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Soil Remediation and Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127999371, 9780127999135

Soil Remediation and Plants

1st Edition

Prospects and Challenges

Editors: Khalid Hakeem Muhammad Sabir Munir Ozturk Ahmet Mermut
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127999371
eBook ISBN: 9780127999135
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd September 2014
Page Count: 752
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The soil is being contaminated continuously by a large number of pollutants. Among them, heavy metals are an exclusive group of toxicants because they are stable and difficult to disseminate into non-toxic forms. The ever-increasing concentrations of such pollutants in the soil are considered serious threats toward everyone’s health and the environment. Many techniques are used to clean, eliminate, obliterate or sequester these hazardous pollutants from the soil. However, these techniques can be costly, labor intensive, and often disquieting.

Phytoremediation is a simple, cost effective, environmental friendly and fast-emerging new technology for eliminating toxic heavy metals and other related soil pollutants. Soil Remediation and Plants provides a common platform for biologists, agricultural engineers, environmental scientists, and chemists, working with a common aim of finding sustainable solutions to various environmental issues. The book provides an overview of ecosystem approaches and phytotechnologies and their cumulative significance in relation to solving various environmental problems.

Key Features

  • Identifies the molecular mechanisms through which plants are able to remediate pollutants from the soil
  • Examines the challenges and possibilities towards the various phytoremediation candidates
  • Includes the latest research and ongoing progress in phytoremediation


Researchers, academics and advanced students in plant physiology, plant biochemistry, plant molecular biology, plant pathology, plant biochemistry, agronomy, soil science, crop science, environmental sciences, including environmental engineering, chemistry and microbiology, ecotoxicology, and pollution research, as well as consultants and companies in these areas

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Phytoremediation of Soils: Prospects and Challenges

  • Introduction
  • Technologies for Site Remediation
  • Phytoremediation
  • Heavy Metal Soil Pollutants and Use of Phytoremediation
  • Arsenic
  • Lead
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Cadmium
  • Mercury
  • Prospects for Phytoremediation
  • Challenges of Phytoremediation
  • Techniques for Genetic Improvement of Plants Used for Phytoremediation
  • Conclusion

Chapter 2. Soil Contamination with Metals: Sources, Types and Implications

  • Introduction
  • Heavy Metals
  • Effects of Heavy Metals in Soils and Plants
  • Risk Assessment Using Bioavailability and Bio-Accessibility Techniques
  • Control Measures
  • Conclusions

Chapter 3. Phytoremediation: A Promising Strategy on the Crossroads of Remediation

  • Introduction
  • Metal Pollutants and Human Health
  • Microbial-Based Remediation
  • Enhancing Bioremediation Through Genetic Engineering
  • Phytoremediation
  • Conclusions

Chapter 4. Phytoremediation: Mechanisms and Adaptations

  • Introduction
  • Phytoremediation and Mechanisms
  • Conclusions

Chapter 5. Phytoremediation: An Eco-Friendly Green Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation

  • Introduction
  • Plants’ Response to Heavy Metals
  • Factors Affecting Phytoremediation
  • Mechanism for Metal Detoxification
  • Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Chapter 6. Recent Trends and Approaches in Phytoremediation

  • Introduction
  • Phytoremediation Technologies
  • Genetic Engineering to Improve Phytoremediation
  • Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Chapter 7. Evaluation of Four Plant Species for Phytoremediation of Copper-Contaminated Soil

  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Summary, General Conclusion and Recommendation for Future Research

Chapter 8. Role of Phytoremediation in Radioactive Waste Treatment

  • Introduction
  • Radioactive Material and Safety
  • Classification and Categories
  • Management and Disposal
  • Transportation and Responsibility
  • Phytoremediation and Non-Plant Methods
  • Phytoremediation and Hyperaccumulation
  • Methods in Phytoremediation
  • Tolerance and Extraction
  • Uptake and Distribution
  • Wetlands and Aquatic Phytoremediation
  • Treatment, Evaluation and Objectives
  • Costs and Economics
  • Transgenic Phytoremediation
  • Conclusions and Future Directions

Chapter 9. Plant–Microbe Interactions in Phytoremediation

  • Definition of Phytoremediation
  • Phytoremediation Applications
  • Interactions Between Plants and Microbes in Phytoremediation
  • Rhizosphere Microbiome
  • Stimulation of Plant Growth by Microbial Communities

Chapter 10. Soil Pollution in Turkey and Remediation Methods

  • Introduction
  • Land Use of Turkish Soils
  • Sources of Soil Pollution in Turkey
  • Remediation Methods for Polluted Soils
  • Remediation Studies in Turkey
  • Radioactive Pollution
  • Conclusion

Chapter 11. Soil Pollution Status and Its Remediation in Nepal

  • Introduction
  • Soil Characteristics
  • Soils of Nepal
  • Nutrient and Heavy Metal Status in the Soils of Nepal
  • Remediation of Toxicity from Soil
  • Remediation Studies on Removal of Toxicity in Soil of Nepal
  • Conclusions

Chapter 12. Transfer of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides from Soil to Vegetables and Plants in Bangladesh

  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusions

Chapter 13. Remediating Cadmium-Contaminated Soils by Growing Grain Crops Using Inorganic Amendments

  • Introduction
  • Natural Cadmium Levels in Soil
  • Sources of Cadmium Contamination of Agricultural Soils
  • Bioassessment of Cadmium in Soils
  • Factors Influencing the Accumulation of Cadmium in Crops
  • Cadmium Uptake and Accumulation in Plants
  • Plant Response To Cd Concentrations
  • Threshold Bio-Available Concentration of Cd
  • Remediation of Cd-Contaminated Soils
  • Conclusions

Chapter 14. Phytoremediation of Pb-Contaminated Soils Using Synthetic Chelates

  • Introduction
  • The Problem of Pb
  • Chelating Agents
  • Comparison of Synthetic Chelating Agents
  • Conclusions

Chapter 15. Spatial Mapping of Metal-Contaminated Soils

  • Introduction
  • Geophysical Techniques to Assess Spatial Variability
  • Geographic Information System
  • Inverse Weighted Distance
  • Krigging
  • Conclusions

Chapter 16. Arsenic Toxicity in Plants and Possible Remediation

  • Introduction
  • Sources of Arsenic Contamination in Soil and Environment
  • Status of Arsenic Toxicity in the World
  • Arsenic Hazard: A Bangladesh Perspective
  • Arsenic Uptake and Transportation in Plants
  • Plant Responses to Arsenic Toxicity
  • Antioxidant Defence in Plants in Response to Arsenic Stress
  • Remediation of Arsenic Hazards
  • Conclusion and Future Perspectives

Chapter 17. Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils Using Organic Amendments: Prospects and Challenges

  • Background
  • Sources of Metals
  • Role of OM in Phytoavailability of Metals
  • Organic Amendments and Phytoavailability of Metals in Contaminated Soils
  • Effect of Time on Decomposition of Organic Amendments and Metal Phytoavailability
  • Residual Effect of Organic Amendments on Metal Phytoavailability
  • Organic Acids and Metal Phytoavailability
  • Phytoremediation with Organic Amendments: Conclusion and Future Thrust

Chapter 18. Soil Contamination, Remediation and Plants: Prospects and Challenges

  • Introduction
  • Sources of Heavy Metals in Soil
  • Potential Risk of Heavy Metals to Soil
  • Soil Concentration Ranges and Regulatory Guidelines for Some Heavy Metals
  • Remediation of Contaminated Soil by Heavy Metals
  • Prevention of Heavy Metal Contamination
  • Traditional Remediation of Contaminated Soil
  • Management of Contaminated Soil
  • Classification of Heavy Metals
  • Sources of Heavy Metals in the Environment
  • Benefits of Heavy Metals to Plants
  • Future Prospects
  • Challenges
  • Conclusions

Chapter 19. Improving Phytoremediation of Soil Polluted with Oil Hydrocarbons in Georgia

  • Introduction
  • Characterization of Soil Types
  • Selection of Microorganisms
  • Selection of Plants
  • Determination of the Degree of Oxidative Degradation of Hydrocarbons
  • Revelation of Plant–Microbial Interaction
  • Model Experiments

Chapter 20. Remediation of Cd-Contaminated Soils: Perspectives and Advancements

  • Background and Introduction
  • Cadmium Emissions
  • Soil Dynamics, Retention and Availability of Metals
  • Dynamics of Cadmium in Soils
  • Influence of the Associated Cations and Anions on Cadmium Bioavailability in Soil
  • Response of Cd Towards Natural Elemental Inorganic Amendments
  • Organic Amendments Versus Cadmium-Contaminated Soils
  • Natural Organic Additives
  • Root Exudates and the Concept of Organic Acids as Natural Chelators
  • Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids and Cadmium Chelation
  • Efficacy of Synthetic Organic Chelating Agents Towards Cadmium
  • Recent Presented Reports Regarding Grain Crops
  • Conclusions and the Concept of Coupled Phytoremediation as a Future Perspective

Chapter 21. Phytoremediation of Radioactive Contaminated Soils

  • Introduction
  • Scope and Limitations
  • Major Sources of Radioactive Contaminants to Soil and Environment
  • Phytoremediation
  • Possible Roles of Phytoremediation
  • Important Radionuclides
  • Rhizofiltration
  • Non-Food Crops
  • Alternative Crops
  • Steps Involved in Remediation Programme Management
  • Major Steps in the Management of a Remediation Programme
  • Phytostabilization of Radionuclide Contaminated Soils
  • Remediation Actions Implementation

Chapter 22. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Serpentine Flora of Mersin-Findikpinari (Turkey) – Role of Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid in Facilitating Extraction of Nickel

  • Introduction
  • Materials and Methods
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusion

Chapter 23. Phytomanagement of Padaeng Zinc Mine Waste, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

  • Introduction
  • Phytomanagement of A Zinc-Mine-Industry-Ravaged Ecosystem
  • Phytomanagement for Sustainable Agriculture in the Vicinity of Mae Sot Zinc Mine
  • Feasible Options for the Management of Arable Lands Mine Tailing Water
  • Soil Remediation
  • Reduction of Cd in Crop Produce
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements

Chapter 24. Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Organic Carbon

  • Introduction: Importance of Soil Organic Matter
  • Pig Slurry Application
  • Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Organic Carbon
  • Conclusions


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© Academic Press 2015
2nd September 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editors

Khalid Hakeem

Affiliations and Expertise

Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Selangor, Malaysia

Muhammad Sabir

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Munir Ozturk

Dr. Ozturk is a Vice-President of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences from 2017 until 2021. He graduated from Kashmir University in India, specializing in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. He received his MSc from the same University in 1964. He obtained his PhD in 1971 and DSc in 1975 in Ecology and Environmental Sciences from Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Dr. Ozturk’s research interests include: Biomonitoring, Plant Eco-Physiology, Conservation of Plant Diversity, Biosaline Agriculture, Pollution and Medicinal/Aromatic Plants. His publications include over 50 books, nearly 70 book chapters, more than 200 papers in impact factor journals and more than 150 presentations in national and international conferences, workshops, symposium.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Botany, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey

Ahmet Mermut

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Soil Sciences, University of Saskatchwan, Canada

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