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Smartphone Based Medical Diagnostics provides the theoretical background and practical applications for leveraging the strengths of smartphones toward a host of different diagnostics, including, but not limited to, optical sensing, electrochemical detection, integration with other devices, data processing, data sharing and storage. The book also explores the translational, regulatory and commercialization challenges of smartphone incorporation into point-of-care medical diagnostics and food safety settings.
- Presents the first comprehensive textbook on smartphone based medical diagnostics
- Includes a wide array of practical applications, including glucose monitoring, flow cytometry, rapid kit, microfluidic device, microscope attachment, and basic vital sign/activity monitoring
- Covers translational, regulatory and commercialization issues
Academics interested in sensors, biosensors, analytical chemistry, analytical biochemistry, biomedical imaging, and mobile health, including undergraduate students, graduate students, researchers, and faculty members at teaching and research universities and colleges; research scientists, engineers, and technicians at governmental research laboratories; governmental employees at regulatory agencies (e.g. US FDA, US CDC, etc.); professionals working on biosensors, diagnostic kits and devices, including research scientists, engineers, and marketing engineers in industry, especially start-up companies
1. Overview (Jeong-Yeol Yoon)
Overview of the entire book.
2. Basic principles of optical biosensor using a smartphone (Jeong-Yeol Yoon)
Using its white LED flash as a light source and its camera as an optical detector, smartphone can be used as an optical sensor system, primarily by photometry, but also by limited spectrometry. Basic principles of optical biosensors are covered in this chapter, with emphasis on smartphone utilization.
3. Basic principles of electrochemical biosensor using a smartphone (Jeong-Yeol Yoon)
Smartphone can also be used to receive current (amperometric) signals from an electrochemical biosensor. Basic principles of electrochemical biosensors are covered in this chapter, with emphasis on smartphone utilization.
4. Smartphone for glucose monitoring (Evangelyn Alocilja)
Smartphone can receive and store the readings from glucose meters as well as continuous glucose monitoring system, using wired (lightning or USB type C) or wireless (Bluetooth, WiFi, or LTE) connections. These results can be shared with the patient’s doctor. Glucose meter can also be integrated into a smartphone, known as "glucophone."
5. Smartphone for flow cytometry (Aydogan Ozcan)
One of the first demonstration in smartphone based medical diagnostics was its use for flow cytometry, where the light scattering detection system was replaced with a smartphone’s flash and camera.
6. Smartphone for rapid kits (Anna Pyayt)
The second generation of smartphone diagnostics was its use for quantifying band intensities from pregnancy tests, which has later been expanded to all sorts of lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (also known as rapid kits).
7. Smartphone based medical diagnostics with microfluidic devices (Hyun Chul Yoon)
More sophisticated diagnostics are possible through using microfluidic devices or lab-on-a-chip, where smartphone can also be used as an optical detector or an electrochemical detector.
8. Smartphone for monitoring wound (Bijan Najafi)
Smartphone can also collect visible (RGB) as well as near-infrared (NIR) images of a wound, to monitor their healing progress and possible infection and/or inflammation.
9. Smartphone based microscopes (Dongkyun Kang)
A microscope attachment can be added to the smartphone camera to provide a smartphone-based microscope. Through adding bandpass filters and separate LED light sources, smartphone-based fluorescence microscope can be constructed. Most recently, confocal microscope has also been built around a smartphone.
10. Smartphone for monitoring basic vital signs (Melanie Hingle)
Wearable devices such as smartwatches and activity trackers (e.g. Fitbit) can monitor and track important information related to patient’s health and activity levels, including pulse, blood oxygen saturation level, step count, distance walked or run, etc. Smartphone can do exactly the same. If these data are shared with clinicians or over community, it becomes a part of mobile health or mHealth applications.
11. Food safety applications (Tu San Park)
Smartphone based diagnostics can also be used for monitoring pathogens in variety of food and water, as well as evaluating food quality (electronic tongue or electronic nose).
12. Regulatory issues in medical diagnostic applications (TBD)
Regulatory requirements and approvals needed for translating smartphone based medical diagnostics to clinical healthcare are discussed.
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2020
- 1st November 2019
- Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN:
Professor Jeong-Yool Yoon received his Ph.D from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), in 2004. He is currently a tenured professor at the University of Arizona,editor-in-chief of the Journal of Biological Engineering (the official journal of Institute of Biological Engineering, published by BMC, part of Springer Nature), and was president of the Institute of Biological Engineering (Lexington, KY, USA). He is the author of 79 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 non-peer-reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters, and numerous conference proceedings, as well as of “Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors,” 1st and 2nd editions, 2013 and 2016, respectively, published by Springer. Professor Yoon is an expert in biosensors, smartphone-based optical biosensing, microfluidics, and lab-on-a-chip.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, USA