Seismic Imaging Methods and Applications for Oil and Gas Exploration

Seismic Imaging Methods and Applications for Oil and Gas Exploration

1st Edition - March 16, 2022

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  • Authors: Yasir Bashir, Amir Abbas Babasafari, Abdul Rahim Md Arshad, Seyed Yaser Moussavi Alashloo, Abdul Halim Latiff, Rosita Hamidi, Shiba Rezaei, Teresa Ratnam, Chico Sambo, Deva Ghosh
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323919463
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323918879

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Description

Seismic Imaging Methods and Application for Oil and Gas Exploration connects the legacy of field data processing and imaging with new research methods using diffractions and anisotropy in the field of geophysics. Topics covered include seismic data acquisition, seismic data processing, seismic wave modeling, high-resolution imaging, and anisotropic modeling and imaging. This book is a necessary resource for geophysicist working in the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries, as well as for students and academics in exploration geophysics.

Key Features

  • Provides detailed methods that are used in the industry, including advice on which methods to use in specific situations
  • Compares classical methods with the latest technologies to improve practice and application in the real world
  • Includes case studies for further explanation of methods described in the book

Readership

Geophysicists and exploration geologists working in Oil & Gas and Mineral Exploration Industry. Researchers and students in geophysics and exploration geoscience.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • About the authors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Seismic data acquisition including survey design and factors affecting seismic acquisition
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Geophysical factors affecting seismic acquisition
  • 1.3 Survey design
  • 1.4 Land, marine, transition zone, and borehole seismic data acquisition
  • 1.5 Ocean bottom cable and ocean bottom node
  • 1.6 Land and marine sources and receivers
  • 1.7 2D versus 3D seismic
  • 1.8 Advances in seismic data acquisition
  • 1.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Seismic data processing
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Short-time Fourier transform
  • 2.3 Wavelet transform
  • 2.4 Factors affecting seismic reflection amplitude
  • 2.5 Acquisition footprint
  • 2.6 Wavefield divergence corrections
  • 2.7 Absorption correction (anelastic attenuation)
  • 2.8 Ground roll and linear noise attenuation
  • 2.9 Swell noise attenuation
  • 2.10 Deconvolution
  • 2.11 Velocity analysis
  • 2.12 Multiple attenuation
  • 2.13 Advances in seismic data processing
  • 2.14 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Seismic wave modeling and high-resolution imaging
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Wavefronts and huygens principle
  • 3.3 Geometrical aspect of migration
  • 3.4 Theory and practice of seismic diffraction
  • 3.5 Diffraction modeling
  • 3.6 Reasoning behind diffraction
  • 3.7 Logical explanation of diffraction
  • 3.8 Amplitude interpretation
  • 3.9 Constructive and destructive interference
  • 3.10 2D/3D behavior of diffraction curves
  • 3.11 Imaging in 2D or 3D
  • 3.12 Seismic imaging/migration algorithm
  • 3.13 Diffraction separation algorithms
  • 3.14 Developed workflows for diffraction separation and imaging
  • 3.15 Effect of frequency and migration aperture on seismic diffraction imaging
  • 3.16 Importance of seismic diffraction for fracture imaging
  • 3.17 Algorithm for diffraction preservation separation methods
  • 3.18 2D synthetic data example: the complex Marmousi model
  • 3.19 Effect of offset on diffraction hyperbola
  • 3.20 Effect of angle stack on diffraction amplitude
  • 3.21 Application on real field data
  • 3.22 A new algorithm for advance wave modeling and high-resolution diffraction imaging
  • 3.23 Full wave-equation finite difference modeling
  • 3.24 Low-rank approximation
  • 3.25 Discussion and conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4. Anisotropic modeling and imaging
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Theory: weak elastic anisotropy approximation for VTI media
  • 4.3 Numerical examples: weak anisotropy
  • 4.4 Theory of TTI pseudo-acoustic wave equation
  • 4.5 Numerical examples: pseudo-acoustic wave simulation in a TTI media
  • 4.6 VTI travel times for prestack depth imaging
  • 4.7 Numerical examples: PDM using VTI fast-marching travel times
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 5. Geological reservoir modeling and seismic reservoir monitoring
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Static reservoir modeling
  • 5.3 Reserve estimation and uncertainty analysis
  • 5.4 Dynamic reservoir modeling
  • 5.5 4D seismic monitoring and reservoir surveillance
  • 5.6 Drilling optimization
  • 5.7 Economic evaluation
  • 5.8 Complementary aspects in reservoir characterization and modeling
  • 5.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 308
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: March 16, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323919463
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323918879

About the Authors

Yasir Bashir

Yasir Bashir
Yasir Bashir is an assistant professor at School of Physics, Geophysics Section in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. He earned his PhD in Petroleum Geosciences from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, and master’s in computer science as well as in Geophysics from Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. He worked as Research Scientist in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia for 5 years and with OGDCL, Pakistan as Geophysicist. Technical background includes in aspects of developing algorithms including Machine learning for Seismic data processing, Imaging and developing workflow for seismic inversion and prospect evaluation together with hands-on practice. Participated as a team member and leader in several research projects from PETRONAS, Hitachi, UTP, and OGDCL such as Seismic anisotropy imaging, Seismic computing research, Pre-image processing & Diffraction Imaging, PSTM, PSDM, and QI. Research outcomes have recognized and presented in international conferences (SEG, EAGE, OTC, IPTC, and APGCE) and Journals publications. Problem solver with strengths in workflow development and quality control. Effective leadership skills in mixed-gender and multi-ethnic groups. Strong academic background with PETRONAS Institute of Technology, Malaysia. He is a member of SEG, EAGE, PGN, GSM, and PAPG.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, School of Physics, Geophysics Section, University of Science Malaysia, Malaysia

Amir Abbas Babasafari

Amir Abbas Babasafari
Amir Abbas Babasafari is a reservoir geophysicist with over 10 years of experience in oil and gas industry. He received B.S. (2006) in mining exploration and M.S. (2008) in geophysics (exploration seismology). After that, he worked as a geophysicist in the oil and gas industry from 2008 to 2017 in Iran and got involved in several exploration as well as field development megaprojects. His main expertise is seismic data interpretation and reservoir characterization where he achieved invaluable experiences in clastic and carbonate reservoirs. He has recently obtained his Ph.D. degree in petroleum geoscience (seismic exploration) at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia (January 2020). His interests range widely, from seismic data processing to interpretation. However, he is more interested in seismic data interpretation, velocity model building, rock physics modeling, seismic data inversion, anisotropic AVO analysis, machine learning techniques for petrophysical properties prediction and lithofacies classification, seismic fracture study, pore pressure prediction, and 4D (time lapse) studies. He is currently a postdoctoral research fellow at Center for Petroleum Studies of Campinas University, Brazil. He is eager to learn and discover new aspects of exploration and also share his experiences with others.

Affiliations and Expertise

1 Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Geoscience Department, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia 2 State University of Campinas, Center for Petroleum Studies, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Abdul Rahim Md Arshad

Abdul Rahim Md Arshad
Abdul Rahim Md Arshad received his BSc in geophysics from the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada in 1987. From 1989 to 2001, he was a geophysicist with PETRONAS Research & Scientific Services Sdn Bhd working on specialized seismic processing projects that include velocity model building, depth migration and AVO analysis. In 2001, he joined Veritas DGC Sdn Bhd as a Processing Manager. CGG merged with Veritas in 2007. Abdul Rahim remained with CGG until 2016 when he left the company as a Geophysical Supervisor. He was an Adjunct Lecturer with the Department of Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) from 2014-2016. Abdul Rahim is currently pursuing a PhD with UTP. His research interests include demultiple, non-linear imaging, velocity modeling and Marchenko redatuming. En Abdul Rahim is an Active Member of SEG since 2001 and a Member of EAGE since 2006.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, Center of Subsurface Imaging (CSI), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Seyed Yaser Moussavi Alashloo

Seyed Yaser Moussavi Alashloo
Seyed Yaser Moussavi Alashloo is an assistant professor in Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Centre of Seismic Imaging (CSI), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) for two years. He obtained his Ph.D. in petroleum geosciences from UTP in 2017, with focus on seismic imaging, seismic anisotropy and wave propagation. He received his MSc. in applied geophysics from Universiti Sains Malaysia. He collaborated with PETONAS R&D department in different projects to develop anisotropic wave modeling and anisotropic traveltime computing algorithms to improve the resolution and imaging capabilities. His current research deals with the wave propagation and wavefield continuation imaging techniques, and application of least squares RTM in near surface and complex crustal scale geologies. He is a member of EAGE, SEG, and EGU.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Abdul Halim Latiff

Abdul Halim Latiff
Abdul Halim Abdul Latiff is currently leading the Centre for Subsurface Seismic Imaging (CSI), an oil and gas industry-oriented research centre in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). He obtained his MSc and Doctorate from UTP and Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) respectively with special interest in seismic acquisition and deep-earth seismology. His main area of expertise is in seismic processing and imaging, both for active and passive seismic (including earthquake seismology). With several years as an industry practitioner with CGG Malaysia as well as researcher and academician with UTP, Halim is on a mission to spread the knowledge in geosciences and nurturing more earth scientist for a sustainable and better future.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Center of Subsurface Imaging (CSI), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Rosita Hamidi

Rosita Hamidi
Rosita Hamidi is Research Geophysicist at Center of Subsurface Imaging (CSI), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). Rosita’s research is mainly focused on development of Deep Learning based algorithms in seismic data analysis. With background in seismic attributes studies and reservoir characterisation, she implements Deep Neural Network architectures for seismic auto-interpretation and property prediction. The results have been presented in several international journals, conferences and meetings. Rosita received her Ph.D. in Petroleum Engineering- Exploration from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic). Prior to joining UTP, she worked at National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) as an Exploration Engineer and was involved in the exploration activities in offshore and onshore prospects in Iran.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Geophysicist, Center of Subsurface Imaging (CSI), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Shiba Rezaei

Shiba Rezaei
Shiba Rezaei is an Exploration Geophysicist and she received the B.Tech. and M.Sc. degree in Petroleum Geoscience from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS in 2017 and 2020, respectively. She has worked as an intern at PETRONAS Carigali prior to completing her undergraduate studies where she focused on reservoir static modelling project. During master’s program she served as a graduate research assistant at the Centre of Seismic Imaging (CSI), where she was responsible for “Time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring for pore pressure and water saturation estimation” project. Her current research interests are time-lapse seismic reservoir monitoring, seismic data analysis and inversion, and artificial intelligence field which motivates her to pursue her studies in earth sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Graduate research assistant at the Centre of Seismic Imaging (CSI)

Teresa Ratnam

Teresa Ratnam
Teresa Ratnam Obtained a Bachelor of Engineering in Petroleum Engineering majoring in Reservoir Engineering from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP). Proceeded to obtain her Master's in Petroleum Geoscience by research. Her research covered the topics of reservoir modeling, seismic inversion, and machine learning

Chico Sambo

Chico Sambo
Chico Sambo is a Ph.D candidate in petroleum engineering at Louisiana State University, USA. He completed his master from university of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA. He graduated in 2017 with bachelor’s degree from university Technology PETRONAS, Malaysia. He worked at center of seismic and hydrocarbon prediction for more than two years as research officer. His research interest includes the application of machine learning and artificial intelligence technology in oil and gas industry. He has published more than 10 international conferences and peer review articles. Currently, he serves as editor of international journal of Advances in Geo-Energy (AGER) and serves as a reviewer to the journal of natural gas science and engineering, petroleum science and engineering

Affiliations and Expertise

Ph.D candidate in petroleum engineering at Louisiana State University, USA.

Deva Ghosh

Deva Ghosh
The late Deva Prasad Ghosh was a Professor in Geophysics at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, appointed in 2011, and teaches the undergraduate and postgraduate course in geophysics. He is appointed Head of the Centre of Seismic Imaging (CSI), where innovative research in seismic, development of state-of-the-art algorithms are undertaken for use by the industry, particularly PETRONAS. His center has produced to date 10 PhD and several masters students by research. Prior to that he was Custodian of geophysics and research advisor for PETRONAS research. Dr. Ghosh in his early years (1974-1999) was with Shell International working in Europe, USA and West Africa in various technological and management position. He has BSc and master’s degree from Banaras University India and PhD from Delft University, Holland. He is both EAGE and SEG Honorary Lecturer

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor in Geophysics at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Deceased)

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