Selected Topics in Environmental Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080212104, 9781483188027

Selected Topics in Environmental Biology

1st Edition

Based on the Sessions on Environmental Biology Held at the XXVI International Congress of Physiological Sciences, New Delhi, October 20-26, 1974

Editors: Balraj Bhatia G. S. Chhina Baldev Singh
eBook ISBN: 9781483188027
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 546
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Selected Topics in Environmental Biology covers the proceedings of the 26th International Congress of Physiological Sciences on Environmental Biology, held in New Delhi, India on October 20-26, 1974. The symposium is arranged in the subjects of high altitude and under water physiology and the physiological effects of cold, heat, and accelerations.

This book is organized into 13 sections encompassing 74 chapters. The opening part deals with the principles and mechanisms of thermoregulation, with emphasis on the role of neurotransmitters in temperature regulation. The succeeding parts examine metabolic aspects and adaptive mechanisms to cold and heat stress. These parts also survey the thyroid function, resistance, acclimatization, and nerve impulse effects of these conditions. Other parts discuss the hypothalamic control and susceptibility to hypothermia and thermal injury; the capacity of short-term and prolonged exposure to hypoxia; the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema; and the constitution and body functions in different ethnic groups. These topics are followed by reviews on the body adaptive changes under hypogravic state, biochemical changes induced by environmental pollution, and physiological behavior under noise, hyperbaric, and emotional stress. The last part describes the effect of environmental stress on diurnal variations in body functions.

This book will prove useful to environmental biologists, physiologists, biochemists, and researchers.

Table of Contents



Section: I — Thermoregulation

1. Neurotransmitters in Temperature Regulation

2. Spinal Control of Temperature Regulation

3. Density of Temperature Sensing Elements at Various Sites of the Body Core

4. Localization and Efficiency of a Hypothalamic Multithermode in Conscious Goats

5. Hypothalamic Thermosensitivity in Kangaroo Rats (dipodomys) during Wakefulness and Sleep

6. Hypothalamic and Brainstem Control of Temperature Regulation

7. A Hypothalamic Neuronal Model for Thermoregulation

8. Interaction between Hypoxic and Thermal Stress with Particular Reference to Thermoregulatory Mechanism

Section: II — Cold Stress

9. Metabolic Aspects of Human Adaptation to Cold

10. Thyroid Function in Rats with Changes in Environmental Conditions: Cold Exposure and Food intake level

11. Effect of Duration of Cold Exposure and Water Temperature on Post-cold Exposure Drinking Response of Rats

12. Cold Resistance and Metabolic Responses to Acute Cold Exposure in Rats Adapted to Cold and those on high Fat Diet

13. Rabbit's Skin-temperature Fluctuation Caused by Cold Exposure

14. Role of Adrenaline and Noradrenaline in Non-shivering Thermogenesis of Cold-acclimated Rats

15. Cold Acclimation of Rabbit Ear Arteries and Nerves

16. Nervous Mechanisms and Trace Reactions in Adaptation to Cold

17. Changes in Neural and Hormonal Feed-backs to Hypothalamus and Blood Testosterone on Cold Exposure

Section: III — Heat Stress

18. Sweat Secretion during Acclimatization of Man to Heat

19. Populational Physiology and the Problem of Resistance Adaptation

20. Physical Performance of Heat Adapted Individuals

21. Effect of Ambient Temperatures between 21°C and 35°C on the Responses to Progressive Exercise in Partially Acclimated Man

22. Effects of Various Intensities of Heat on Origin and Spread of Nerve Impulses through Cortico-visceral Arch

23. Heat Stress Effects upon Bovine Reproductive Cycle

24. Effects of Working in Hot Environments with Different Degrees of Dehydration

Section: IV — Hypothermia and Thermal Injury

25. Status of Blood Acid-base at Low Temperature in Dogs

26. Hypothermia and Physical Work Capacity of Swimming Man

27. Hypothermia and Alphamethyldopa Treatment in Man

28. The Effect of Hypothermia and Chlorpromazine on GABA and Taurine in the Mouse Brain

29. Monosynpatic Reflex Response at Different Body Temperatures in Cats

30. Hypothalamic Control of Cardio-respiratory Responses in Dogs during Hyperthermia

31. Prediction of Susceptibility to Cold Injury in Monkeys

Section: V — Adaption to Stress and Physical Work

32. The Physiological Mechanisms of Adaptation of Organisms to Arid Zone Conditions

33. Capacity Adaptations to Temperature in Poikilotherms

34. Hormones and Adaptation

35. Nervous System and Thermal Adaptation

36. Reactivity of Peripheral Circulation of Men with different Physical Capacity

37. Physical Work Capabilities of Men in Occupations with Restricted Movements

38. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis and Physiological Significance of Cyclopropane Fatty Acids in some Millipedes

Section: VI — Prolonged Exposure to Hypoxia

39. Control of Ventilation during Hypoxic Exercise

40. Adaptation to Chronic Hypoxia

41. Ventilatory and Circulatory Adaptations to Tien Shan and the Pamirs Altitudes in Man

42. The Regional Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow in Normal High Altitude Dwellers at 3650 m (12,200 ft) and in Chronic Mountain Sickness

43. Cardio-respiratory Studies in Chronic Mountain Sickness (Monge's syndrome)

44. Coronary Blood Flow and its Distribution under Hypoxia, in Rats Born and Staying at a Simulated Altitude of 3,500 m—comparison with Sea Level Controls and those Exposed to Simulated Altitude Later in Life

45. Circulatory Adaptation at High Altitude

46. Effect of O2 Breathing on Maximal Aerobic Power of Man Acclimated to High Altitude (Mt. Everest)

47. Human Working Capacity at 15.000 feet Above Sea Level

48. Individual and Species-specific Adaptation (Hypothalamus and Physiological Functions) under High Altitude Conditions

49. Physiological Effects of Prolonged Stay at High Altitude

Section: VII — Short Term Exposure Hypoxia

50. Urine Output and Blood ADH in Rats under Different Grades of Hypoxia

51. Respiratory Exchange under Conditions of Increasing Hypoxia in Rats

52. Effect of Body Temperature on the Survival of Anesthetised Cats in Gradually Increasing Hypoxia

53. Metabolic Correlates of Cold Acclimatization at Sea Level and High Altitude

Section: VIII — Pulmonary Edema

54. Factors Influencing the Development of Pulmonary Edema in Dogs with Left Ventricular Overload

55. Effect of Hypoxia on Lung Micro Vascular Membrane Permeability in Unanesthetized Sheep

56. High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema

57. Effect of High Altitude Stress on Pulmonary Surface Tension in Rats

Section: IX — Constitution and Body Functions in Different Ethnic Groups

58. Differences Between Ethnic Groups in the Relationship of Skinfold Thickness to Body Density

59. Peripheral Blood Flow in Different Ethnic Groups

60. Why is the Lung Function of Hill People Superior to that of Plain Dwellers?

Section: X — Speed, Acceleration and Gravity

61. Motion Sickness in Skylab Astronauts

62. Effect of Acceleration on Long Function in Man

63. Hypergravics and Exercise

64. Adaptive Changes in the Body during and after Exposure to Hypogravic State

Section: XI — Enviromental Pollution

65. Carbon Monoxide Exposure and Driving Behaviour

66. Biochemical Changes Induced by di-2-ethyhexyl phthalate in Rat Liver

67. Effect of some Chelating Agents and Polymers on Asbestos Induced Hemolysis and Macrophage Cytotoxicity

Section: XII — Noise, Hyperbaric and Emotional Stress

68. Objective Measurement of Noise Effect using a Physiological Behavior Test

69. Mechanism of Air Embolism during Sudden Decompression

70. Effect of Early Experience on [U14C] D-glucose Utilization by Rat Brain during Emotional Stress

71. Sweat Studies in Patients with Palmar and Plantar Hyperhidrosis

Section: XIII — Cyclic Variations in Body Functions

72. Effects of Cold Exposure on Diurnal Variations of Food and Water Intake in Rats

73. Effects of Intrahypothalamic Administration of Norepinephrine on the Feeding Response of the Rat under Conditions of Light and Darkness

74. Effect of Cold exposure and Electrosleep on the Day-time Sleep Patterns in Human Subjects


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About the Editor

Balraj Bhatia

G. S. Chhina

Baldev Singh

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