uses of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometry

Existing Applications of Solvent Extraction in Flame Spectrometry

References

Solvents Suitable for Flame Spectrometry

Nebulization Rate

Nebulization Efficiency

Solvent Combustion Characteristics

Solvent Toxicity and Handling Characteristics

Salting Out

High Extraction Efficiency

Solvent Availability and Purity

The Final Choice

Solvents for Use with Electrothermal Atomizers

Flame-Heated Cups and Boats

Solvent Extractants as Liquid Fuels

Some Comments on Solvent Nomenclature

Ketones

Esters

Alcohols

Ethers

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Nitro-Compounds

Chlorinated Solvents

Other Solvents 38

Conclusions

References

Some theoretical aspects

Partition Coefficient

Distribution Ratio

Percentage Extraction

Extraction Systems

Effect of pH on Chelate Extraction Systems

Metal Chelates as Extractants

Observations on Possible Interference Mechanisms

Kinetic Aspects

Importance of Temperature

Flame Spectrometry in the Investigation of Extraction Systems

References

Some Practical Spects

Apparatus Requirements

Need for Rigid pH Control

Factors Governing Choice of Extraction Ratio

Salting Out

Sample Handling and Preparation

Contamination

Losses of Trace Elements

Some Side-Effects of Solvent Extraction

Optimization of Flame Conditions

Handling and Storage of Organic Solvents

Preparation of Standards and Blanks

Stability of Reagents and Standards

Drying and Centrifugation of Extracts

Methods of Improving Selectivity

Checking Recovery

Methods for Studying Solvent Enhancement Effects

References

Applications

Aluminum

Antimony

Arsenic

Barium

Beryllium

Bismuth

Boron

Bromine

Cadmium

Cesium

Calcium

Cerium

Chlorine

Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Fluorine

Gallium

Germanium

Gold

Hafnium

Indium

Iodine

Iridium

Iron

Lead

Lithium

Magnesium

Manganese

Mercury

Molybdenum

Nickel

Niobium

Osmium

Palladium

Phosphorus

Platinum

Rare Earths

Rhenium

Rhodium

Ruthenium

Scandium

Selenium

Silicon

Silver

Strontium

Tantalum

Tellurium

Thallium

Thorium

Tin

Titanium

Tungsten

Uranium

Vanadium

Yttrium

Zinc

Zirconium

References

Scope for Future Applications and Developments

Special Facilities

Pulse Nebulization

Safety Aspects

Alternative Techniques

The Need for a Systematic Approach

A Cautionary Note

Index


Details

No. of pages:
210
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483161143

About the Author

Malcolm S. Cresser