Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845697952, 9780857092755

Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

1st Edition

Advanced Design, Performance, Materials and Applications

Editors: R Beith
eBook ISBN: 9780857092755
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697952
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 30th April 2011
Page Count: 560
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Preface

Part I: Introduction to small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Chapter 1: Overview of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction to cogeneration - a short history

1.2 Types of technology and potential applications

1.3 Energy efficiency improvement

1.4 Cost benefits and emissions reduction

1.5 Grid connection

1.6 Barriers to combined heat and power (CHP)

1.7 Future trends

Chapter 2: Techno-economic assessment of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The economics of combined heat and power (CHP)

2.3 Techno-economics for onsite generation

2.4 A specific modelling methodology

2.5 Case study: micro combined heat and power (CHP)

2.6 Future trends

2.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: Thermodynamics, performance analysis and computational modelling of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Types of combined heat and power (CHP) systems

3.3 Thermodynamics of cogeneration

3.4 Performance analysis of cogeneration cycles

3.5 Theory of heat exchangers

3.6 Worked example

3.7 Computational modelling of a combined heat and power (CHP) cycle

3.8 Analysis of the computational model of the combined heat and power (CHP) system

3.9 Case study: system performance of a biogasdriven small combined heat and power (CHP) system in a sewage works

3.10 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 4: Integration of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems into distributed energy systems

Abstract:

4.1 Distributed energy resources (DER)

4.2 The value of distributed generation

4.3 Conditions for profitable decentralized generation

4.4 Evaluating the ‘full value’ of being network connected

4.5 Recommendations to distribution system operators (DSO) and regulators

4.6 Acknowledgement

Chapter 5: Biomass fuels for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: resources, conversion and applications

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Characterisation of solid biomass fuels

5.3 Biomass conversion technologies

5.4 Current development of small and micro scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) technologies

5.5 Conclusions

5.6 Acknowledgements

Part II: Development of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems and technology

Chapter 6: Internal combustion and reciprocating engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Types, properties and design of engine

6.3 Engine operating characteristics and performance

6.4 Installation and practical aspects

6.5 Commercially available units

6.6 Conclusions

Chapter 7: Microturbine systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cycle performance

7.3 Types and properties of microturbine components

7.4 Operation

7.5 Manufacturers and applications

7.6 Future trends

7.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 8: Stirling engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Definition of a Stirling engine

8.3 Why Stirling engines are suited to micro combined heat and power (CHP)

8.4 The Stirling cycle

8.5 Types of Stirling engine

8.6 Development of Stirling engines for micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

8.7 Micro combined heat and power (CHP) design and system integration

8.8 Applications and future trends

8.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 9: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat/waste fuel recovery systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principle of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process

9.3 Typical process heat sources and operating ranges for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems

9.4 Benefits and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process as compared to waterbased systems

9.5 Selection of working fluid for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems

9.6 Process system alternatives

9.7 Background and summary of commercial development and exploitation

9.8 Efficiency and typical costs for current organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants

Chapter 10: Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fundamentals of operation, types and properties of fuel cells

10.3 Fuel cell systems

10.4 Operating conditions and performance

10.5 Commercial development and future trends

10.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 11: Heat-activated cooling technologies for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Introduction to small-scale trigeneration

11.3 Types of cooling systems and their applications

11.4 Open sorption cycles: desiccant dehumidification

11.5 Closed sorption cycles: absorption and adsorption heat pumps

11.6 Steam ejector cycle

11.7 Component-specific efficiency and effectiveness metrics

11.8 System-wide performance and efficiency metrics

11.9 Advantages and limitations of heat-activated cooling

11.10 Future trends

11.11 Sources of further information and advice

11.14 Appendix 1: Nomenclature and abbreviations

11.15 Appendix 2: Notes on terminology

Chapter 12: Energy storage for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Types of energy storage (ES) systems

12.3 Applications of electrical energy storage

12.4 Applications for combined heat and power (CHP) systems

12.5 Grid services applications and relationship to combined heat and power (CHP)

12.6 Electrical vehicles

12.7 Large-scale and small-scale storage - conceptual planning

12.8 The development and application of thermal storage

12.9 Future trends

12.10 Sources of further information and advice

Part III: Application of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Chapter 13: Micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for residential and small commercial buildings

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Basic issues and energy requirements

13.3 Types of system for residential and small commercial buildings

13.4 Domestic applications for micro combined heat and power (CHP)

13.5 Small commercial buildings and other potential applications

13.6 Advantages and limitations

13.7 Future trends

13.8 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: District and community heating aspects of combined heat and power (CHP) systems

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 How to get started

14.3 Heat sources

14.4 Pipework installation issues and design considerations

14.5 Control system and consumer installations

14.6 Case study: Lerwick, Shetland

14.7 Case study: Aars, Denmark

14.8 Future trends

14.9 Sources for further information and advice

Chapter 15: Small combined heat and power (CHP) systems for commercial buildings and institutions

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Basic issues and energy requirements

15.3 Small combined heat and power (CHP) use in commercial buildings and institutions

15.4 Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology

15.5 Application of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology in buildings

15.6 Performance analysis and optimisation

15.7 Merits and limitations of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP)

15.8 Future trends

15.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 16: Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for the food and beverage processing industries

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Food processing and energy requirements - examples for specific food and drink industries

16.3 Heat and power integration of food total sites

16.4 Types of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) suitable for the food industry

16.5 Established combined heat and power (CHP) technologies for the food industry

16.6 High-efficiency technologies in theoretical and demonstration stages

16.7 Integration of renewables and waste with food industry energy demands

16.8 Potential applications

16.9 Future trends

16.10 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 17: Biomass-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: application and status in the United Kingdom

Abstract:

17.1 UK energy policy and targets

17.2 Renewables and combined heat and power (CHP) in the UK

17.3 Technical challenges for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems

17.4 Capital costs for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems

17.5 Conclusions

Chapter 18: Thermal-engine-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for domestic applications: modelling micro-CHP deployment

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Prime movers deployed in micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) systems

18.3 Product development in the micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) market

18.4 Overview of the method for estimation of economical and environmental benefits from deployment of micro combined heat and power (MCHP) technology in buildings

18.5 Heat demand modelling

18.6 Electrical demand

18.7 Performance mapping

18.8 Economic and environmental analysis

Epilogue

Index


Description

Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems are a form of cogeneration technology suitable for domestic and community buildings, commercial establishments and industrial facilities, as well as local heat networks. One of the benefits of using cogeneration plant is a vastly improved energy efficiency: in some cases achieving up to 80–90% systems efficiency, whereas small-scale electricity production is typically at well below 40% efficiency, using the same amount of fuel. This higher efficiency affords users greater energy security and increased long-term sustainability of energy resources, while lower overall emissions levels also contribute to an improved environmental performance.

Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the technological and practical developments of small and micro CHP systems.

Part one opens with reviews of small and micro CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment, as well as their integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels. Part two focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines, gas turbines and microturbines, Stirling engines, organic Rankine cycle process and fuel cell systems. Heat-activated cooling (i.e. trigeneration) technologies and energy storage systems, of importance to the regional/seasonal viability of this technology round out this section. Finally, part three covers the range of applications of small and micro CHP systems, from residential buildings and district heating, to commercial buildings and industrial applications, as well as reviewing the market deployment of this important technology.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an essential reference work for anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation and optimisation of small and micro CHP systems.

Key Features

  • Reviews small- and micro-CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment
  • Explores integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels
  • Focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines

Readership

Anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation, and optimization of small and micro CHP systems


Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857092755
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845697952

About the Editors

R Beith Editor

Mr Robert Beith is Managing Director of Beith & Associates Limited, and is an experienced energy and environment consultant. He holds Chartered Engineer status, and is a Fellow of the Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology, the Energy Institute, and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Affiliations and Expertise

Beith & Associates Ltd, UK