Soil Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956996, 9780323146586

Soil Biology

1st Edition

Editors: A Burgers
eBook ISBN: 9780323146586
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 542
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Description

Soil Biology brings together the microbiological, botanical, and zoological aspects of soil biology. Leading specialists provide critical reviews and assessments of their particular branches of soil biology, paying particular attention to functional aspects and biotic interrelationships whenever possible.
This volume is organized into 17 chapters and begins with an overview of the soil system, emphasizing the system components including the mineral fraction, organic matter, soil moisture, and soil atmosphere. The next chapters focus on microorganisms present in the soil, along with their effects on plant roots. The book also discusses the soil algae, including how algae are affected by physical and chemical environments and their interrelations with other organisms. The remaining chapters look at other organisms that inhabit the soil, including Arthropoda, Collembola, and Mollusca, as well as the probable effects of inhibiting substances upon the biology of soil microorganisms. The final chapters explain the decomposition of organic matter in the soil and the effects of synthetic chemicals on soil microorganisms.
This book is a valuable resource for soil biologists and research workers in fields such as botany, agriculture, zoology, and microbiology.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Foreword

1. The Soil System

I. Introduction

II. Components of the Soil System

References

2. Bacteria in Soil

I. Introduction

II. The Number of Bacteria in Soil

III. The Bacterial Biomass and its Spatial Requirement

IV. Respiratory Activity of Soil Bacteria

V. Factors Limiting Soil Bacterial Activity

VI. Distributional Patterns of Bacteria in Soils

VII. Moisture Requirements

VIII. Aeration Requirement

IX. Reaction and Temperature Requirements

X. Biotic Limitations on Bacterial Activity

XI. Patterns in Microbial Transformations

XII. The Priming Effect in Decomposition of Soil Humus

XIII. Some Proposed Groupings of the Soil Bacteria

XIV. Zymogenous and Autochthonous Floras

XV. The Predominant Bacteria in Soil

XVI. Other Bacteria Abundant in Soil

XVII. Well-known Genera not Abundantly Present in Soil

References

3. Fungi in Soil

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Study

III. The Fungi Occurring in Soil

IV. Factors Affecting Growth of Fungi in Soil

V. Conclusions

References

4. The Actinomycetes

I. General Introduction

II. Actinomycetes as Soil Organisms

References

5. Soil Algae

I. Abundance in and on Soil

II. Effects of Physical Environment

III. Effects of Chemical Environment

IV. Interrelations with Other Organisms

V. Effects on Soil

References

6. Protozoa

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. The Protozoan Fauna of Soil

IV. The Biology of Soil Protozoa

V. Relation to Vegetation and Other Soil Organisms

VI. The Role of Soil Protozoa

Acknowledgements

References

7. Nematoda

I. Introduction

II. Fundamental Problems of Nematode Taxonomy

III. Geographical Distribution

IV. Nematode Ecology

References

8. The Enchytraeidae

I. Introduction

II. The Extraction of Enchytraeidae from Soil

III. Feeding Habits of the Enchytraeidae

IV. Reproductive Biology of the Enchytraeidae

V. Population Ecology of the Enchytraeidae

VI. Aggregation in the Enchytraeidae

VII. Metabolic Activity of Enchytraeid Populations

References

9. Lumbricidae

I. Introduction

IL General Biology

III. Earthworm Populations—Biomass, Distribution and Regulation

IV. Effects of Earthworms on Soil Structure

V. Consumption of Plant Litter by Earthworms

VI. Effects of Earthworms on the Circulation of Plant Nutrients

VII. The Influence of Earthworms on Soil Micro-organisms

References

10. Arthropoda (Except Acari and Collembola)

I. General Aspects

II. Arthropod Groups

References

11. Acari

I. Introduction

II. Classification of Acari

III. Distribution and Dynamics

IV. Feeding Habits

V. Metabolism

References

12. Collembola

I. Introduction

II. Systematics

III. Geographical Distribution

IV. Life Cycles

V. Food

VI. Sampling and Extraction Techniques

VII. Horizontal Distribution

VIII. Vertical Distribution

IX. Seasonal Variations in Numbers

X. Collembola as Indicators of Soil Conditions

XL Population Densities

XII. Biomass and General Metabolism

XIII. The Effect of Climate on the Contribution to the Soil Turnover

XIV. The Role of Collembola in Sou Formation

References

13. Mollusca

I. Introduction

II. Feeding and Digestion

III. Locomotion

IV. Respiration

V. Excretion

VI. Ecology

References

14. The Importance of Antibiotics and Inhibiting Substances

I. Introduction

II. Existence in Soil

III. Properties of the Soil Toxicity

IV. Origin in Soil

V. Biological Significance in Soil

References

15. Soil Micro-Organisms and Plant Roots

I. Introduction

II. The Root Region

III. Conclusion

References

16. The Decomposition of Organic Matter in the Soil

I. Introduction

II. The Nature and the Amount of Litter

III. Initial Invasion of Tissues

IV. Decomposition Processes in the Litter

V. Chemical Changes During the Decomposition of the Litter

VI. Decomposition Processes in the Mineral Soil

References

17. Soil Micro-organisms and Plant Protection Chemicals

I. Introduction

II. Microbiological Decomposition of Herbicides

III. Microbiological Decomposition of Pesticides

IV. Conclusion

References

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
542
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323146586

About the Editor

A Burgers