Single Cell Oils

Single Cell Oils

Microbial and Algal Oils

2nd Edition - May 1, 2010

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  • Editors: Zvi Cohen, Colin Ratledge
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781893997738
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670078

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Featuring recognized academic and industrial experts in this cutting-edge field, this book reviews single cell oils (SCO) currently in the market. The text mainly focuses on the production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Arachidonic acid, and Docosahexaenoinc acid. All chapters provide up to date references for navigating the vast amount of historic data available in the field. The authors provide real world examples of the commercial development and applications of various SCO in a variety of fields, from food ingredients and disease treatment to aquaculture and fish farming. It covers the essential information in this fast moving field giving details of the production of all the major SCOs, their extraction, purification, applications and safety evaluations. In addition, this new edition includes major coverage of the potential of SCOs for biofuels that may be of key significance in the coming years.

Key Features

  • Includes sufficient detail on molecular breeding of yeasts and molds
  • Shows how microbial oils have gone from being academic curisoisties to being minor commodity oils
  • Presents details on the safey and nutrition of single cell oils for human and animal nutrition


Researchers and technicians in alternative fuel/energy field,  industrial oil scientists, chemical engineers, analytical chemists, microbiologists, biochemists

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Single Cell Oils for the 21st Century
    Colin Ratledge

    Chapter 2 Arachidonic Acid-Producing Mortierella alpina: Creation of Mutants, Isolation of the Related Enzyme Genes, and Molecular Breeding
    Eiji Sakuradani, Akinori Ando, Jun Ogawa, and Sakayu Shimizu

    Chapter 3 Metabolic Engineering of an Oleaginous Yeast for the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    Quinn Zhu, Zhixiong Xue, Naren Yadav, Howard Damude, Dana Walters Pollak, Ross Rupert, John Seip, Dieter Hollerbach, Daniel Macool, Hongxiang Zhang, Sidney Bledsoe, David Short, Bjorn Tyreus, Anthony Kinney, and Stephen Picataggio

    Chapter 4 Development of a Docosahexaenoic Acid Production Technology Using Schizochytrium: Historical Perspective and Update
    William Barclay, Craig Weaver, James Metz, and Jon Hansen

    Chapter 5 Arachidonic Acid: Fermentative Production by Mortierella Fungi
    Hugo Streekstra

    Chapter 6 Production of Single Cell Oils by Dinoflagellates
    James Wynn, Paul Behrens, Anand Sundararajan, Jon Hansen, and Kirk Apt

    Chapter 7 Alternative Carbon Sources for Heterotrophic Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid by the Marine Alga Crypthecodinium cohnii
    Lolke Sijtsma, Alistair J. Anderson, and Colin Ratledge

    Chapter 8 Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Using Heterotrophically Grown Microalgae
    Zhiyou Wen and Feng Chen

    Chapter 9 Downstream Processing, Extraction, and Purification of Single Cell Oils
    Colin Ratledge, Hugo Streekstra, Zvi Cohen, and Jaouad Fichtali

    Chapter 10 Searching for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Photosynthetic Microalgae
    Zvi Cohen and Inna Khozin-Goldberg

    Chapter 11 Carotenoid Production Using Microorganisms
    Michael A. Borowitzka

    Chapter 12 Survey of Commercial Developments of Microalgae as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Marguerite Torrey

    Chapter 13 Algae Oils for Biofuels: Chemistry, Physiology, and Production
    Michael A. Borowitzka

    Chapter 14 Production of Lipids for Biofuels Using Bacteria
    Daniel Bröker, Yasser Elbahloul, and Alexander Steinbüchel

    Chapter 15 Safety Evaluation of Single Cell Oils and the Regulatory Requirements for Use as Food Ingredients
    Alan S. Ryan, Sam Zeller, and Edward B. Nelson

    Chapter 16 Nutritional Aspects of Single Cell Oils: Applications of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Oils
    Andrew J. Sinclair and Anura Jayasooriya

    Chapter 17 Recent Developments in the Human Nutrition of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Single Cell Oils
    Connye N. Kuratko, James P. Hoffman, Mary E. Van Elswyk, and Norman Salem, Jr

    Chapter 18 Applications of Single Cell Oils for Animal Nutrition
    Jesus R. Abril, Todd Wills, and Flint Harding

    Chapter 19 Applications of Single Cell Oils for Aquaculture
    Mario Velasco-Escudero and Hui Gong

    Chapter 20 Future Development of Single Cell Oils
    David J. Kyle

Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2010
  • Published: May 1, 2010
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781893997738
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670078

About the Editors

Zvi Cohen

Professor Zvi Cohen received hs PhD from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1978. He is a member of the Blaustein Institute of Desert Research in Ben Gurion University since 1981 and is the incumbent of the Maks and Rochelle Etingin professorial chair in Desert Research. His research involves the physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology of PUFA production in microalgae. Professor Cohen serves on the editorial board of Annals of Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters, is the editor of Chemicals from Microalgae and coeditor (with Colin Ratledge) of Single Cell Oils.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Ben-Gurion, Israel

Colin Ratledge

After gaining his PhD from Manchester University and a four-year spell as a post-doc in Trinity College, Dublin, Colin joined Unilever at their research laboratories at Colworth House in the UK. It was here that he was introduced to the pleasures of working with microbial lipids and of trying to produce something commercially useful out of them. However, the plug was pulled on the project and Colin decided to return to the safer environment of academic research and joined the teaching staff of the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Hull in 1967. And here he has spent the rest of his career, being promoted through the ranks until he was given a personal professorial chair in 1983. Colin’s research work with microbial lipids began to take off when he realised that nothing was known, in biochemical terms, as to how some microorganism were able to produce copious amounts of lipid in their cells whilst others completely failed to do so. Work on the biochemistry of lipid accumulation in yeasts and fungi was the main focus of much of the research that was carried out at Hull. Work that was helped by many research students, post-docs and dedicated technicians plus government and EU grants and considerable support from industry who began to take increasing interests as to what microorganisms might be able to achieve in the way of producing desirable edible oils. It was during this time that the terms were coined of 'Single Cell Oils' and also 'oleaginous microorganisms’, both of which seem to have been accepted as part of the glossary of lipids. The very first commercial single cell oil was produced in 1985 as a result of research work carried out at Hull; this was an oil rich in γ-linolenic acid (GLA) being produced by the fungus, Mucor circinelloides. The large-scale process was developed by J & E Sturge at Selby, North Yorkshire, using their expertise with fungi as they were major producers of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Production was at the 220 m3 level and, when production ceased in 1990, some 50 tons of GLA-SCO had been produced, all used for human consumption. His work has been recognised by the receipt of several awards, including the highly prestigious Stephen Chang Award from AOCS in 2011. He has been visiting professor at a number of universities including National University of Malaysia, Polytechnic University Hong Kong, Ben Gurion University Israel and Jiangnan University, China. Colin’s research work continued to explore the finer details of lipid biosynthesis and accumulation in both yeasts and fungi gradually building up a reasonable, but by no means complete, picture as to what was going on in the oleaginous microorganisms to allow them to accumulate so much lipid. In all, he has published over 300 scientific papers and reviews plus being writer and editor of 18 books.

Colin officially retired in 2004 but has continued to be active in research and also with various editing roles including being Associate Editor for Lipids, editorial advisor for Lipid Technology and Editor in Chief of Biotechnology Letters. He also continues to be a consultant for a number of companies involved in various aspects of SCO production. Dept of Microbial Biochemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, U.K.

Affiliations and Expertise

Dept of Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom

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