Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration

Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration

1st Edition - September 26, 2013

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  • Author: Enwenode Onajite
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124200296
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124200234

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Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration explains the fundamental concepts and skills used to acquire seismic data in the oil industry and the step-by-step techniques necessary to extract the sections that trap hydrocarbons as well as seismic data interpretation skills. It enhances the ability to interpret seismic data and use that data for basin evaluation, structural modeling of a fault, reservoir characterization, rock physics analysis, field development, and production studies. Understanding and interpreting seismic data is critical to oil and gas exploration companies. Arming young geoscientists with a reference that covers the key principles of seismic data analysis will enhance their job knowledge, skills and performance. A fundamental grasp of seismic data enhances employability and aids scientists in functioning effectively when working with seismic data in industry.

Key Features

  • Edited by a team of petroleum geoscientists with more than 30 years of experience in hydrocarbon exploration and data analysis at O&G companies.
  • More than 200 figures, photographs, and illustrations aid in the understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques used to acquire seismic data
  • Takes an easy-to-follow, step-by-step approach to presenting the techniques and skills used to extract the geologic sections from acquired seismic data.
  • Enhances the geoscientist’s effectiveness when using seismic data for field development and other exploration and production studies


Primary audience includes exploration geoscientists and seismologists in O&G. Secondary audience includes students at the upper undergraduate/graduate levels.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements



    Things to Learn When You Read ‘The Practical Handbook’

    I: Basic Sedimentology and Seismic Data Acquisition

    Chapter 1. Sedimentation and Oil/Gas Formation


    Geologic Timescale of the Earth

    Basin Formation

    Rock Types

    Oil and Gas Formation

    Oil and Gas Traps

    Chapter 2. Understanding Seismic Wave Propagation


    Types of Seismic Waves

    Wave Parameters

    Seismic Reflection

    Critical Angle

    Reflection Coefficient

    Transmission Coefficient

    Understanding Convolution



    Time Domain

    Frequency Domain

    Fourier Transform

    Inverse Fourier Transform

    Chapter 3. Understanding Seismic Exploration


    Seismic Data Acquisition

    Onshore Seismic Source

    Onshore Seismic Recording

    Seismic Trace

    Fold of Coverage

    How to Calculate Fold of Coverage

    Marine Seismic Survey

    Offshore Seismic Source

    Marine Seismic Data Recording

    Two-Dimensional Seismic Data (2D)

    Problem with 2D Seismic Data

    3D Seismic Data

    Benefits of 3D Survey

    4D (3D-Time Lapse) Seismic Surveys

    Benefits of 4D Survey

    Similarity Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Surveys

    Difference Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Survey

    Ocean Bottom Node (OBN)

    Objective of OBN Survey

    OBN Seismic Source


    Uses of OBN Survey

    Comparison Between OBN and OBC (3D Streamer Survey)

    Recording Seismic Data on Tape

    Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

    Issues with Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

    Difference Between Multiplexed and De-Multiplexed

    Standard Way Seismic Data Is Stored

    Chapter 4. Understanding Noise in Seismic Record


    Types of Noise on Seismic Record

    Random Noise

    Source-Generated Noise

    Further Reading

    II: Detailed Seismic Data Processing Techniques

    Chapter 5. Understanding the Detail Seismic Processing Techniques Used to Convert the Acquired Seismic Data into the Geologic Section of the Earth


    What is Seismic Data Processing


    Observer Log

    Spherical Divergence

    Automatic Gain Control (AGC)

    Refraction Statics

    Statics Correction

    Datum and Floating Datum

    Noise Attenuation

    Trace Editing

    Polarity Reversal

    Chapter 6. Understanding CMP Binning and Sorting


    CMP Binning


    How Data in a Seismic Line Are Sorted

    Chapter 7. Understanding Deconvolution


    Deconvolution Process

    Different Kinds of Wavelet Generated by Seismic Sources

    Minimum-Phase Wavelet

    Zero-Phase Wavelet

    Mixed-Phase Wavelet

    How to Estimate the Source Wavelet Use for Deconvolution

    Inverse Filter

    Parameters That Control Deconvolution

    Types of Deconvolution

    Chapter 8. Understanding Sample Data


    Sample Data

    Sample Periods/Rate

    Frequencies Content of Seismic Data at Various Sample Periods


    Nyquist Frequency

    Resampled Seismic Data

    Seismic Bandwidth

    When Are the Acquired Seismic Data Resampled in the Processing Sequence?


    Let’s Define Some Important Concept Relating to Filtering

    Spatial Resampling

    Chapter 9. Understanding NMO, Velocity Analysis DMO, and Stacking


    Normal Move-Out

    How to Determine the Magnitude of Correction Required to Flatten the Hyperbolic Event

    NMO Correction

    Dynamic Correction

    NMO Stretch

    Different Kinds of Seismic Velocities

    The Dix Formula

    Velocity Analysis

    Potential Problems in Velocity Picking

    Quality Control of Picked Velocities

    Velocity Field

    DIP Move-Out

    Super Gathering


    CMP/CDP Stacking

    Different Stacking Methods

    Chapter 10. Understanding Multiple Reflections


    Characteristics of Multiple Reflections

    Problems Cause by Multiples

    De-Multiple Technique

    FK De-Multiple

    Parabolic Transform De-Multiple

    Chapter 11. Understanding Residual Statics


    Residual Statics Correction

    How to Build a Pilot Trace Section

    Chapter 12. Understanding Seismic Migration


    Migration Velocity

    Understanding Geologic Structures on Seismic Sections

    Time Migration

    Depth Migration

    Difference Between Time and Depth Migrations

    Pre-Stack Migration

    Post-Stack Migration

    Comparison Between Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Migrations

    Final Filter Applied to Seismic Data

    Further Reading

    III: Seismic Data Interpretation Methodology

    Chapter 13. Understanding Seismic Interpretation Methodology


    Objective of Seismic Data Interpretation

    Understanding the Seismic Data

    Data Set Used for Seismic Interpretation

    Comparison between Seismic and Well Data

    Well Log Correlation

    Well-to-Seismic Tie

    Synthetic Seismogram

    Understanding Velocity

    Time-to-Depth Conversion Technique

    Fault Picking

    Fault Slice

    Seismic Horizon Interpretation and Mapping

    What Is a Horizon?

    Seismic Horizon Mapping

    How to Generate Time Structure Map

    Depth Conversion

    Chapter 14. Understanding Reflection Coefficient


    Reflection Coefficient at Normal Incidence

    Reflection Coefficient at an Angle

    Poisson’s Ratio

    Understanding Seismic Amplitude

    Reservoir Impedance Contrast and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators

    Propagating Seismic Velocity Values in Media

    Further Reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: September 26, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124200296
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124200234

About the Author

Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, M.Sc, is a former research reservoir geophysicist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC). He is now an independent research reservoir geophysicist, as well as an associate member of the Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and a member of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). He is the author of Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration, published with Elsevier in 2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE), Nigeria, and Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), Nigeria

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