Screening Methods in Pharmacology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232669, 9781483261607

Screening Methods in Pharmacology

1st Edition

Authors: Robert Turner
eBook ISBN: 9781483261607
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 348
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Screening Methods in Pharmacology focuses on the methods for screening substances for pharmacological activities and discussions of organization of screening programs.
The manuscript first offers information on the biochemistry of the nervous system and organization of screening, as well as mechanisms of drug effects within the autonomic system; mechanisms within the parasympathetic and symphatetic systems; and neuropharmacological tests in blind screening. The book also takes a look at general and quantal responses.
The publication reviews depressants of the central nervous system and ataractic (tranquillizing, neuroleptic) agents. Topics include natatory exhaustion, motor deficit, righting reflex, pentylenetetrazol (metrazol) antagonism, head-withdrawal reflex, and avoidance of electrical shock. The book also ponders on analgesics and oxytoxic, antiserotonin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Discussions focus on narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics, erythema, inhibition of ascites, and pleural fluid.
The manuscript is a valuable reference for readers interested in the screening methods in pharmacology.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 A Brief Review of the Biochemistry of the Nervous System

I. Chemical Mediators

II. Some Mechanisms of Drug Effects Within the Autonomic System

III. Mechanisms Within the Parasympathetic System

IV. Mechanisms Within the Sympathetic System

Chapter 3 The Organization of Screening

I. Introduction

II. Further Remarks On Blind Screening

III. Neuropharmacological Tests in Blind Screening

IV. An Alternative Schedule

V. Tests Other Than Neuropharmacological

VI. Tests Subsequent to Those in Blind Screening

Chapter 4 General Methods

I. Introduction

II. Tests On Isolated Organs

III. The Guinea Pig Ileum

IV. The Vas Deferens of the Guinea Pig

V. The Jejunum of the Rat

VI. The Seminal Vesicle of the Rat

VII. Seminal Vesicle of the Guinea Pig

VII. Fundus Strip of the Rat

Ix. The Duodenum of the Rat

X. Other Isolated Organs

Xi. Cardiovascular Tests (Electrical and Chemical)

XII. Food Consumption

Chapter 5 Quantal Responses. Calculation of the ED50

I. Introduction

II. Graphical Calculation of Miller and Tainter

III. Arithmetical Method of Reed and Muench

IV. Arithmetical Method of Kärber

V. The pA Scale

VI. Tests With Superfusion; Drug Antagonism

VII. The Graphical Method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon

Chapter 6 Depressants of the Central Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. The Righting Reflex

III. Antagonism to Various Chemical Stimulants

IV. Palpebrai Test

V. Runway Test For Thirsty Rats

VI. Motor Deficit

VII. Motor Control On An Inclined Plane

VII. Natatory Exhaustion

Ix. Amphetamine Antagonism

X. Motor Activity

XI. Cornea and Pinna Reflexes

XII. Pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol) Antagonism

XII. A Test Group For Central Depressants

XIV. Central Anesthetics

Chapter 7 Ataractic (Tranquillizing, Neuroleptic) Agents

I. Introduction

II. Behavioral Test Group

III. Ratio of Reflexes in the Mouse

IV. Avoidance of Electrical Shock. A Test of Suppression of A Conditioned Response

V. Suppression of Combativeness

VI. Head-Withdrawal Reflex

VII. Yohimbine Syndrome

VII.. Open Field Test

IX. Conclusion

Chapter 8 Analgesics

I. Introduction

II. Narcotic Analgesics

III. Nonnarcotic Analgesics

Chapter 9 Oxytocic Agents

I. Introduction

II. Qualitative Test For Uterine Stimulation

III. Quantitative Procedure

IV. Tests Performed On The Uterus in Situ

Chapter 10 Antiserotonin Agents

I. The Isolated Uterus of the Rat

II. Isolated Uterus Bathed in Antagonist

III. Uterus Bathed in Antagonist. Alternative Method

IV. Antiedema Test On The Foot of the Rat

V. Cardiovascular Test On The Dog Given Chlorisondamine

VI. Antagonism to Serotonin-Induced Convulsions

VII. Ileum of the Guinea Pig; D Receptors

VII. Pyretogenic Effects

Chapter 11 Parasympatholytic Agents

I. Mydriasis

II. Antisialagogue Activity

III. Prevention of Intestinal Spasm

IV. Lacrimation

V. Tests in VItro

VI. Gastrointestinal Propulsion

Chapter 12 Sympatholytic Agents

I. Introduction

II. Epinephrine Antagonism

III. Prolapse of the Nictitating Membrane

IV. Blood Pressure of the Rat; The ADC

V. Splenic Strip of the Cat

VI. The Two Kinds of Receptor

VII. The Perfused Rabbit Ear

Chapter 13 Anti-Inflammatory Agents

I. Introduction

II. Pedal Inflammation Induced by Chemical Agents

III. Implantation of A Pellet

IV. Granuloma Pouch

V. Erythema

VI. Tuberculin Sensitivity

VII. Inhibition of Ascites

VII.. Hyaluronidase Inhibition

IX. Pleural Fluid

X. Freund's Adjuvant

Chapter 14 Anticonvulsants

I. Introduction

II. Convulsions Induced by Chemicals

III. Convulsions Induced by Electroshock

IV. Combined Procedures

V. Tryptamine Potentiation and Antagonism

VI. Tremorine

VII. The Rapid Screening For Myorelaxant Agents

Chapter 15 Sympathomimetic Agents

I. Introduction

II. Mydriasis

III. The Uterus and Ascending Colon of the Rat

IV. The Rectal Cecum of the Hen

V. The Isolated Spleen of the Cat

Chapter 16 Central Stimulants

I. Introduction

II. Analeptic Agents

III. "Sandauswurf" (Displacement of Sand)

IV. Registration of Motor Activity

V. Runway Test

VI. Ptosis Test

VII. "Zwangsnagen" Induced by Apomorphine

VII. Intracerebral Test

IX. Ingestion of Food; Anoretic and Central Stimulant Activity

X. Duration of Anesthesia; Respiratory Analeptics

Chapter 17 Muscaring Agents

I. The Isolated Eye of Rodents

II. The Isolated Trachea of the Rat

Chapter 18 Ganglion-Blocking Agents

I. Introduction

II. Antagonism of Nicotine

III. The Inferior Eyelid of the Rat

IV. The Blood Pressure of the Upright Rabbit

Chapter 19 Antifibrillatory Agents

I. Introduction

II. Arrhythmia Induced by Acetylcholine and Potassium Deficiency

III. Arrhythmia Induced by Aconitine

IV. Arrhythmia Induced by Maximum Frequency

V. Ventricular Arrhythmia Induced by Calcium

Chapter 20 Cardiotonic Agents

I. The Papillary Muscle of the Cat

II. The Atrium of the Cat and the Rat

III. The Aortic Strip of the Rabbit

Chapter 21 Histamine-Like Agents

I. Perfusion of the Hind Quarters and the Lung

II. Perfusion of the Skin

Chapter 22 Antihistamine Agents

I. Introduction

II. Intravenous Toxicity

III. Histamine Aerosol

IV. Direct Antagonism to Histamine

V. Anaphylactic Microshock

VI. Other Methods

Chapter 23 Antitussive Agents

I. Cough Induced by Ammonia in the Cat

II. Cough Induced by Citric Acid in the Guinea Pig

III. Cough Induced by Sulfuric Acid in the Dog

Chapter 24 Antacid Agents

I. Ulceration and Acidity in the Shay Rat

II. Gastric Perfusion in the Rat

III. The Isolated Heal Segment

Chapter 25 Thyromimetic Agents

Chapter 26 Hypoglycemic Agents

Chapter 27 Choleretic Agents

Chapter 28 Antiparkinson Agents

Chapter 29 Anti-Inflammatory and Glucocorticoidal Agents

Chapter 30 Antiemetic Agents

Chapter 31 Bronchodilatant Agents

Chapter 32 Curariform Agents

I. Paralysis of Intact Animals

II. The Phrenic Nerve and Diaphragm of the Rat

III. The Biventer Cervicis of the Chicken

Chapter 33 Anabolic, Androgenic, and Antiandrogenic Agents

Chapter 34 Potentiators and Antagonists of Tryptamine

Chapter 35 Vasopressive Peptides

Chapter 36 Diuretic and Natriuretic Agents

Chapter 37 Anticholinestehase Agents

Chapter 38 Anticholesterol Agents

Chapter 39 Uricosuric Agents

Chapter 40 Antishock Agents

Chapter 41 Hemostatic Agents

Chapter 42 Local and Spinal Anesthetics

Chapter 43 Abortifacient Agents

Chapter 44 Thymoleptic Agents

I. Introduction

II. Qualitative Screening Methods

III. Amine Depletion in the Central Nervous System

IV. Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase

V. Rats Having Septal Lesions

Chapter 45 Dermal Irritants

Chapter 46 Teratogenic Agents


I. A Summary of Often Used Formulas in Statistics

II. An Approximate Formula for Statistical Significance

III. Statistical Analysis of Responses in Groups of Animals: Salivation in Rabbits

IV. Four-Point Assay of Substances Causing Tachyphylaxis

V. Right-Left Assay

VI. The Composition of Solutions Used for the Bathing of Tissues

VII. Formulas for Use in the Injection of Animals

VIII. An Antipyretic Test

IX. A Test for Dermal Absorption

X. Tests for Hepatotoxicity

XI. Serum Cholesterol

XII. Anesthetics for Laboratory Animals

XIII. Acute Toxicity: The Determination of the LD50

XIV. A Test for the Normal Distribution of a Set of Numbers


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1965
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Robert Turner

Dr. Robert Turner is currently the owner and CEO of Network Neurology in Charleston SC. He is also Associate Clinical Professor of Neurosciences at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, as well as an Associate Researcher with the MIND Research Institute in Irvine CA. Dr Turner maintains a full-time clinical, teaching, and neurophysiology practice with patients throughout the southeastern region of the United States. While continuing full time work at MUSC since 1997, he obtained a Master’s degree in clinical research (epidemiology & biostatistics) in 2003 in the MUSC College of Graduate Studies, and has since then been actively involved in ongoing clinical research with collaborative studies in non-invasive neurostimulation and neuromodulation techniques as well as advanced techniques of EEG source analysis. Current research involves collaborating with colleagues in Charleston, Cape Town, South Africa, Mexico City, Bejing, and with several academic practices throughout the United States.

Dr Turner began as a music and foreign language major in college, changing over to pre-medicine in his 3rd year. During medical school, he also pursued Master’s training in Piano Performance at the University of Nebraska at Omaha Graduate School. After Medical School, his postgraduate training consisted of internship/residency in Pediatrics followed by two fellowships, one in Adult/Child Neurology, and the second in Clinical Neurophysiology/EMG/Neuromuscular Disorders, and his current clinical/research emphases are pediatric epilepsy/epileptogenesis, the non-linear effects of auditory and music stimulation on the brain, as well as neuromodulation techniques. He continues to pursue his love of music, and is an accomplished classical pianist. He has received numerous awards and honors in Charleston over the past 16 years, including multiple Faculty Excellence Awards for teaching, AREA Awards for excellence in ambulatory care, Golde Apple Nominations and Awards, and double honors in humanism with the AAMC Humanism in Medicine Award and the Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award

Dr. Turner is multiply Board-Certificated by the National Board of Medical Examiners, became a certified member of the American Society of Neurorehabilitation in 1992, and has eight medical specialty boards certifications:

1. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Special Qualification in Child Neurology,

2. American Board of Pediatrics,

3. American Board of Electrodiagnostic Medicine,

4. American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology,

5. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Clinical Neurophysiology,

6. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities ,

7. Quantitative Electroencephalograpy (QEEG) Certification Board, and

8. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Epilepsy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner and CEO, Network Neurology, Charleston SC, USA