Solidification and Solid-State Transformations of Metals and Alloys

Solidification and Solid-State Transformations of Metals and Alloys

1st Edition - March 16, 2017

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  • Authors: Maria Jose Quintana Hernandez, Jose Antonio Pero-Sanz, LuisFelipe Verdeja
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128126073
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128126080

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Solidification and Solid-State Transformations of Metals and Alloys describes solidification and the industrial problems presented when manufacturing structural parts by casting, or semi-products for forging, in order to obtain large, flat or specifically shaped parts. Solidification follows the nucleation and growth model, which will also be applied in solid-state transformations, such as those taking place because of changes in solubility and allotropy or changes produced by recrystallization. It also explains the heat treatments that, through controlled heating, holding and cooling, allow the metals to have specific structures and properties. It also describes the correct interpretation of phase diagrams so the reader can comprehend the behaviour of iron, aluminium, copper, lead, tin, nickel, titanium, etc. and the alloys between them or with other metallic or metalloid elements. This book can be used by graduate and undergraduate students, as well as physicists, chemists and engineers who wish to study the subject of Metallic Materials and Physical Metallurgy, specifically industrial applications where casting of metals and alloys, as well as heat treatments are relevant to the quality assurance of manufacturing processes. It will be especially useful for readers with little to no knowledge on the subject, and who are looking for a book that addresses the fundamentals of manufacturing, treatment and properties of metals and alloys.

Key Features

  • Uses theoretical formulas to obtain realistic data from industrial operations
  • Includes detailed explanations of chemical, physical and thermodynamic phenomena to allow for a more accessible approach that will appeal to a wider audience
  • Utilizes micrographs to illustrate and demonstrate different solidification and transformation processes


Undergraduate and graduate students of the Materials Science and Technology area, and physicists, chemists, and engineers; technical staff in industry

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Solidification of Metals

    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Metals
    • 1.2 From the Gaseous State to the Crystalline State
    • 1.3 Crystalline Systems for Metals
    • 1.4 Solidification Temperature

    Chapter 2: Phase Transformation Kinetics

    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Surface Free Energy
    • 2.2 Homogeneous Nucleation and Critical Nucleus Size
    • 2.3 Discontinuous Nature of Solidification
    • 2.4 Solidification of a Metal by Continuous Cooling

    Chapter 3: Total Insolubility and Solubility in Alloys

    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Total Insolubility Between Two Metals (A and B)
    • 3.2 Solubility

    Chapter 4: Invariant Solidification

    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 System at Equilibrium and the Phase Rule
    • 4.3 Binary Eutectic Reaction
    • 4.4 Binary Peritectic Reaction
    • 4.5 Binary Monotectic Reaction
    • 4.6 Binary Sintectic Reaction
    • 4.7 Other Invariant Reactions
    • 4.8 Computational Calculation Methods (CALPHAD)

    Chapter 5: Nonequilibrium Solidification and Chemical Heterogeneities

    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Unidirectional Solidification and Zone Melting Solidification
    • 5.2 Macrosegregation
    • 5.3 Microsegregation
    • 5.4 Nonequilibrium by Eutectic and Peritectic Reactions

    Chapter 6: Physical Heterogeneities in Solidification

    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Factors That Influence the Columnar Structure
    • 6.2 Contraction Caused by Solidification
    • 6.3 Evolution of Gasses During Solidification
    • 6.4 Moldability

    Chapter 7: Equilibrium Transformations

    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Transformations Caused by Solubility Variations
    • 7.2 Transformations Caused by Allotropic Changes
    • 7.3 Transformations Caused by Allotropy and Solubility Changes
    • 7.4 Order/Disorder Transformations

    Chapter 8: Solid-State Transformations in the Fe-C System

    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Equilibrium Transformations in the Metastable Fe-C System
    • 8.2 Nonequilibrium Transformations of Austenite During Cooling
    • 8.3 Heat Treatments

    Chapter 9: Ternary Systems

    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Interpretation of Ternary Diagrams
    • 9.2 Ternary Diagrams in Metallography

Product details

  • No. of pages: 382
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: March 16, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128126073
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128126080

About the Authors

Maria Jose Quintana Hernandez

María José Quintana, PhD has an European Doctorate in Science and Technology of Materials from the University of Oviedo (Spain), and is a professor and researcher in the Materials group in the Panamerican University (Mexico). Dr. Quintana works on subjects of molding, thermomechanical treatments of steels, superplasticity of metals, microscopy and mechanical properties of materials, among others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Panamericana, Mexico City, Mexico

Jose Antonio Pero-Sanz

The late José Antonio Pero-Sanz, PhD (2012) had a Doctorate in Engineering from the University of Barcelona (Spain). He was a founding member of the International Metallographic Society (USA), a fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (UK) and Membre d'Honneur of the Société Française de Métallurgie et des Matériaux. He consulted on Physical Metallurgy matters for the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as well as for Arcelor Mittal-Europe and was a member of the Conseil Scientifique des Usines Renault. Dr. Pero-Sanz was the Head of Research for more than 30 years of the Materials group in the Oviedo and Madrid Schools of Mines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Doctorate in Engineering, University of Barcelona, Spain

LuisFelipe Verdeja

Luis Felipe Verdeja, PhD has a Doctorate in Chemical Sciences from the University of Oviedo (Spain), and is a professor of Materials Science in the University of Oviedo as well as Head of the Siderurgy, Metals and Materials Group (Sid-Met-Mat). Professor Verdeja is the author of various books such as Metalurgia Extractiva and Materiales Refractarios y Cerámicos (in both Spanish and English versions: Refractory and Ceramic Materials). His work is related to steels and aids for the industry, such as refractories and other non-metallic materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Materials Science, University of Oviedo, Spain

Ratings and Reviews

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  • Luis F. Wed Jan 09 2019

    Excellent book about the fundamentals of materials science.

    This is an extraordinary book written by three Spanish authors over a period of about 50 years. The second half of the 20th century was a golden age for physical metallurgy – dislocation theory, alloy equilibrium diagrams, nuclear power, high temperature alloys, strength to weight ratio alloys. The book is intended for undergraduate students of physical metallurgy, chemistry, and engineering. It considers all fundamentals that determine the close relationship between structure and properties and specific applications of metals and alloys. Starting with the attraction between atoms, it tables the crystallography and density of every metal, but swiftly narrows down to the more common commercial metals. The important fundamental parameters are dealt with, one formula at a time. There are 80 exercises with worked solutions over nine chapters that are effective in making the design or quality engineer think about safety factors, combined stresses, and surface area to volume ratios. The first deals with the enthalpy of aluminium gas, while the last ensures the reader can calculate the amounts of the constituents of a practical aluminium ternary alloy. Chapter three – titled total solubility and insolubility in alloys – precedes a third of the book that deals with solidification and its practical consequences such as segregation, soundness, hot tearing, and castability. This is where the book gets closest to industrial metallurgy and economic production. The chapter titled Solid-state transformations in the Fe-C system in effect gives ferrous metallurgy substantial coverage. It is a solidly laboratory point of view, the worked examples have expanded and suggest one of the contributors worked on transformation diagrams for low alloy steels. This is a readable book with well-chosen illustrations and examples. It is a very good laboratory techniques argument that makes pertinent points about design, materials selection, and industrial production without venturing further into product quality, lifetime exposure, and economic consequences.