Single-phase, Two-phase and Supercritical Natural Circulation Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081024867

Single-phase, Two-phase and Supercritical Natural Circulation Systems

1st Edition

Editors: Pallippattu Krishnan Vijayan
Paperback ISBN: 9780081024867
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 1st June 2019
Page Count: 610
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Description

Single-phase, Two-phase and Supercritical Natural Circulation Systems provides readers with a deep understanding of natural circulation systems. This book equips the reader with an understanding on how to detect unstable loops to ensure plant safety and reliability, calculate heat transport capabilities, and design effective natural circulation loops, stability maps and parallel channel systems. Each chapter begins with an introduction to the circulation system before discussing each element in detail and analyzing its effect on the performance of the system. The book also presents thermosyphon heat transport devices in nuclear and other industrial plants, a common information need for students and researchers alike.

This book is invaluable for engineers, designers, operators and consultants in nuclear, mechanical, electrical and chemical disciplines.

Key Features

  • Presents single-phase, two-phase and supercritical natural circulation systems together in one resource to fill an existing knowledge gap
  • Guides the reader through relevant processes, such as designing, analyzing and generating stability maps and natural circulation loops, calculating heat transport capabilities, and maintaining natural circulation system operations
  • Includes global case studies and examples to increase understanding, along with important IAEA standards and procedures

Readership

Intended for nuclear, mechanical, chemical & electrical engineering disciplines; engineers involved in the design, construction & operation of nuclear, fossil-fuelled and solar-thermal power plants; heat transfer and cooling system engineers and researchers; safety analysis specialists of regulatory bodies such as USNRC, IAEA, AERB

Table of Contents

Chapter-1: Natural Circulation Systems: Advantages and Challenges

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Working Principle of Natural Circulation Systems (NCSs)

1.3 Common misconceptions about natural circulation

1.4 Advantages of natural circulation

1.5 Challenges of natural circulation

1.6 Classification of natural circulation systems

1.7 Brief review of applications of NCS

1.8 Terminologies used in NCS

1.9 Closure

 

Chapter -2: Governing Equations for Natural Circulation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Single-phase natural circulation systems

2.2.1 Closed loop systems

2.2.2 Open loop systems

2.3 Two-phase natural circulation systems

2.3.1 Closed loop systems

2.3.2 Open loop systems

2.4 Supercritical natural circulation systems

2.4.1 Closed loop systems

2.4.2 Open loop systems

2.5 Constitutive relations

2.5.1 Friction loss

2.5.1.1 Single-phase systems

2.5.1.1.1 Laminar flow

2.5.1.1.2 Transition regime

2.5.1.1.3 Turbulent flow regime

2.5.1.2 Two-phase systems

2.5.1.2.1 Homogeneous flow

2.5.1.2.2 Two-phase friction multiplier models

2.5.1.3 Supercritical systems

2.5.2 Local loss coefficients

2.5.2.1 Single-phase systems

2.5.2.2 Two-phase systems

2.5.2.3 Supercritical systems

2.5.3 Heat transfer in source and sink

2.5.3.1 Single-phase systems

2.5.3.2 Two-phase systems

2.5.3.3 Supercritical systems

2.5.4 Critical heat flux phenomenon

2.5.4.1 Subcooled single-phase systems

2.5.4.2 Boiling two-phase systems

2.6 Closure

 

Chapter-3: Steady state and transient performance of single-phase natural circulation systems

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Steady state analysis of single-phase systems

3.2.1 Development of flow equation

3.2.2 Generalised dimensionless flow equation

3.2.2.1 Closed loops

3.2.2.2 Open loops

3.2.3 Parametric effects on single-phase systems

3.2.3.1 Effect of operating conditions

3.2.3.1.1 Effect of power

3.2.3.1.2 Effect of pressure,

3.2.3.1.3 Effect of secondary side flow rate

3.2.3.1.4 Effect of secondary inlet temperature

3.2.3.2 Effect of loop geometry

3.2.3.2.1 Effect of source and sink orientations

3.2.3.2.2 Effect of elevation

3.2.3.2.3 Effect of diameter

3.2.3.3 Effect of working fluid

3.2.3.3.1 Normal liquids

3.2.3.3.2 Liquid metals

3.2.3.3.3 Molten salts

3.2.3.3.4 Advanced reactor coolants

3.2.3.4 Effect of parallel channels

3.3 Transient performance of Single-phase Natural Circulation Systems

3.3.1 Discretization of the governing equations

3.3.2 Explicit, Implicit and the semi-implicit schemes

3.4 Solution procedure

3.4 Typical transient solutions

3.4.1 Start-up from rest,

3.4.2 Power ramp, etc.

3.5 Parametric effects

3.6 Closure

 

Chapter-4: Steady state and transient analysis of two-phase natural circulation systems

4.1 Introduction and relevance to water cooled reactors (PWR, BWR & PHWR)

4.2 Steady state analysis of two-phase natural circulation systems

4.2.1 Development of flow equation

4.2.1.1 Closed loops

4.2.1.2 Open loops

4.2.2 Generalised Dimensionless flow equation

4.2.2.1 Validation of the generalised dimensionless flow equation

4.2.3 Parametric effects on two-phase natural circulation systems

4.2.2.1 Effect of loop geometry

4.2.2.1.1 Effect of source and sink orientations

4.2.2.1.2 Effect of elevation difference

4.2.2.1.3 Effect of diameter

4.2.2.1.4 Effect of level

4.2.2.1.5 Effect of fluid inventory

4.2.2.2 Effect of operating conditions

4.2.2.2.1 Effect of power

4.2.2.2.2 Effect of pressure

4.2.2.2.3 Effect of inlet and exit loss coefficients

4.2.2.2.4 Effect of inlet subcooling

4.2.2.3 Effect of parallel channels

4.2.2.3.1 Equally and unequally powered parallel channels

4.2.2.3.2 Parallel channels of different resistances

4.4 Transient performance of two-phase natural circulation systems

4.5 Discretization of the governing equations

4.5.1 Explicit, Implicit and the semi-implicit schemes

4.6 Solution procedure

4.7 Typical transient solutions

4.7.1 Start-up from rest,

4.7.2 Power ramp, etc.

4.8 Parametric influences

4.9 Closure

 

Chapter-5: Steady state and transient analysis of supercritical natural circulation systems

5.1 Introduction and relevance of Supercritical Water Reactors (SCWRs)

5.2 Steady state analysis of supercritical natural circulation systems

5.2.1 Development of the flow equation

5.2.2 Dimensionless flow equation

5.2.3 Parametric effects

5.2.3.1 Effect of loop geometry

5.2.3.1.1 Effect of source and sink orientations

5.2.3.1.2 Effect of elevation difference

5.2.3.1.3 Effect of loop diameter

5.2.3.2 Effect of operating conditions

5.2.3.2.1 Effect of power

5.2.3.2.2 Effect of pressure

5.2.3.2.3 Effect of secondary side flow rate

5.2.3.2.4 Effect of secondary side inlet temperature

5.2.3.3 Effect of parallel channels

5.3 Transient performance of supercritical natural circulation systems

5.4 Discretization of the governing equations

5.5 Explicit, Implicit and the semi-implicit schemes

5.6 Solution procedure

5.7 Typical transient solutions

5.7.1 Start-up from rest,

5.7.2 Power ramp, etc.

5.8 Parametric influences

5.9 Closure

 

Chapter-6: Introduction to Instabilities in Natural Circulation Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Instability classification

6.2.1 Static instability

6.2.2 Dynamic instability

6.2.3 Compound dynamic instability

6.3 Stability of single-phase natural circulation systems

6.4 Instabilities associated with boiling inception

6.5 Two-phase NC instability

6.6 Instability of supercritical natural circulation systems

6.7 Closure

Chapter-7: Stability Analysis of NC Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Stability Analysis

7.2.1 Static Instability

7.2.1.1 Ledinegg instability

7.2.1.2 Flow pattern transition instability

7.2.2 Dynamic Instability

7.2.2.1 Linear analysis

7.2.2.2 Nonlinear analysis

7.3 Parametric Effects on the DWI in Single-phase NCSs

7.3.1 Effect of operating conditions

7.3.2 Effect of loop geometry

7.3.3 Effect of working fluid

7.4 Parametric Effects on the DWI in Two-phase NCSs

7.4.1 Effect of operating conditions

7.4. Effect of loop geometry

7.5 Parametric effects on the DWI in supercritical NCSs

7.5.1 Effect of operating conditions,

7.5.2 Effect of loop geometry

7.6 NC Based Pressure Tube Type BWRs

7.7 Stability Considerations in NC Based SGs

7.8 Closure

 

Chapter-8: Experimental Validation and Data Base of Simple Loop Facilities

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Steady state behaviour of single-phase loops

8.3 Steady state behaviour of two-phase loops

8.4 Stability behaviour of single-phase loops

8.5 Experimental database of instabilities of two-phase loops

8.6 Static instability of two-phase NC loops

8.7 Dynamic stability of two-phase NC loops

8.8 Concluding remarks

 

Chapter – 9: Designing for Stability of NC based systems (BWRs)

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Steady State Performance

9.3 Stability Performance

9.4 Stability controlled and CHF controlled systems

9.5 Avoidance of Instability

9.6 Operating Line Concept

9.7 Start-up

9.8 Power-raising

9.9 Setback

9.10 Reactor Trip

9.11 Closure

 

Chapter-10: Coupled Natural circulation systems

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Coupled systems of interest to nuclear reactors

10.3 Series coupled natural circulation systems

10.4 Parallel coupled natural circulation systems

10.5 Parallel-series coupled natural circulation systems

10.6 Closure

 

Chapter-11: Scaling Philosophy for NC Systems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Review of various scaling philosophies

11.3 Power-to-volume scaling philosophy

11.4 Ishii’s scaling philosophy

11.5 Advantages of various scaling philosophies

11.6 Scale distortions

11.7 Testing of the adequacy of the scaled model

11.8 Closure

 

Chapter-12: Thermosyphon Heat Transport Devices (THTD)

12.1 Introduction and application of THTD

12.2 Various designs of THTD

12.3 Analysis of THTD

12.3.1 Steady state analysis

12.3.2 Transient analysis

12.3.3 Parametric influences

12.4 Comparison with heat pipe

12.5 Closure

Details

No. of pages:
610
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2019
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
9780081024867

About the Editor

Pallippattu Krishnan Vijayan

Dr Pallippattu Krishnan Vijayan is currently working as a Raja Ramanna Fellow at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and his research focuses on natural circulation based passive safety systems for advanced reactors. Dr Vijayan, a chemical engineer from the University of Calicut joined BARC after completing the training course in nuclear science engineering conducted by BARC. He received his PhD from the Department of Energy Systems Engineering, IIT Bombay in 1989. A Distinguished Scientist, Dr Vijayan served at BARC in various positions such as group leader, head, thermal hydraulics section, head reactor engineering division and Director, Reactor Design and Development Group. He has worked nearly four decades in the field of thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors and his specific field of expertise is natural circulation based passive safety systems. He played a key role in the thermal hydraulic design of thorium based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) and established large scale integral test facilities for its thermal hydraulic design validation. He participated in several International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) coordinated research projects and bilateral research projects like Indo-Italian, Indo-German, Indo-UK, Indo-Korea and AERB-US NRC. He was one of the experts invited by IAEA to formulate a training course on ‘Natural circulation phenomena and passive safety systems for advanced water cooled reactors’ and is a lecturer for this IAEA training course since 2004.

Affiliations and Expertise

Raja Ramanna Fellow, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)

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