Semiconductor Lasers and Herterojunction LEDs - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124262508, 9780323144346

Semiconductor Lasers and Herterojunction LEDs

1st Edition

Authors: Henry Kressel
eBook ISBN: 9780323144346
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1977
Page Count: 622
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Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also considered. The book further tackles the heterojunction devices of alloys other than GaAs-AlAs; the devices for special applications; distributed-feedback lasers; and the transient effects in laser diodes. Students taking courses in semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs will find the book useful.

Table of Contents



1.1 Background

1.2 Outline


Chapter 1 Resume of Relevant Concepts in Solid State Physics

1.1 Crystal Structure

1.2 Bonding and Band Structure

1.3 Dopants

1.4 Electron Distribution and Density of States

1.5 Electron-Hole Pair Formation and Recombination

1.6 Minority Carrier Diffusion

1.7 Radiative Recombination Processes Other than Band-to-Band

1.8 Nonradiative Recombination Processes


Chapter 2 p-n Junctions and Heterojunctions

2.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics

2.2 Junction Capacitance

2.3 Heterojunctions

2.4 Light-Current Relationships in Spontaneous Emission

2.5 Diode Frequency Response as Limited by Carrier Lifetime


Chapter 3 Stimulated Emission and Gain

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Optical Gain in the Two-Level Atomic System

3.3 Optical Gain in a Direct Bandgap Semiconductor

3.4 The Fabry-Perot Cavity and Threshold Condition

3.5 Laser Transitions


Chapter 4 Relevant Concepts in Electromagnetic Field Theory

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Maxwell's Equations

4.3 Complex Dielectric Constant

4.4 Boundary Conditions

4.5 Poynting's Theorem

4.6 Vector Wave Equation

4.7 Plane Waves

4.8 Plane Wave Reflection and Transmission at Plane Boundaries


Chapter 5 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Theory

5.1 Laser Topology and Modes

5.2 Waveguide Equations

5.3 Wave Definitions

5.4 Slab Waveguides

5.5 Slab Waveguide Mode Characteristics

5.6 Propagation in a Dissipative/Gain Medium

5.7 Three-Dimensional Modes in Practical Structures

5.8 Five-Layer Slab Waveguide Modes

5.9 Modal Facet Reflectivity

5.10 Mode Selection in Laser Structures


Chapter 6 Laser Radiation Fields

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Radiation from Slab Waveguides

6.3 Boundary Solution of the Radiation Fields

6.4 Modal Radiation Patterns from Slab Waveguides

6.5 Radiation of Three-Layer Slab Modes

6.6 Radiation from Two-Dimensional Waveguides


Chapter 7 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Experimental

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Double-Heterojunction Lasers

7.3 Four-Heterojunction Lasers

7.4 Asymmetrical Structures—Single-Heterojunction (Close-Confinement) Lasers

7.5 Large Optical Cavity Lasers—Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Structures

7.6 Experimental/Theoretical Radiation Patterns (Transverse Modes)

7.7 Lateral "s" Modes

7.8 Summary


Chapter 8 Relation between Electrical and Optical Properties of Laser Diodes

8.1 Carrier Confinement and Injected Carrier Utilization

8.2 Threshold Current Density and Differential Quantum Efficiency

8.3 Temperature Dependence of Jth

8.4 Optical Anomalies and Radiation Confinement Loss in Asymmetrical Heterojunction Lasers


Chapter 9 Epitaxial Technology

9.1 Liquid Phase Epitaxy

9.2 Vapor Phase Epitaxy

9.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy

9.4 Lattice Mismatch Effects

9.5 Substrate Considerations


Chapter 10 Binary III-V Compounds

10.1 Gallium Arsenide

10.2 Gallium Phosphide

10.3 Gallium Antimonide

10.4 Indium Arsenide

10.5 Indium Phosphide

10.6 Aluminum Arsenide and Aluminum Phosphide


Chapter 11 Ternary and Quaternary III-V Compounds

11.1 General Considerations

11.2 Phase Diagrams—Introduction

11.3 Principal Ternary Alloys

11.4 Quaternary Compounds


Chapter 12 Diode Fabrication and Related Topics

12.1 Junction Formation and Layer Characterization

12.2 Some Key Properties of AlχGa1-χAs Relevant to Device Design

12.3 Active Junction Area Definition

12.4 Thermal Dissipation of Laser Diodes


Chapter 13 Heterojunction Devices of Alloys Other than GaAs-AlAs

13.1 Introduction

13.2 IV- VI Compound Lasers

13.3 III-V Compound Lasers

13.4 Summary


Chapter 14 Devices for Special Applications

14.1 High Peak Power, Pulsed Operation Laser Diodes

14.2 Fiber Concepts Relevant to Optical Communications

14.3 Near-Infrared CW Laser Diodes of (AlGa)As

14.4 High Radiance Light-Emitting Diodes

14.5 Visible Emission Laser Diodes

14.6 General Purpose Heterojunction LEDs


Chapter 15 Distributed-Feedback Lasers

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Coupled Mode Analysis

15.3 Solution of Coupled Modes

15.4 GaAs-(AlGa)As DFB Lasers


Chapter 16 Device Reliability

16.1 Facet (Catastrophic) Degradation

16.2 Internal Damage Mechanisms

16.3 Technology of Reliable Devices


Chapter 17 Transient Effects in Laser Diodes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Turn-On Effects

17.3 Continuous Oscillations

17.4 Oscillations Related to Nonuniform Population Inversion

17.5 Diode Modulation

17.6 Summary


Appendix A Physical Constants

Appendix B Gain in Strong Fields and Lateral Multimoding

B.l Introduction

B.2 Spatial Modulation of the Gain and Multimoding

B.3 Optically Induced Saturation of Transition Probabilities

B.4 Spontaneous Power in the Lasing Region

B.5 Summary

Appendix C Pressure Effects o n Heterojunction Laser Diodes

C.l Uniaxial Stress

C.2 Hydrostatic Stress

Appendix D Atmosphere Attenuation of GaAs Laser Emission

Appendix E Single Mode Emission Line Width



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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
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About the Author

Henry Kressel

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