Signal Transduction - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123694416, 9780080919058

Signal Transduction

2nd Edition

Authors: Bastien Gomperts ljsbrand Kramer Peter Tatham
eBook ISBN: 9780080919058
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123694416
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th August 2009
Page Count: 840
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Description

Signal Transduction, 2e, is a thorough, well-illustrated study in cellular signaling processes. Beginning with the basics, this book shows how cells respond to external cues, hormones, growth factors, cytokines, cell surfaces, etc., and further instructs how these inputs are integrated. Instruction continues with up-to-date, inclusive coverage of intracellular calcium, nuclear receptors, tyrosine protein kinases and adaptive immunity, and targeting transduction pathways for research and medical intervention. Signal Transduction, 2e, serves as an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduates, graduate researchers, and established scientists working in cell biology, pharmacology, immunology, and related fields.

Key Features

  • Up-to-date, inclusive coverage of targeting transduction pathways for research and medical intervention
  • In-depth coverage of nuclear receptors, including steps in isolation of steroid hormones and the discovery of intracellular hormone receptors; tyrosine protein kinases and adaptive immunity; and intracellular calcium
  • Extensive conceptual color artwork to assist with comprehension of key topics
  • Instrumental margin notes highlight milestones in signaling mechanisms

Readership

Established researchers as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate researchers, and scientists working in cell biology, pharmacology, immunology, and related fields

Table of Contents

Preface

Notes

How to View Stereo Images of Molecular Structures

References

Abbreviations

Genes and Gene Products

Amino Acids

Chapter 1. Prologue: Signal Transduction, Origins, and Ancestors

Transduction, the Word and its Meaning: One Dictionary, Different Points of View

Hormones, Evolution, and History

Hormones: A Definition

Neurotransmitters

Receptors and ligands

References

Chapter 2. First Messengers

Hormones

Intracellular Messengers

References

Chapter 3. Receptors

Adrenaline (Again)

α-and β-Adrenergic Receptors

Acetylcholine Receptors

Cholinergic Receptor Subtypes

The 7TM Superfamily of G-Protein-Linked Receptors

Categories of 7TM Receptor

Receptor–Ligand Interaction and Receptor Activation

Transmitting Signals into Cells

Intracellular 7TM Receptor Domains and Signal Transmission

References

Chapter 4. GTP-binding Proteins and Signal Transduction

Nucleotides as Metabolic Regulators

G Proteins

α-Subunits

βγ-Subunits

The G Protein Receptor Kinase Family

Receptor Phosphorylation, Down-Regulation and Pathway switching

Receptor Mechanisms Obviating G Proteins

Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins

RasGAPs

Essay: Activation of G Proteins Without Subunit Unit dissociation

References

Chapter 5. Effector Enzymes Coupled to GTP Binding Proteins: Adenylyl Cyclase and Phospholipase C

Adenylyl cyclase

Phospholipase C

References

Chapter 6. The Regulation of Visual Transduction and Olfaction

Phototransduction

Sensitivity of Photoreceptors

Photoreceptor Mechanisms

Adaptation: Calcium Acts as a Negative Regulator

Photo-excitation of Rhodopsin

Switching Off the Mechanism

Note on Phototransduction in Invertebrates

Olfaction

References

Chapter 7. Intracellular Calcium

A New Second Messenger is Discovered

Calcium and Evolution

Distinguishing Ca2+ and Mg2+

Free, Bound, and Trapped Ca2+

Cytosol Ca2+ is Kept Low

Extracellular Calcium and Activation

Sensing Changes in Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration

Mechanisms that Elevate Cytosol Ca2+ Concentration

Ca2+ Microdomains and Global Cellular Signals

References

Chapter 8. Calcium Effectors

Calcium-Binding by Proteins

Paradigms of Calcium Signalling

References

Chapter 9. Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation: Protein Kinases A and C

Protein Phosphorylation as a Switch in Cellular Functioning

Cyclic AMP and the Amplification of Signals

Protein Kinase A

Protein Kinase A and the Regulation of Transcription

Protein Kinase A and the Activation Of ERK

Actions of cAMP not Mediated by PKA

Protein Kinase C

The Protein Kinase C Family

Structural Domains and Activation of Protein Kinase C

Activation of Protein Kinase C

References

Chapter 10. Nuclear Receptors

First Steps in the Isolation of Steroid Hormones

The Discovery of Intracellular Hormone Receptors

A Superfamily of Nuclear Receptors

Nomenclature of Nuclear Receptors

Receptor Structure and Ligand Binding

DNA Binding

Activation and Repression of Transcription

Interaction with Other Signalling Pathways

Non-Transcriptional Actions of Nuclear Receptors and Their Ligands

References

Chapter 11. Growth factors: Setting the Framework

Viruses and Tumours

The Discovery of NGF … and EGF

Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)

Transforming Growth Factors (TGFα and TGFβ)

Problems with Nomenclature

Essay: Cancer and Transformation

References

Chapter 12. Signalling Pathways Operated by Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases

Introduction

Tyrosine Kinase-containing Receptors

Branching of the Signalling Pathway

Beyond ERK

Why are the Signalling Pathways so Complicated?

A Switch in Receptor Signalling: Activation of ERK by 7TM Receptors

References

Chapter 13. Signal Transduction to and from Adhesion Molecules

Adhesion Molecules

Integrins, Cell Survival, and Cell Proliferation

References

Chapter 14. Adhesion Molecules in the Regulation of Cell Differentiation: Mainly About Wnt

Destabilization of Adherens Junctions Causes Cellular De-Differentiation

Other Examples of Signalling Through Adhesion Molecules

References

Chapter 15. Activation of the Innate immune System: The Toll-like Receptor 4 and Signalling through Ubiquitylation

Essay: Ubiquitylation and SUMOylation

Essay: The Proteasome Complex

References

Chapter 16. Traffic of White Blood Cells

Inflammation and Leukocytes

References

Chapter 17. Tyrosine Protein Kinases and Adaptive Immunity: TCR, BCR, Soluble Tyrosine Kinases and NFAT

The Family of Non-Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases

T-Cell Receptor Signalling

Signalling Through Interferon Receptors

Oncogenes, Malignancy, and Signal Transduction

Essay: Non-Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases and Their Regulation

References

Chapter 18. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinases, Protein Kinase B, and Signalling through the Insulin Receptor

Insulin Receptor Signalling; It Took a Little Time to Work Out the Details

Signalling Through Phosphoinositides

PI 3-Kinase, PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3

Insulin: The Role of IRS, PI 3-kinase, and PKB in the Regulation of Glycogen synthesis

Other Processes Mediated by the 3-Phosphorylated Inositol phospholipids

So, Who Did Discover Insulin?

References

Chapter 19. Protein Kinase C Revisited

PKC in Cell Transformation

Regulation of Cell Polarity

References

Chapter 20. Signalling Through Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases

The TGFβ Family of Growth Factors

Downstream Signalling: Drosophila, Caenorhabitidis, and Smad

References

Chapter 21. Protein Dephosphorylation and Protein Phosphorylation

Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

PTPs in Signal Transduction

Dual Specificity Phosphatases

Serine/Threonine Phosphatases

References

Chapter 22. Notch

Notched Wings, Morgan, and the Gene Theory

Membrane Components of the Notch Pathway

Notch and Sensory Progenitor Cells of Drosophila; the Importance of Endocytosis

References

Chapter 23. Targeting Transduction Pathways for Research and Medical Intervention

Chemotherapy

Alternative Targets for Cancer Therapy: Towards a Scientific Rationale

Inhibiting the EGF Family of Receptor Kinases

Other Signal Transduction Components Targeted for Therapeutic Intervention

Towards a Different Approach in Testing Cancer Drugs?

References

Chapter 24. Protein Domains and Signal Transduction

Modular Structure of Proteins

Structural Domains

The Evolution and Shuffling of Domains

Sequence Homology and the Acquisition of Function

The Inventory of Domains

Examples of Domains with Roles in Signalling

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
840
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2009
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080919058
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123694416

About the Author

Bastien Gomperts

Affiliations and Expertise

University College, London, UK

ljsbrand Kramer

ljsbrand Kramer

Ijsbrand Kramer is a professor at the University of Bordeaux, working in the European Institute of Chemistry and Biology (IECB). He holds a Bachelors and Masters degree in BioMedicine from the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, with a one year research-excursion in the Department of Cell Biology at the University of Liverpool, UK. He did his Ph.D. at the University of Amsterdam, in the Central Laboratory of Blood transfusion services (Stichting Sanquin) and worked as a post-doctoral fellow at the Hubrecht Laboratory in Utrecht and at the University of Washington in Seattle. He then took a lecturer position at the Department of Pharmacology at University College London, where he taught Signal Transduction (with Bastien Gomperts and Pether Tatham) and Pharmacology. Both teaching activities have been documented in textbooks: Signal Transduction (3 editions) and Receptor Pharmacology (CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, 3 editions). Most of his research centers on the theme of inflammation, starting with neutrophils and the NADPH oxidase, synovial fibroblasts and destruction of the joint and more recently podosomes formation and extracellular matrix destruction in vascular endothelium. He moved to the University of Bordeaux for family reasons and switched from Pharmacology to Cell Biology, with a strong contribution to an introductory course for 1st year university students. Given the important teaching load and the general low level of student engagement in higher education he started to investigate the reasons for student failure (finding out about their expectations and attitudes) and the role of images and animations in comprehension. Scientific publications, web-based multimedia resources and dramatically enhanced retention rates (from 33 to 85%) are the fruits of these activities. At the same time he organized with University College London and Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, summer schools on Receptor and Signalling Mechanism. He has been co-director of two European Programmes (Interbio and Transbio) that aimed at enhancing industrial innovation in the biomedical sector in the South West European Region (SUDOE).

For book/publicity purposes, image of the author by Maarten Kramer

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Bordeaux, Talence, France

Peter Tatham

Affiliations and Expertise

University College, London, UK

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