Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration

1st Edition

Authors: Enwenode Onajite
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124200234
eBook ISBN: 9780124200296
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th October 2013
Page Count: 256
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Seismic Data Analysis Techniques in Hydrocarbon Exploration explains the fundamental concepts and skills used to acquire seismic data in the oil industry and the step-by-step techniques necessary to extract the sections that trap hydrocarbons as well as seismic data interpretation skills.

It enhances the ability to interpret seismic data and use that data for basin evaluation, structural modeling of a fault, reservoir characterization, rock physics analysis, field development, and production studies.

Understanding and interpreting seismic data is critical to oil and gas exploration companies. Arming young geoscientists with a reference that covers the key principles of seismic data analysis will enhance their job knowledge, skills and performance. A fundamental grasp of seismic data enhances employability and aids scientists in functioning effectively when working with seismic data in industry.

Key Features

  • Edited by a team of petroleum geoscientists with more than 30 years of experience in hydrocarbon exploration and data analysis at O&G companies.
  • More than 200 figures, photographs, and illustrations aid in the understanding of the fundamental concepts and techniques used to acquire seismic data
  • Takes an easy-to-follow, step-by-step approach to presenting the techniques and skills used to extract the geologic sections from acquired seismic data.
  • Enhances the geoscientist’s effectiveness when using seismic data for field development and other exploration and production studies



Primary audience includes exploration geoscientists and seismologists in O&G. Secondary audience includes students at the upper undergraduate/graduate levels.

Table of Contents




Things to Learn When You Read ‘The Practical Handbook’

I: Basic Sedimentology and Seismic Data Acquisition

Chapter 1. Sedimentation and Oil/Gas Formation


Geologic Timescale of the Earth

Basin Formation

Rock Types

Oil and Gas Formation

Oil and Gas Traps

Chapter 2. Understanding Seismic Wave Propagation


Types of Seismic Waves

Wave Parameters

Seismic Reflection

Critical Angle

Reflection Coefficient

Transmission Coefficient

Understanding Convolution



Time Domain

Frequency Domain

Fourier Transform

Inverse Fourier Transform

Chapter 3. Understanding Seismic Exploration


Seismic Data Acquisition

Onshore Seismic Source

Onshore Seismic Recording

Seismic Trace

Fold of Coverage

How to Calculate Fold of Coverage

Marine Seismic Survey

Offshore Seismic Source

Marine Seismic Data Recording

Two-Dimensional Seismic Data (2D)

Problem with 2D Seismic Data

3D Seismic Data

Benefits of 3D Survey

4D (3D-Time Lapse) Seismic Surveys

Benefits of 4D Survey

Similarity Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Surveys

Difference Between the Baseline and the Monitor 3D Survey

Ocean Bottom Node (OBN)

Objective of OBN Survey

OBN Seismic Source


Uses of OBN Survey

Comparison Between OBN and OBC (3D Streamer Survey)

Recording Seismic Data on Tape

Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

Issues with Recording Multi-Channel Seismic Data

Difference Between Multiplexed and De-Multiplexed

Standard Way Seismic Data Is Stored

Chapter 4. Understand


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About the Author

Enwenode Onajite

Enwenode Onajite, PhD is a research scientist with Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria limited (SPDC) with a specific research focus on understanding the use of seismic data in oil and gas exploration. He is an Associate member of Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE) and Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Petroleum Geoscience, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria


"…the book probably belongs on every beginning geophysical student’s bookshelf or at least in the department library...readers will gain an appreciation for the factors that might limit the accuracy of a seismic interpretation."--The Leading Edge, January 2015

“This book was recommended by my professor this semester for the course in Engineering and Exploration Geophysics and I must say - This is the best book I’ve seen around. The book talks to the reader. A job well done”. -- Jubril Davis, North Carolina State University, USA

"As far as exploration geophysics is concerned, it’s one of the best books I read in my life. The book covers in a very simple comprehensive manner, all geophysicist should keep in his library for reference. Expecting similar type of books in the future.” -- Vishnu Rajanbabu, Sr.Geophysicist/Seismic Interpreter at Reliance BP Exploration & Production Ltd, India

“This book would be a great benefit for all those concerned with seismic data analysis”. -- Mourad Wassef, CEO at Petromina Energy, Egypt