Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles

1st Edition

Authors: Randall German
Print ISBN: 9780124016828
eBook ISBN: 9780124016774
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 18th March 2014
Page Count: 544
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As sintering applications march toward a $30 billion global business, the models for sintering have progressed, but generally follow behind observation. Documentation of the steps needed to build to a quantitative and predictive theory are often missed. Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles partitions sintering applications and observations to show critical turning points required to establish modern sintering as a predictive science.

This book, written by the most cited author in his field, is laced with people, organizations, critical steps, and important formulations in a mixture of history, personalities, and applications. Exploring how insights in seemingly unrelated fields sparked progress, it is also a teaching tool to show where there is success, where there are problems, and how to organize teams to leapfrog to new applications or plateaus of use. Randall German's Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles is a platform for directly addressing the critical control parameters in these new research and development efforts.

Key Features

  • Shows how the theories and understanding of sintering were developed and improved over time, and how different products were developed, ultimately leading to important knowledge and lessons for solving real sintering problems
  • Covers all the necessary infrastructure of sintering theory and practice, such as atomic theory, surface energy, microstructure, and measurement and observation tools
  • Introduces the history and development of such early sintered products as porcelain, tungsten lamp filaments, bronze bearings, steel automotive components, platinum crucibles and more


Sintering professionals and researchers, product/process engineers, faculty, upper level undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical, materials, and metallurgical engineering

Table of Contents



Chapter One. Introduction




Sintering Techniques


Key Resources


Chapter Two. History of Sintering

Historical Milestones

Early Sintered Products

Interdependent Developments

Key Lessons from Sintering History


Chapter Three. Infrastructure Developments

Qualitative Sintering Theory

Emergence of Quantitative Sintering Concepts

Infrastructure Development

Experimental Tools

Organizational Advances


Status of Sintering Theory


Chapter Four. Measurement Tools and Experimental Observations

Changes During Sintering

Particle Bonding

Mechanical Properties

Dimensional Change

Density, Densification, Porosity


Magnetic Properties

Surface Area and Gas Permeability

Pore Structure


Thermal Properties



Chapter Five. Early Quantitative Treatments


Onset of Sintering Science

Copper Sintering


Chapter Six. Geometric Trajectories during Sintering


Stages of Sintering

Interface Curvature and Energy

Microstructure Changes

Macrostructure Changes–Component Size and Shape

Surface Area Trajectory



Chapter Seven. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Treatments

Curvature Gradients and Stress

Atmospheric Reactions

Mass Transport Mechanisms

Kinetic Relations

Processing Variables



Chapter Eight. Microstructure Coarsening


Grain Coarsening

Pore Structure Changes



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About the Author

Randall German

Professor German obtained his PhD from the University of California at Davis (1975), He is a Fellow of the American Society for Metals and Fellow of American Powder Metallurgy Institute. His awards include the Tesla Medal, Nanyang Professorship, Japan Institute for Materials Research Lectureship, Penn State Engineering Society Outstanding Research Award and Premiere Research Award, Distinguished Research Award from the Japan Society for Powder Metallurgy, Kuczynski Prize, and Samsonov Prize. He is listed in several Who's Who and serves as an editor or key reader for more than 20 journals and held several director positions, including two terms with APMI, and served on the Fellows Awards Committee of two professional societies. He has supervised 100 theses, published over 960 articles, 25 patents, and 16 books, including Mathematical Relations in Particulate Materials Processing (2008), Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials Processing (2005), Liquid Phase Sintering (1985), Sintering Theory and Practice (1996), and Powder Injection Molding - Design and Applications (2003). He has edited 19 books and co-chaired more than 30 conferences. Professor German's research and teaching deal with the net-shape fabrication of engineering materials via sintering techniques as used in powder metallurgy, cemented carbides, and ceramics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Dean of Engineering Research, College of Engineering, San Diego State University, CA, USA


"This book…is laced with people, organizations, critical steps, and important formulations in a mixture of history, personalities, and applications…it is also a teaching tool to show where there is success, where there are problems, and how to organize teams to leapfrog to new applications or plateaus of use.", July 15, 2014