Solar Power And Fuels

Solar Power And Fuels

1st Edition - January 28, 1977

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  • Editor: James R. Bolton
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158428

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Description

Solar Power and Fuels presents the proceedings of the First International Conference on the Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, held at the University of Western Ontario on August 24–28, 1976. This book explores the various possibilities for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy. Organized into eight chapters, this compilation of papers begins with an overview of the chemical utilization of solar energy through systems in which the quanta of radiation from the sun are utilized in atomic or molecular systems that undergo chemical changes. This text then examines the various ways in which biological/solar systems could be realized to varying degrees over the short and long term. Other chapters consider the electron-transfer processes in which excited states of molecules react with molecules. This book discusses as well the systems where the photochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte. The final chapter deals with the intermittent availability of solar radiation. This book is a valuable resource for photochemists, photobiologists, and scientists.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Gabriel Stein—1920-1976

    Chapter 1 Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy

    Chemical Utilization and Storage of Solar Quantum Energy

    The Future Role of Wind, Photosynthetic Biomass and Hydro—Electric Power

    Solar Energy Utilization for Heating and Cooling and the Need for Electricity as such

    Electricity Generation from Solar Power

    Photoelectrochemical Cells

    Semiconductor Devices Based on Photosynthetic Apparatus Models

    Homogeneous Chemical Systems for Solar Energy Utilization

    Photogalvanic Devices

    Photosensitized Water-Splitting in Homogeneous Solutions

    Thermally Assisted Photochemical Reactions and Photochemically Assisted Thermal Reactions

    Some Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 2 Will Photosynthesis Solve the Energy Problem?

    Introduction

    Energy Available

    Efficiency of Photosynthesis

    Areas Required for Solar Power

    Food versus Fuel

    Leaf Protein

    Energy Plantations

    Cellulose

    Waste Disposal

    Greenhouse Production

    Plant Selection and Breeding

    Regulation of Plant Reactions and Products

    Nitrogen Fixation

    Biocatalytic Hydrogen Production Systems

    Carbon Reduction

    Artificial Chlorophyll Membranes

    Bacteriorhodopsin Membranes

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 3 Electron Transfer in Heterogeneous Photochemical Reactions

    Introduction

    Energy Considerations

    Reactions of the Hydrated Electron with Acceptors in Micelles

    Reactions of Radicals and Radical Anions with Acceptors in Micelles

    Reactions of Light Excited Molecules in Micelles

    Electron Deficient States in Photochemical Reactions

    Reactions in Submicellar Systems

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 4 Power Generation by Photoelectrolysis

    Introduction

    Basic Processes at Semiconductor Electrodes

    Redox Reactions and Energy Levels

    The Semiconductor—Electrolyte Interface

    The Effect of Illumination

    The Source of Photoelectric Power

    Photochemical Charge Separation

    Charge Separation by Electric Field in the Semiconductor

    Charge Separation at the Interface

    The Result of Photoelectrolysis

    Photoelectrolytic Cell for the Decomposition of Water

    Energetic Conditions

    Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Combination of n- and p-type Semiconductors

    Photoelectrolytic Cell as Direct Power Source

    The Regenerative Mode of Operation

    The Semiconductor Redox Electrolyte Photoelectrolytic Cell

    Spectral Sensitization in Photoelectrolysis

    The Stability of Illuminated Semiconductors

    Summarizing Remarks

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 5 Photogalvanic Processes

    Definitions

    Brief Description of a Prototypical Photogalvanic Converter, The Iron-Thionine Cell

    Some Chemical Systems which have been Considered for Photogalvanic Converters

    Processes and Figures of Merit in Photogalvanic Transducers without Capacity for Storage

    Characterization of Processes in Iron—Thiazine Totally Illuminated—Thin Layer (TI-TL) Cells

    Absorption of Sunlight; Sensitization

    The Primary Quantum Yield of Charge Carriers in Solution, Φccs

    Lifetime of Charge Carriers in Solution in the Photochemical Steady State, τccs

    Φi, The Quantum Yield for Current Conversion

    Limits on the Voltage Conversion Efficiency, Evc

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 6 Photochemical Production of a Fuel

    Introduction

    Direct Intramolecular Photoreactions

    Bimolecular Redox Processes

    Photocatalyzed Systems

    Conclusion

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 7 Ultrathin Barriers and Solar Energy Conversion

    Introduction

    Ultrathin Barriers and Photosynthesis

    Overview of Photosynthesis

    The Thylakoid Membrane of the Photosynthetic Apparatus

    Solid-State Mechanism of Photosynthesis

    Ultrathin Barriers and Solar Cells

    Photoeffect in Homogeneous Semiconductors

    Photoeffect in Heterogeneous Semiconductors

    Effect of Junction Thickness

    Ultrathin Barriers and Pigmented Bilayer Lipid Membranes

    The Bilayer Lipid Membrane System

    Properties of Pigmented BLM

    Dye Sensitized BLM

    BLM Containing Bacteriorhodopsin

    Excitation of Pigmented BLM by Pulsed Light

    Mechanism of Energy Transduction in Pigmented BLM

    Toward Construction of a Practical Device

    References

    Comments

    Chapter 8 Organic Molecular Energy Storage Reactions

    Introduction

    General Aspects of Photochemical Systems Delivering Heat

    General Limitations Applying to Endergonic Quantum Processes

    Absorption of Radiation

    Quantum and Chemical Yields

    The Heat Contents of A and Β

    The Temperature of the Exothermic Reaction

    Examples of Thermally Reversible Endothermic Photoreactions

    Photodimers of Anthracenes

    Photodimers in the Naphthalene Series

    Naphthalene-Diphenylacetylene Photoadducts

    Dicyclopentadien-1-one

    1-Ethoxycarbonyl-1H-azepine

    Norbornadienes

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Comments

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 270
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: January 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323158428

About the Editor

James R. Bolton

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