Semiconductor Lasers and Herterojunction LEDs

Semiconductor Lasers and Herterojunction LEDs

1st Edition - December 28, 1977

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  • Author: Henry Kressel
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144346

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Description

Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also considered. The book further tackles the heterojunction devices of alloys other than GaAs-AlAs; the devices for special applications; distributed-feedback lasers; and the transient effects in laser diodes. Students taking courses in semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs will find the book useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    1.1 Background

    1.2 Outline

    References

    Chapter 1 Resume of Relevant Concepts in Solid State Physics

    1.1 Crystal Structure

    1.2 Bonding and Band Structure

    1.3 Dopants

    1.4 Electron Distribution and Density of States

    1.5 Electron-Hole Pair Formation and Recombination

    1.6 Minority Carrier Diffusion

    1.7 Radiative Recombination Processes Other than Band-to-Band

    1.8 Nonradiative Recombination Processes

    References

    Chapter 2 p-n Junctions and Heterojunctions

    2.1 Current-Voltage Characteristics

    2.2 Junction Capacitance

    2.3 Heterojunctions

    2.4 Light-Current Relationships in Spontaneous Emission

    2.5 Diode Frequency Response as Limited by Carrier Lifetime

    References

    Chapter 3 Stimulated Emission and Gain

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Optical Gain in the Two-Level Atomic System

    3.3 Optical Gain in a Direct Bandgap Semiconductor

    3.4 The Fabry-Perot Cavity and Threshold Condition

    3.5 Laser Transitions

    References

    Chapter 4 Relevant Concepts in Electromagnetic Field Theory

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Maxwell's Equations

    4.3 Complex Dielectric Constant

    4.4 Boundary Conditions

    4.5 Poynting's Theorem

    4.6 Vector Wave Equation

    4.7 Plane Waves

    4.8 Plane Wave Reflection and Transmission at Plane Boundaries

    References

    Chapter 5 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Theory

    5.1 Laser Topology and Modes

    5.2 Waveguide Equations

    5.3 Wave Definitions

    5.4 Slab Waveguides

    5.5 Slab Waveguide Mode Characteristics

    5.6 Propagation in a Dissipative/Gain Medium

    5.7 Three-Dimensional Modes in Practical Structures

    5.8 Five-Layer Slab Waveguide Modes

    5.9 Modal Facet Reflectivity

    5.10 Mode Selection in Laser Structures

    References

    Chapter 6 Laser Radiation Fields

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Radiation from Slab Waveguides

    6.3 Boundary Solution of the Radiation Fields

    6.4 Modal Radiation Patterns from Slab Waveguides

    6.5 Radiation of Three-Layer Slab Modes

    6.6 Radiation from Two-Dimensional Waveguides

    References

    Chapter 7 Modes in Laser Structures: Mainly Experimental

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Double-Heterojunction Lasers

    7.3 Four-Heterojunction Lasers

    7.4 Asymmetrical Structures—Single-Heterojunction (Close-Confinement) Lasers

    7.5 Large Optical Cavity Lasers—Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Structures

    7.6 Experimental/Theoretical Radiation Patterns (Transverse Modes)

    7.7 Lateral "s" Modes

    7.8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 8 Relation between Electrical and Optical Properties of Laser Diodes

    8.1 Carrier Confinement and Injected Carrier Utilization

    8.2 Threshold Current Density and Differential Quantum Efficiency

    8.3 Temperature Dependence of Jth

    8.4 Optical Anomalies and Radiation Confinement Loss in Asymmetrical Heterojunction Lasers

    References

    Chapter 9 Epitaxial Technology

    9.1 Liquid Phase Epitaxy

    9.2 Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    9.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    9.4 Lattice Mismatch Effects

    9.5 Substrate Considerations

    References

    Chapter 10 Binary III-V Compounds

    10.1 Gallium Arsenide

    10.2 Gallium Phosphide

    10.3 Gallium Antimonide

    10.4 Indium Arsenide

    10.5 Indium Phosphide

    10.6 Aluminum Arsenide and Aluminum Phosphide

    References

    Chapter 11 Ternary and Quaternary III-V Compounds

    11.1 General Considerations

    11.2 Phase Diagrams—Introduction

    11.3 Principal Ternary Alloys

    11.4 Quaternary Compounds

    References

    Chapter 12 Diode Fabrication and Related Topics

    12.1 Junction Formation and Layer Characterization

    12.2 Some Key Properties of AlχGa1-χAs Relevant to Device Design

    12.3 Active Junction Area Definition

    12.4 Thermal Dissipation of Laser Diodes

    References

    Chapter 13 Heterojunction Devices of Alloys Other than GaAs-AlAs

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 IV- VI Compound Lasers

    13.3 III-V Compound Lasers

    13.4 Summary

    References

    Chapter 14 Devices for Special Applications

    14.1 High Peak Power, Pulsed Operation Laser Diodes

    14.2 Fiber Concepts Relevant to Optical Communications

    14.3 Near-Infrared CW Laser Diodes of (AlGa)As

    14.4 High Radiance Light-Emitting Diodes

    14.5 Visible Emission Laser Diodes

    14.6 General Purpose Heterojunction LEDs

    References

    Chapter 15 Distributed-Feedback Lasers

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Coupled Mode Analysis

    15.3 Solution of Coupled Modes

    15.4 GaAs-(AlGa)As DFB Lasers

    References

    Chapter 16 Device Reliability

    16.1 Facet (Catastrophic) Degradation

    16.2 Internal Damage Mechanisms

    16.3 Technology of Reliable Devices

    References

    Chapter 17 Transient Effects in Laser Diodes

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Turn-On Effects

    17.3 Continuous Oscillations

    17.4 Oscillations Related to Nonuniform Population Inversion

    17.5 Diode Modulation

    17.6 Summary

    References

    Appendix A Physical Constants

    Appendix B Gain in Strong Fields and Lateral Multimoding

    B.l Introduction

    B.2 Spatial Modulation of the Gain and Multimoding

    B.3 Optically Induced Saturation of Transition Probabilities

    B.4 Spontaneous Power in the Lasing Region

    B.5 Summary

    Appendix C Pressure Effects o n Heterojunction Laser Diodes

    C.l Uniaxial Stress

    C.2 Hydrostatic Stress

    Appendix D Atmosphere Attenuation of GaAs Laser Emission

    Appendix E Single Mode Emission Line Width

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 622
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: December 28, 1977
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144346

About the Author

Henry Kressel

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