Selected Topics in Environmental Biology

Selected Topics in Environmental Biology

Based on the Sessions on Environmental Biology Held at the XXVI International Congress of Physiological Sciences, New Delhi, October 20-26, 1974

1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Editors: Balraj Bhatia, G. S. Chhina, Baldev Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483188027

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Description

Selected Topics in Environmental Biology covers the proceedings of the 26th International Congress of Physiological Sciences on Environmental Biology, held in New Delhi, India on October 20-26, 1974. The symposium is arranged in the subjects of high altitude and under water physiology and the physiological effects of cold, heat, and accelerations. This book is organized into 13 sections encompassing 74 chapters. The opening part deals with the principles and mechanisms of thermoregulation, with emphasis on the role of neurotransmitters in temperature regulation. The succeeding parts examine metabolic aspects and adaptive mechanisms to cold and heat stress. These parts also survey the thyroid function, resistance, acclimatization, and nerve impulse effects of these conditions. Other parts discuss the hypothalamic control and susceptibility to hypothermia and thermal injury; the capacity of short-term and prolonged exposure to hypoxia; the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema; and the constitution and body functions in different ethnic groups. These topics are followed by reviews on the body adaptive changes under hypogravic state, biochemical changes induced by environmental pollution, and physiological behavior under noise, hyperbaric, and emotional stress. The last part describes the effect of environmental stress on diurnal variations in body functions. This book will prove useful to environmental biologists, physiologists, biochemists, and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Introduction

    Acknowledgment

    Section: I — Thermoregulation

    1. Neurotransmitters in Temperature Regulation

    2. Spinal Control of Temperature Regulation

    3. Density of Temperature Sensing Elements at Various Sites of the Body Core

    4. Localization and Efficiency of a Hypothalamic Multithermode in Conscious Goats

    5. Hypothalamic Thermosensitivity in Kangaroo Rats (dipodomys) during Wakefulness and Sleep

    6. Hypothalamic and Brainstem Control of Temperature Regulation

    7. A Hypothalamic Neuronal Model for Thermoregulation

    8. Interaction between Hypoxic and Thermal Stress with Particular Reference to Thermoregulatory Mechanism

    Section: II — Cold Stress

    9. Metabolic Aspects of Human Adaptation to Cold

    10. Thyroid Function in Rats with Changes in Environmental Conditions: Cold Exposure and Food intake level

    11. Effect of Duration of Cold Exposure and Water Temperature on Post-cold Exposure Drinking Response of Rats

    12. Cold Resistance and Metabolic Responses to Acute Cold Exposure in Rats Adapted to Cold and those on high Fat Diet

    13. Rabbit's Skin-temperature Fluctuation Caused by Cold Exposure

    14. Role of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline in Non-shivering Thermogenesis of Cold-acclimated Rats

    15. Cold Acclimation of Rabbit Ear Arteries and Nerves

    16. Nervous Mechanisms and Trace Reactions in Adaptation to Cold

    17. Changes in Neural and Hormonal Feed-backs to Hypothalamus and Blood Testosterone on Cold Exposure

    Section: III — Heat Stress

    18. Sweat Secretion during Acclimatization of Man to Heat

    19. Populational Physiology and the Problem of Resistance Adaptation

    20. Physical Performance of Heat Adapted Individuals

    21. Effect of Ambient Temperatures between 21°C and 35°C on the Responses to Progressive Exercise in Partially Acclimated Man

    22. Effects of Various Intensities of Heat on Origin and Spread of Nerve Impulses through Cortico-visceral Arch

    23. Heat Stress Effects upon Bovine Reproductive Cycle

    24. Effects of Working in Hot Environments with Different Degrees of Dehydration

    Section: IV — Hypothermia and Thermal Injury

    25. Status of Blood Acid-base at Low Temperature in Dogs

    26. Hypothermia and Physical Work Capacity of Swimming Man

    27. Hypothermia and Alphamethyldopa Treatment in Man

    28. The Effect of Hypothermia and Chlorpromazine on GABA and Taurine in the Mouse Brain

    29. Monosynpatic Reflex Response at Different Body Temperatures in Cats

    30. Hypothalamic Control of Cardio-respiratory Responses in Dogs during Hyperthermia

    31. Prediction of Susceptibility to Cold Injury in Monkeys

    Section: V — Adaption to Stress and Physical Work

    32. The Physiological Mechanisms of Adaptation of Organisms to Arid Zone Conditions

    33. Capacity Adaptations to Temperature in Poikilotherms

    34. Hormones and Adaptation

    35. Nervous System and Thermal Adaptation

    36. Reactivity of Peripheral Circulation of Men with different Physical Capacity

    37. Physical Work Capabilities of Men in Occupations with Restricted Movements

    38. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis and Physiological Significance of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids in some Millipedes

    Section: VI — Prolonged Exposure to Hypoxia

    39. Control of Ventilation during Hypoxic Exercise

    40. Adaptation to Chronic Hypoxia

    41. Ventilatory and Circulatory Adaptations to Tien Shan and the Pamirs Altitudes in Man

    42. The Regional Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow in Normal High Altitude Dwellers at 3650 m (12,200 ft) and in Chronic Mountain Sickness

    43. Cardio-respiratory Studies in Chronic Mountain Sickness (Monge's syndrome)

    44. Coronary Blood Flow and its Distribution under Hypoxia, in Rats Born and Staying at a Simulated Altitude of 3,500 m—comparison with Sea Level Controls and those Exposed to Simulated Altitude Later in Life

    45. Circulatory Adaptation at High Altitude

    46. Effect of O2 Breathing on Maximal Aerobic Power of Man Acclimated to High Altitude (Mt. Everest)

    47. Human Working Capacity at 15.000 feet Above Sea Level

    48. Individual and Species-specific Adaptation (Hypothalamus and Physiological Functions) under High Altitude Conditions

    49. Physiological Effects of Prolonged Stay at High Altitude

    Section: VII — Short Term Exposure Hypoxia

    50. Urine Output and Blood ADH in Rats under Different Grades of Hypoxia

    51. Respiratory Exchange under Conditions of Increasing Hypoxia in Rats

    52. Effect of Body Temperature on the Survival of Anesthetised Cats in Gradually Increasing Hypoxia

    53. Metabolic Correlates of Cold Acclimatization at Sea Level and High Altitude

    Section: VIII — Pulmonary Edema

    54. Factors Influencing the Development of Pulmonary Edema in Dogs with Left Ventricular Overload

    55. Effect of Hypoxia on Lung Micro Vascular Membrane Permeability in Unanesthetized Sheep

    56. High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema

    57. Effect of High Altitude Stress on Pulmonary Surface Tension in Rats

    Section: IX — Constitution and Body Functions in Different Ethnic Groups

    58. Differences Between Ethnic Groups in the Relationship of Skinfold Thickness to Body Density

    59. Peripheral Blood Flow in Different Ethnic Groups

    60. Why is the Lung Function of Hill People Superior to that of Plain Dwellers?

    Section: X — Speed, Acceleration and Gravity

    61. Motion Sickness in Skylab Astronauts

    62. Effect of Acceleration on Long Function in Man

    63. Hypergravics and Exercise

    64. Adaptive Changes in the Body during and after Exposure to Hypogravic State

    Section: XI — Enviromental Pollution

    65. Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Driving Behaviour

    66. Biochemical Changes Induced by di-2-ethyhexyl phthalate in Rat Liver

    67. Effect of some Chelating Agents and Polymers on Asbestos Induced Hemolysis and Macrophage Cytotoxicity

    Section: XII — Noise, Hyperbaric and Emotional Stress

    68. Objective Measurement of Noise Effect using a Physiological Behavior Test

    69. Mechanism of Air Embolism during Sudden Decompression

    70. Effect of Early Experience on [U14C] D-glucose Utilization by Rat Brain during Emotional Stress

    71. Sweat Studies in Patients with Palmar and Plantar Hyperhidrosis

    Section: XIII — Cyclic Variations in Body Functions

    72. Effects of Cold Exposure on Diurnal Variations of Food and Water Intake in Rats

    73. Effects of Intrahypothalamic Administration of Norepinephrine on the Feeding Response of the Rat under Conditions of Light and Darkness

    74. Effect of Cold exposure and Electrosleep on the Day-time Sleep Patterns in Human Subjects

Product details

  • No. of pages: 546
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483188027

About the Editors

Balraj Bhatia

G. S. Chhina

Baldev Singh

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