Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

Advanced Design, Performance, Materials and Applications

1st Edition - April 30, 2011

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  • Editor: R Beith
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697952
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857092755

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Description

Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems are a form of cogeneration technology suitable for domestic and community buildings, commercial establishments and industrial facilities, as well as local heat networks. One of the benefits of using cogeneration plant is a vastly improved energy efficiency: in some cases achieving up to 80–90% systems efficiency, whereas small-scale electricity production is typically at well below 40% efficiency, using the same amount of fuel. This higher efficiency affords users greater energy security and increased long-term sustainability of energy resources, while lower overall emissions levels also contribute to an improved environmental performance.Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the technological and practical developments of small and micro CHP systems.Part one opens with reviews of small and micro CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment, as well as their integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels. Part two focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines, gas turbines and microturbines, Stirling engines, organic Rankine cycle process and fuel cell systems. Heat-activated cooling (i.e. trigeneration) technologies and energy storage systems, of importance to the regional/seasonal viability of this technology round out this section. Finally, part three covers the range of applications of small and micro CHP systems, from residential buildings and district heating, to commercial buildings and industrial applications, as well as reviewing the market deployment of this important technology.With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an essential reference work for anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation and optimisation of small and micro CHP systems.

Key Features

  • Reviews small- and micro-CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment
  • Explores integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels
  • Focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines

Readership

Anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation, and optimization of small and micro CHP systems

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    Preface

    Part I: Introduction to small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Chapter 1: Overview of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction to cogeneration - a short history

    1.2 Types of technology and potential applications

    1.3 Energy efficiency improvement

    1.4 Cost benefits and emissions reduction

    1.5 Grid connection

    1.6 Barriers to combined heat and power (CHP)

    1.7 Future trends

    Chapter 2: Techno-economic assessment of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The economics of combined heat and power (CHP)

    2.3 Techno-economics for onsite generation

    2.4 A specific modelling methodology

    2.5 Case study: micro combined heat and power (CHP)

    2.6 Future trends

    2.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 3: Thermodynamics, performance analysis and computational modelling of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Types of combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    3.3 Thermodynamics of cogeneration

    3.4 Performance analysis of cogeneration cycles

    3.5 Theory of heat exchangers

    3.6 Worked example

    3.7 Computational modelling of a combined heat and power (CHP) cycle

    3.8 Analysis of the computational model of the combined heat and power (CHP) system

    3.9 Case study: system performance of a biogasdriven small combined heat and power (CHP) system in a sewage works

    3.10 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Integration of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems into distributed energy systems

    Abstract:

    4.1 Distributed energy resources (DER)

    4.2 The value of distributed generation

    4.3 Conditions for profitable decentralized generation

    4.4 Evaluating the ‘full value’ of being network connected

    4.5 Recommendations to distribution system operators (DSO) and regulators

    4.6 Acknowledgement

    Chapter 5: Biomass fuels for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: resources, conversion and applications

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Characterisation of solid biomass fuels

    5.3 Biomass conversion technologies

    5.4 Current development of small and micro scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) technologies

    5.5 Conclusions

    5.6 Acknowledgements

    Part II: Development of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems and technology

    Chapter 6: Internal combustion and reciprocating engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Types, properties and design of engine

    6.3 Engine operating characteristics and performance

    6.4 Installation and practical aspects

    6.5 Commercially available units

    6.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Microturbine systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Cycle performance

    7.3 Types and properties of microturbine components

    7.4 Operation

    7.5 Manufacturers and applications

    7.6 Future trends

    7.7 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 8: Stirling engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Definition of a Stirling engine

    8.3 Why Stirling engines are suited to micro combined heat and power (CHP)

    8.4 The Stirling cycle

    8.5 Types of Stirling engine

    8.6 Development of Stirling engines for micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    8.7 Micro combined heat and power (CHP) design and system integration

    8.8 Applications and future trends

    8.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 9: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat/waste fuel recovery systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Principle of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process

    9.3 Typical process heat sources and operating ranges for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems

    9.4 Benefits and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process as compared to waterbased systems

    9.5 Selection of working fluid for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems

    9.6 Process system alternatives

    9.7 Background and summary of commercial development and exploitation

    9.8 Efficiency and typical costs for current organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants

    Chapter 10: Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Fundamentals of operation, types and properties of fuel cells

    10.3 Fuel cell systems

    10.4 Operating conditions and performance

    10.5 Commercial development and future trends

    10.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 11: Heat-activated cooling technologies for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Introduction to small-scale trigeneration

    11.3 Types of cooling systems and their applications

    11.4 Open sorption cycles: desiccant dehumidification

    11.5 Closed sorption cycles: absorption and adsorption heat pumps

    11.6 Steam ejector cycle

    11.7 Component-specific efficiency and effectiveness metrics

    11.8 System-wide performance and efficiency metrics

    11.9 Advantages and limitations of heat-activated cooling

    11.10 Future trends

    11.11 Sources of further information and advice

    11.14 Appendix 1: Nomenclature and abbreviations

    11.15 Appendix 2: Notes on terminology

    Chapter 12: Energy storage for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Types of energy storage (ES) systems

    12.3 Applications of electrical energy storage

    12.4 Applications for combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    12.5 Grid services applications and relationship to combined heat and power (CHP)

    12.6 Electrical vehicles

    12.7 Large-scale and small-scale storage - conceptual planning

    12.8 The development and application of thermal storage

    12.9 Future trends

    12.10 Sources of further information and advice

    Part III: Application of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Chapter 13: Micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for residential and small commercial buildings

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Basic issues and energy requirements

    13.3 Types of system for residential and small commercial buildings

    13.4 Domestic applications for micro combined heat and power (CHP)

    13.5 Small commercial buildings and other potential applications

    13.6 Advantages and limitations

    13.7 Future trends

    13.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 14: District and community heating aspects of combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 How to get started

    14.3 Heat sources

    14.4 Pipework installation issues and design considerations

    14.5 Control system and consumer installations

    14.6 Case study: Lerwick, Shetland

    14.7 Case study: Aars, Denmark

    14.8 Future trends

    14.9 Sources for further information and advice

    Chapter 15: Small combined heat and power (CHP) systems for commercial buildings and institutions

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Basic issues and energy requirements

    15.3 Small combined heat and power (CHP) use in commercial buildings and institutions

    15.4 Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology

    15.5 Application of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology in buildings

    15.6 Performance analysis and optimisation

    15.7 Merits and limitations of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP)

    15.8 Future trends

    15.9 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 16: Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for the food and beverage processing industries

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Food processing and energy requirements - examples for specific food and drink industries

    16.3 Heat and power integration of food total sites

    16.4 Types of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) suitable for the food industry

    16.5 Established combined heat and power (CHP) technologies for the food industry

    16.6 High-efficiency technologies in theoretical and demonstration stages

    16.7 Integration of renewables and waste with food industry energy demands

    16.8 Potential applications

    16.9 Future trends

    16.10 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 17: Biomass-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: application and status in the United Kingdom

    Abstract:

    17.1 UK energy policy and targets

    17.2 Renewables and combined heat and power (CHP) in the UK

    17.3 Technical challenges for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    17.4 Capital costs for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    17.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 18: Thermal-engine-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for domestic applications: modelling micro-CHP deployment

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Prime movers deployed in micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) systems

    18.3 Product development in the micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) market

    18.4 Overview of the method for estimation of economical and environmental benefits from deployment of micro combined heat and power (MCHP) technology in buildings

    18.5 Heat demand modelling

    18.6 Electrical demand

    18.7 Performance mapping

    18.8 Economic and environmental analysis

    Epilogue

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: April 30, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697952
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857092755

About the Editor

R Beith

Mr Robert Beith is Managing Director of Beith & Associates Limited, and is an experienced energy and environment consultant. He holds Chartered Engineer status, and is a Fellow of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, the Energy Institute, and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Beith & Associates Ltd, UK

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