Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles

Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles

1st Edition - February 7, 2014
This is the Latest Edition
  • Author: Randall German
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124016774
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124016828

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, PDF, EPub)
Available
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

As sintering applications march toward a $30 billion global business, the models for sintering have progressed, but generally follow behind observation. Documentation of the steps needed to build to a quantitative and predictive theory are often missed. Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles partitions sintering applications and observations to show critical turning points required to establish modern sintering as a predictive science. This book, written by the most cited author in his field, is laced with people, organizations, critical steps, and important formulations in a mixture of history, personalities, and applications. Exploring how insights in seemingly unrelated fields sparked progress, it is also a teaching tool to show where there is success, where there are problems, and how to organize teams to leapfrog to new applications or plateaus of use. Randall German's Sintering: From Empirical Observations to Scientific Principles is a platform for directly addressing the critical control parameters in these new research and development efforts.

Key Features

  • Shows how the theories and understanding of sintering were developed and improved over time, and how different products were developed, ultimately leading to important knowledge and lessons for solving real sintering problems
  • Covers all the necessary infrastructure of sintering theory and practice, such as atomic theory, surface energy, microstructure, and measurement and observation tools
  • Introduces the history and development of such early sintered products as porcelain, tungsten lamp filaments, bronze bearings, steel automotive components, platinum crucibles and more

Readership

Sintering professionals and researchers, product/process engineers, faculty, upper level undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical, materials, and metallurgical engineering

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    Chapter One. Introduction

    Context

    Perspectives

    Definitions

    Sintering Techniques

    Knowledge

    Key Resources

    References

    Chapter Two. History of Sintering

    Historical Milestones

    Early Sintered Products

    Interdependent Developments

    Key Lessons from Sintering History

    References

    Chapter Three. Infrastructure Developments

    Qualitative Sintering Theory

    Emergence of Quantitative Sintering Concepts

    Infrastructure Development

    Experimental Tools

    Organizational Advances

    Integration

    Status of Sintering Theory

    References

    Chapter Four. Measurement Tools and Experimental Observations

    Changes During Sintering

    Particle Bonding

    Mechanical Properties

    Dimensional Change

    Density, Densification, Porosity

    Conductivity

    Magnetic Properties

    Surface Area and Gas Permeability

    Pore Structure

    Microstructure

    Thermal Properties

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Five. Early Quantitative Treatments

    Introduction

    Onset of Sintering Science

    Copper Sintering

    References

    Chapter Six. Geometric Trajectories during Sintering

    Overview

    Stages of Sintering

    Interface Curvature and Energy

    Microstructure Changes

    Macrostructure Changes–Component Size and Shape

    Surface Area Trajectory

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Seven. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Treatments

    Curvature Gradients and Stress

    Atmospheric Reactions

    Mass Transport Mechanisms

    Kinetic Relations

    Processing Variables

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Eight. Microstructure Coarsening

    Introduction

    Grain Coarsening

    Pore Structure Changes

    Coarsening Interactions

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Nine. Sintering With a Liquid Phase

    Overview

    Conceptual Developments

    Microstructure Development

    Preliquid Stage

    Liquid Formation

    Solution-Reprecipitation

    Final Stage Solid Skeletal Sintering

    Transient Liquids

    Supersolidus Sintering

    Reactive Liquids

    Infiltration Sintering

    Activated Liquid Phase Sintering

    Practical Aspects

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Ten. Sintering With External Pressure

    Role of External Pressure

    Thermal Softening

    Pressure Effects

    Diffusion and Creep

    Multiple Mechanism Densification Rates

    Density and Mechanism Maps

    Microstructure Evolution

    Pressure Application Techniques

    Densification Limitations

    References

    Chapter Eleven. Mixed Powders and Composites

    Importance

    Physical Interactions

    Chemical Interactions

    Solubility Role

    Co-fire, Laminated, and Bimaterial Sintering

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Twelve. Rapid Heating Approaches

    Introduction

    Early Demonstrations

    Nanoscale Options

    Rapid Heating Techniques

    Exothermic

    Supplemental Pressure

    Prospects

    References

    Chapter Thirteen. Nanoscale Sintering

    Overview

    Role of Particle Size

    Sintering Temperature

    Unchanged Thermodynamics

    Time-Temperature-Particle Size

    Models versus Experiment

    Solution Windows

    Two-Step Sintering

    Opportunities

    References

    Chapter Fourteen. Computer Models

    Introduction

    Procedures

    Data Requirements

    Atomistic Calculations

    Reshaping Models

    Physical Event Models

    Monte Carlo Methods

    Continuum Models and Finite Element Analysis

    Discrete Element Method

    Master Sintering Curve

    Neural Networks

    Summary Comments

    References

    Chapter Fifteen. Sintering Practice

    Critical Metrics

    Control Parameters

    Atmosphere

    Equipment

    Cycles

    Costs

    Examples

    Summary

    References

    Chapter Sixteen. Future Prospects for Sintering

    Linkages

    New Materials

    New Applications

    New Processes

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 544
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2014
  • Published: February 7, 2014
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124016774
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124016828
  • About the Author

    Randall German

    Professor German obtained his PhD from the University of California at Davis (1975), He is a Fellow of the American Society for Metals and Fellow of American Powder Metallurgy Institute. His awards

    include the Tesla Medal, Nanyang Professorship, Japan Institute for Materials Research

    Lectureship, Penn State Engineering Society Outstanding Research Award and Premiere

    Research Award, Distinguished Research Award from the Japan Society for Powder Metallurgy,

    Kuczynski Prize, and Samsonov Prize. He is listed in several Who's Who and serves as an editor

    or key reader for more than 20 journals and held several director positions, including two terms

    with APMI, and served on the Fellows Awards Committee of two professional societies.

    He has supervised 100 theses, published over 960 articles, 25 patents, and 16 books, including Mathematical Relations in Particulate Materials Processing (2008), Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials Processing (2005), Liquid Phase Sintering (1985), Sintering Theory and Practice (1996), and Powder Injection Molding - Design and Applications (2003). He has edited 19 books and co-chaired more than 30 conferences.

    Professor German's research and teaching deal with the net-shape fabrication of engineering materials via sintering techniques as used in powder metallurgy, cemented carbides, and ceramics.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor, Dean of Engineering Research, College of Engineering, San Diego State University, CA, USA