Solar Power And Fuels - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121123505, 9780323158428

Solar Power And Fuels

1st Edition

Editors: James R. Bolton
eBook ISBN: 9780323158428
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1977
Page Count: 270
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Description

Solar Power and Fuels presents the proceedings of the First International Conference on the Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, held at the University of Western Ontario on August 24–28, 1976. This book explores the various possibilities for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy.

Organized into eight chapters, this compilation of papers begins with an overview of the chemical utilization of solar energy through systems in which the quanta of radiation from the sun are utilized in atomic or molecular systems that undergo chemical changes. This text then examines the various ways in which biological/solar systems could be realized to varying degrees over the short and long term. Other chapters consider the electron-transfer processes in which excited states of molecules react with molecules. This book discusses as well the systems where the photochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte. The final chapter deals with the intermittent availability of solar radiation.

This book is a valuable resource for photochemists, photobiologists, and scientists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Gabriel Stein—1920-1976

Chapter 1 Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy

Chemical Utilization and Storage of Solar Quantum Energy

The Future Role of Wind, Photosynthetic Biomass and Hydro—Electric Power

Solar Energy Utilization for Heating and Cooling and the Need for Electricity as such

Electricity Generation from Solar Power

Photoelectrochemical Cells

Semiconductor Devices Based on Photosynthetic Apparatus Models

Homogeneous Chemical Systems for Solar Energy Utilization

Photogalvanic Devices

Photosensitized Water-Splitting in Homogeneous Solutions

Thermally Assisted Photochemical Reactions and Photochemically Assisted Thermal Reactions

Some Conclusions

References

Chapter 2 Will Photosynthesis Solve the Energy Problem?

Introduction

Energy Available

Efficiency of Photosynthesis

Areas Required for Solar Power

Food versus Fuel

Leaf Protein

Energy Plantations

Cellulose

Waste Disposal

Greenhouse Production

Plant Selection and Breeding

Regulation of Plant Reactions and Products

Nitrogen Fixation

Biocatalytic Hydrogen Production Systems

Carbon Reduction

Artificial Chlorophyll Membranes

Bacteriorhodopsin Membranes

Concluding Remarks

References

Comments

Chapter 3 Electron Transfer in Heterogeneous Photochemical Reactions

Introduction

Energy Considerations

Reactions of the Hydrated Electron with Acceptors in Micelles

Reactions of Radicals and Radical Anions with Acceptors in Micelles

Reactions of Light Excited Molecules in Micelles

Electron Deficient States in Photochemical Reactions

Reactions in Submicellar Systems

References

Comments

Chapter 4 Power Generation by Photoelectrolysis

Introduction

Basic Processes at Semiconductor Electrodes

Redox Reactions and Energy Levels

The Semiconductor—Electrolyte Interface

The Effect of Illumination

The Source of Photoelectric Power

Photochemical Charge Separation

Charge Separation by Electric Field in the Semiconductor

Charge Separation at the Interface

The Result of Photoelectrolysis

Photoelectrolytic Cell for the Decomposition of Water

Energetic Conditions

Energy Conversion Efficiency

Combination of n- and p-type Semiconductors

Photoelectrolytic Cell as Direct Power Source

The Regenerative Mode of Operation

The Semiconductor Redox Electrolyte Photoelectrolytic Cell

Spectral Sensitization in Photoelectrolysis

The Stability of Illuminated Semiconductors

Summarizing Remarks

References

Comments

Chapter 5 Photogalvanic Processes

Definitions

Brief Description of a Prototypical Photogalvanic Converter, The Iron-Thionine Cell

Some Chemical Systems which have been Considered for Photogalvanic Converters

Processes and Figures of Merit in Photogalvanic Transducers without Capacity for Storage

Characterization of Processes in Iron—Thiazine Totally Illuminated—Thin Layer (TI-TL) Cells

Absorption of Sunlight; Sensitization

The Primary Quantum Yield of Charge Carriers in Solution, Φccs

Lifetime of Charge Carriers in Solution in the Photochemical Steady State, τccs

Φi, The Quantum Yield for Current Conversion

Limits on the Voltage Conversion Efficiency, Evc

Acknowledgment

References

Comments

Chapter 6 Photochemical Production of a Fuel

Introduction

Direct Intramolecular Photoreactions

Bimolecular Redox Processes

Photocatalyzed Systems

Conclusion

References

Comments

Chapter 7 Ultrathin Barriers and Solar Energy Conversion

Introduction

Ultrathin Barriers and Photosynthesis

Overview of Photosynthesis

The Thylakoid Membrane of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

Solid-State Mechanism of Photosynthesis

Ultrathin Barriers and Solar Cells

Photoeffect in Homogeneous Semiconductors

Photoeffect in Heterogeneous Semiconductors

Effect of Junction Thickness

Ultrathin Barriers and Pigmented Bilayer Lipid Membranes

The Bilayer Lipid Membrane System

Properties of Pigmented BLM

Dye Sensitized BLM

BLM Containing Bacteriorhodopsin

Excitation of Pigmented BLM by Pulsed Light

Mechanism of Energy Transduction in Pigmented BLM

Toward Construction of a Practical Device

References

Comments

Chapter 8 Organic Molecular Energy Storage Reactions

Introduction

General Aspects of Photochemical Systems Delivering Heat

General Limitations Applying to Endergonic Quantum Processes

Absorption of Radiation

Quantum and Chemical Yields

The Heat Contents of A and Β

The Temperature of the Exothermic Reaction

Examples of Thermally Reversible Endothermic Photoreactions

Photodimers of Anthracenes

Photodimers in the Naphthalene Series

Naphthalene-Diphenylacetylene Photoadducts

Dicyclopentadien-1-one

1-Ethoxycarbonyl-1H-azepine

Norbornadienes

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Comments

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
270
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323158428

About the Editor

James R. Bolton