Sex and Gender Differences in Alzheimer's Disease

Sex and Gender Differences in Alzheimer's Disease

1st Edition - July 23, 2021
  • Editors: Maria Teresa Ferretti, Annemarie Schumacher Dimech, Antonella Santuccione Chadha
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128193457
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128193440

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Sex and Gender Differences in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Women’s Brain Project offers for the first time a critical overview of the evidence documenting sex and gender differences in Alzheimer’s disease neurobiology, biomarkers, clinical presentation, treatment, clinical trials and their outcomes, and socioeconomic impact on both patients and caregivers. This knowledge is crucial for clinical development, digital health solutions, as well as social and psychological support to Alzheimer’s disease families, in the frame of a precision medicine approach to Alzheimer’s disease. This book brings together up-to-date findings from a variety of experts, covering basic neuroscience, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical trials development, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial support. Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, remains an unmet medical need for the planet. Wide interpersonal variability in disease onset, presentation, and biomarker profile make Alzheimer’s a clinical challenge to neuroscientists, clinicians, and drug developers alike, resulting in huge management costs for health systems and society. Not only do women represent the majority of Alzheimer’s disease patients, but they also represent two-thirds of caregivers. Understanding sex and gender differences in Alzheimer’s disease will lead to novel insights into disease mechanisms, and will be crucial for personalized disease management strategies and solutions, involving both the patient and their family.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive and critical review of sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease
  • Features discussion of sex and gender differences in disease biology, treatment, and socioeconomic factors, including impact on caregivers
  • Combines the knowledge and points-of-view of neuroscientists, medical doctors, psychologists, policymakers, health scientists, and clinical trial experts, for a 360-degree view on the topic and its possible implications
  • Edited by the Women’s Brain Project, the leading NGO in the field of sex and gender differences in brain and mental health as the gateway to precision medicine


Neurologists, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, advanced practice practitioners and medical ethicists

Table of Contents

  • Introduction Part 1 Sex differences in fundamental neurobiological processes that are relevant to Alzheimer’s disease
    1. Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease animal model
    2. Sex and sex hormone differences in hippocampal neurogenesis and their relevance to Alzheimer’s disease
    3. Sex differences in microglia as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease

    Introduction Part 2 Sex and gender differences in clinical aspects of Alzheimer’s disease
    4. Sex differences in CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease
    5. Sex differences in neuroimaging biomarkers in healthy subjects and dementia
    6. Sex differences in neuropsychological symptoms for clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease
    7. Sex differences in psychiatric disorders and their implication for dementia
    8. Sleep disorders and dementia
    9. Hormones and dementia
    10. Sex and gender differences in genetic and lifestyle risk and protective factors for dementia
    11. Sex and gender considerations in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease: Current state and recommendations

    Introduction Part 3 Gender differences in the socio-economic factors linked to Alzheimer’s disease
    12. Gender and socioeconomic differences in modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia throughout the life course
    13. Living with dementia and caregiving: Psychosocial considerations through the gender lens
    14. Sex and gender differences in caregiving patterns and caregivers’ needs
    15. Gender barriers to communication in Alzheimer’s disease
    16. Women and dementia policy: Redressing imbalance through gender transformative policies

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: July 23, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128193457
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128193440

About the Editors

Maria Teresa Ferretti

Dr. Maria Teresa Ferretti is a neuroscientist and neuroimmunologist, expert in Alzheimer’s disease and gender medicine. In 2016, together with Dr. Schumacher-Dimech, Dr. Santuccione Chadha and Gautam Maitra, she co-founded the nonprofit organization “Women’s Brain Project” (where she currently serves as Chief Scientific Officer), a world leader in the study of sex and gender characteristics in brain and mental health as the gateway to precision medicine. After graduating in Chemical and Pharmaceutical Technologies at University of Cagliari (Italy), she studied and worked in England, Canada (where she earned a PhD in Pharmacology and Pharmacological Therapy at McGill University in Montreal), Switzerland and Austria. Her studies have been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, and she is regularly invited by leading scientific conferences to lecture on Alzheimer’s disease, precision medicine and the differences between men and women in neurology and psychiatry. She has taught in numerous university courses and is currently ‘External Teacher’ at the Medical University of Vienna; in addition, Dr. Ferretti is responsible for continuous medical education courses in the field of gender and precision medicine. Passionate about scientific communication and motivated by the desire to break the stigma on mental and brain diseases, she was a TED-x speaker in 2019 and in 2021; in 2021, together with Antonella Santuccione Chadha, she wrote the book for the general public ‘Una bambina senza testa’ (Edizioni Mondo Nuovo).

Affiliations and Expertise

Co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer, Women’s Brain Project, Guntershausen, Switzerland

Annemarie Schumacher Dimech

Dr. Annemarie Schumacher Dimech obtained her first psychology degree with honors from the University of Malta, and holds an MSc in Health Psychology from the University of Surrey (UK) as a Chevening Scholar. In 2010, she obtained her PhD at the University of Bern. Her fascination with the interaction between body and mind motivates her to study physical and environmental factors affecting brain and mental health. The sex and gender differences in various socioeconomic and psychological factors affecting brain and mental health was Dr. Schumacher Dimech’s motivation to join forces with Antonella Santuccione Chadha, Maria Teresa Ferretti, and Gautam Maitra to found the Women’s Brain Project. In her pro bono work with the Women’s Brain Project, she contributes a psychosocial perspective to various WBP activities including educational events as well as publications, research, and other scientific events. Today, she is employed at the University of Lucerne where she developed and is heading its programme of further education in Palliative Care and is currently President of Women's Brain Project.

Affiliations and Expertise

Co-founder and President, Women’s Brain Project, Guntershausen, Switzerland Program Manager, Palliative Care, University of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland

Antonella Santuccione Chadha

Dr. Antonella Santuccione Chadha is a medical doctor with expertise in clinical pathology, neuroscience and psychiatric disorders. She is head of stakeholder engagement for Alzheimer’s disease at Biogen. She is co-founder and CEO of the non-profit organization “Women’s Brain Project” which is addressing the influence of sex and gender on mental and brain diseases. She is the Vice-president of Euresearch. As a medical doctor, Antonella has decades of experience in preclinical research, patient treatment, clinical development, medical affairs and setting up the international regulatory framework for Alzheimer’s disease. Always focused on solving the puzzles related to Alzheimer’s and other psychiatric diseases, she has worked with Swissmedic, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, several European universities, the EU Commission Directorate for Health and Food Safety, the World Health Organization, the CEOi and several Alzheimer’s’ disease Organizations. Since 2018 she is listed among the top 100 Women in Business in Switzerland and in 2019 she has been elected Woman of the Year in Switzerland by the Magazine "Women in Business". In 2020, she received the World Sustainability Award for her involvement in advancing Precision Medicine. She also received the award “Premio Medicina Italia” for her contribution to the management of the pandemic. Dr. Santuccione Chadha is keenly interested in removing bias when developing solutions for mental and neurological diseases to achieve precision medicines.

Affiliations and Expertise

CEO pro Bono Women’s Brain Project, Guntershausen, Switzerland Head of Stakeholder Engagement for Alzheimer’s Disease Biogen International. Vice-President at Euresearch, Switzerland