Sense Organs Integration, and Behavior - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123957696, 9780323163323

Sense Organs Integration, and Behavior

1st Edition

Editors: Talbot Waterman
eBook ISBN: 9780323163323
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 696
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The Physiology of Crustacea, Volume II: Sense Organs, Integration, and Behavior focuses on the three components of self-regulation for crustaceans and examines the behavior that emerges therefrom. This book provides the physiology of the class Crustacea from a comparative point of view. Organized into chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the sensitivity to electromagnetic energy at wavelengths extending from the ultraviolet to the infrared, which is an important adaptive function in crustaceans. This text then explores the innervation of crustacean sensory hairs and describes the sensitivity among crustaceans to external changes in mechanical force by direct contact with solids or by fluid movement. Other chapters consider the two types of pigmentary effectors in crustaceans, namely, the chromatophores and the pigments of the compound eye. The final chapter deals with the four major categories in developing a comparative physiology. Physiologists, biochemists, and researchers will find this book useful.

Table of Contents

Contributors and Chapter List, Volume I

Contributors and Chapter List, Volume II


Chapter 1. Light Sensitivity and Vision

I. General Sensitivity

II. Median Eyes

III. Lateral Eyes

A. Structural Pattern

B. Image Formation

C. Functional Units

D. Intensity Functions

E. Time and Space Functions

F. Wavelenght Functions

G. Polarized Light Sensitivity

IV. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 2. Mechanoreception

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Study

III. Touch

IV. Proprioception

A. Muscle Receptor Organ

B. Limb Proprioceptors

C. Comparative Aspects

V. Equilibrium Receptors

A. Receptor Structure and Distribution

B. Physiology

C. Comparative Aspects

VI. Hearing and Sound Production

A. Hearing and Vibration Reception

B. Sound Production

VII. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 3. Chemoreception and Thermoreception

I. Chemoreception

A. Introduction

B. The Receptor Organs

C. Functional Properties

D. Summary

II. Thermoreception

A. Introduction

B. Responses to Thermal Stimuli

C. Summary


Chapter 4. Pigmentary Effectors

I. Introduction

A. Chromatophores

B. Retinal Pigments

II. Chromatophores

A. Chromatophore Responses

B. Mechanisms Regulating Chromatophores

III. Retinal Pigments

A. General Morphology

B. Normal Photomechanical Changes

C. Regulation

IV. Comparisons with Other Animals

A. Insect Color Changes

B. Insect Retinal Pigments

C. Vertebrate Color Changes

V. General Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 5. Light Production

I. Occurrence and Distribution of Luminescence

II. Types of Luminous Organs

A. Ostracoda

B. Copepoda

C. Malacostraca

III. Physical Nature of the Light

IV. Biochemistry of Light Production

A. Miscellaneous Observations

B. Cypridina Luciferin and Luciferase

V. Control of Luminescence

VI. Use of the Light


Chapter 6. The Neuromuscular System

I. Introduction

II. Efferent Nerve Fibers and Their Properties

III. Neuromuscular Connections

A. Histology

Β. Typical Response to Efferent Stimulation

C. Innervation Patterns in Different Crustacea

IV. Electrophysiology of Nerve-Muscle Preparations

A. Membrane Potential of Muscle Fibers

B. Electrical Changes Caused by Motor Axon Stimulation

C. Membrane Potential and Inhibition

D. Membrane Potential and Double Motor Innervation

E. Quadruple Motor Innervation

V. Processes between Nerve Impulse and Contraction

VI. Properties of Muscle Fibers

A. Anatomy

B. Metabolism and Biochemistry

VII. Comparison of Different Innervation Systems

A. Comparison of Slow Systems and Opener Systems

B. Comparison of Fats Systems

C. Comparison of Inhibitory Systems

VIII. Effects of Drugs and Ions

A. Drugs

B. Ions

IX. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 7. Reflexes and the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Histology

A. Sensory Fibers

B. Efferent Fibers

C. Interneurons

D. Synaptic Connections

III. Reflexes

A. Axon Reflexes

B. Simple Reflexes

C. Complex Reflexes

D. Effects of Surgical Interference

IV. Spontaneous Activity

V. Physiology of Central Units

A. Giant Fiber System

B. Transmission from Giant Fibers to Motor Fibers

C. Other Central Fibers Motor Aspect

D. Other Central Fibers Sensory Aspects

VI. Pharmacology

VII. General Conclusions


Chapter 8. Neurohumors and Neurosecretion

I. Introduction

II. Acetylcholine

A. Evidence for the Ach System in Crustaceans

B. Function of Ach

III. Amines

IV. Factor I

V. Neurosecretory Systems

A. Sinus Gland System

B. Postcommissural and Pericardial Organs

VI. Neurosecretory Substances

A. Diversity and Chemical Nature

B. Storage and Release

C. Functions

VII. Comparisons and Conclusions


Chapter 9. Locomotion

I. Introduction

II. General Features

A. Biomechanics

B. Integration and Control of Locomotion

III. Types of Locomotion

A. Walking and Running

B. Climbing

C. Plowing through Mud or Sand

D. Burrowing

E. Jumping

F. Swimming

G. Escape Mechanisms

IV. Comparison with Other Animals

V. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 10. Kinetic and Tactic Responses

I. Introduction

II. Fundamental Mechanisms

A. Kineses

B. Taxes

III. Response to Light

A. Directional Response to Light

B. Photokineses

C. Phototaxes

D. Special Cases

IV. Response to Chemical Stimuli

V. Response to Mechanical Stimuli

A. Rheotaxis and Anemotaxis

B. Thigmokinesis

C. Geotaxis

VI. Response to Thermal Stimuli

VII. Response to Electrical Stimuli

VIII. Conclusions

IX. Summary


Chapter 11. Physiological Rhythms

I. General Introduction

II. Persistent Rhythms

A. Chromatophores and Color Change

B. Retinal-Pigment Migration

C. Spontaneous Motor Activity

D. Metabolic Rate

E. Other Phenomena

III. Properties of the Rhythmic Mechanism

A. Temperature Relations

B. Relationships to Light

C. Other Properties

IV. The Nature of the Frequency-Regulating Mechanism

V. General Conclusions and Summary


Chapter 12. Migrations

I. Introduction

II. Pelagic Migrations

A. Vertical Migration

B. Horizontal Migration

III. Benthic and Terrestrial Migrations

A. Description

B. Mechanisms

C. Initiating and Controlling Factors

D. Value to the Animal

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 13. Complex Behavior

I. Introductions

II. Behavior Types

A. Individual Behavior

B. Behavior Toward Others

III. Analysis of Behavior

A. Components of Behavior

B. Behavioral Changes in Ontogeny

C. Behavior and Evolution

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 14. Comparative Physiology

I. Introduction

II. The Comparative Process

III. Descriptive Comparisons

A. Within Individuals

B. Between Individuals of a Species

C. Between Crustaceans

D. Between Crustacea and Other Taxa

IV. Explanatory Comparisons

A. Genetic

B. Developmental

C. Adaptive

D. Evolutionary

V. Conclusions


Author Index

Systematic Index (including Synonymy)

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1961
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Talbot Waterman