Screening Methods in Pharmacology

Screening Methods in Pharmacology

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: Robert A. Turner
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261607

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Screening Methods in Pharmacology focuses on the methods for screening substances for pharmacological activities and discussions of organization of screening programs. The manuscript first offers information on the biochemistry of the nervous system and organization of screening, as well as mechanisms of drug effects within the autonomic system; mechanisms within the parasympathetic and symphatetic systems; and neuropharmacological tests in blind screening. The book also takes a look at general and quantal responses. The publication reviews depressants of the central nervous system and ataractic (tranquillizing, neuroleptic) agents. Topics include natatory exhaustion, motor deficit, righting reflex, pentylenetetrazol (metrazol) antagonism, head-withdrawal reflex, and avoidance of electrical shock. The book also ponders on analgesics and oxytoxic, antiserotonin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Discussions focus on narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics, erythema, inhibition of ascites, and pleural fluid. The manuscript is a valuable reference for readers interested in the screening methods in pharmacology.

Table of Contents

  • Contents


    Chapter 1 Introduction

    Chapter 2 A Brief Review of the Biochemistry of the Nervous System

    I. Chemical Mediators

    II. Some Mechanisms of Drug Effects Within the Autonomic System

    III. Mechanisms Within the Parasympathetic System

    IV. Mechanisms Within the Sympathetic System

    Chapter 3 The Organization of Screening

    I. Introduction

    II. Further Remarks On Blind Screening

    III. Neuropharmacological Tests in Blind Screening

    IV. An Alternative Schedule

    V. Tests Other Than Neuropharmacological

    VI. Tests Subsequent to Those in Blind Screening

    Chapter 4 General Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Tests On Isolated Organs

    III. The Guinea Pig Ileum

    IV. The Vas Deferens of the Guinea Pig

    V. The Jejunum of the Rat

    VI. The Seminal Vesicle of the Rat

    VII. Seminal Vesicle of the Guinea Pig

    VII. Fundus Strip of the Rat

    Ix. The Duodenum of the Rat

    X. Other Isolated Organs

    Xi. Cardiovascular Tests (Electrical and Chemical)

    XII. Food Consumption

    Chapter 5 Quantal Responses. Calculation of the ED50

    I. Introduction

    II. Graphical Calculation of Miller and Tainter

    III. Arithmetical Method of Reed and Muench

    IV. Arithmetical Method of Kärber

    V. The pA Scale

    VI. Tests With Superfusion; Drug Antagonism

    VII. The Graphical Method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon

    Chapter 6 Depressants of the Central Nervous System

    I. Introduction

    II. The Righting Reflex

    III. Antagonism to Various Chemical Stimulants

    IV. Palpebrai Test

    V. Runway Test For Thirsty Rats

    VI. Motor Deficit

    VII. Motor Control On An Inclined Plane

    VII. Natatory Exhaustion

    Ix. Amphetamine Antagonism

    X. Motor Activity

    XI. Cornea and Pinna Reflexes

    XII. Pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol) Antagonism

    XII. A Test Group For Central Depressants

    XIV. Central Anesthetics

    Chapter 7 Ataractic (Tranquillizing, Neuroleptic) Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Behavioral Test Group

    III. Ratio of Reflexes in the Mouse

    IV. Avoidance of Electrical Shock. A Test of Suppression of A Conditioned Response

    V. Suppression of Combativeness

    VI. Head-Withdrawal Reflex

    VII. Yohimbine Syndrome

    VII.. Open Field Test

    IX. Conclusion

    Chapter 8 Analgesics

    I. Introduction

    II. Narcotic Analgesics

    III. Nonnarcotic Analgesics

    Chapter 9 Oxytocic Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Qualitative Test For Uterine Stimulation

    III. Quantitative Procedure

    IV. Tests Performed On The Uterus in Situ

    Chapter 10 Antiserotonin Agents

    I. The Isolated Uterus of the Rat

    II. Isolated Uterus Bathed in Antagonist

    III. Uterus Bathed in Antagonist. Alternative Method

    IV. Antiedema Test On The Foot of the Rat

    V. Cardiovascular Test On The Dog Given Chlorisondamine

    VI. Antagonism to Serotonin-Induced Convulsions

    VII. Ileum of the Guinea Pig; D Receptors

    VII. Pyretogenic Effects

    Chapter 11 Parasympatholytic Agents

    I. Mydriasis

    II. Antisialagogue Activity

    III. Prevention of Intestinal Spasm

    IV. Lacrimation

    V. Tests in VItro

    VI. Gastrointestinal Propulsion

    Chapter 12 Sympatholytic Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Epinephrine Antagonism

    III. Prolapse of the Nictitating Membrane

    IV. Blood Pressure of the Rat; The ADC

    V. Splenic Strip of the Cat

    VI. The Two Kinds of Receptor

    VII. The Perfused Rabbit Ear

    Chapter 13 Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Pedal Inflammation Induced by Chemical Agents

    III. Implantation of A Pellet

    IV. Granuloma Pouch

    V. Erythema

    VI. Tuberculin Sensitivity

    VII. Inhibition of Ascites

    VII.. Hyaluronidase Inhibition

    IX. Pleural Fluid

    X. Freund's Adjuvant

    Chapter 14 Anticonvulsants

    I. Introduction

    II. Convulsions Induced by Chemicals

    III. Convulsions Induced by Electroshock

    IV. Combined Procedures

    V. Tryptamine Potentiation and Antagonism

    VI. Tremorine

    VII. The Rapid Screening For Myorelaxant Agents

    Chapter 15 Sympathomimetic Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Mydriasis

    III. The Uterus and Ascending Colon of the Rat

    IV. The Rectal Cecum of the Hen

    V. The Isolated Spleen of the Cat

    Chapter 16 Central Stimulants

    I. Introduction

    II. Analeptic Agents

    III. "Sandauswurf" (Displacement of Sand)

    IV. Registration of Motor Activity

    V. Runway Test

    VI. Ptosis Test

    VII. "Zwangsnagen" Induced by Apomorphine

    VII. Intracerebral Test

    IX. Ingestion of Food; Anoretic and Central Stimulant Activity

    X. Duration of Anesthesia; Respiratory Analeptics

    Chapter 17 Muscaring Agents

    I. The Isolated Eye of Rodents

    II. The Isolated Trachea of the Rat

    Chapter 18 Ganglion-Blocking Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Antagonism of Nicotine

    III. The Inferior Eyelid of the Rat

    IV. The Blood Pressure of the Upright Rabbit

    Chapter 19 Antifibrillatory Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Arrhythmia Induced by Acetylcholine and Potassium Deficiency

    III. Arrhythmia Induced by Aconitine

    IV. Arrhythmia Induced by Maximum Frequency

    V. Ventricular Arrhythmia Induced by Calcium

    Chapter 20 Cardiotonic Agents

    I. The Papillary Muscle of the Cat

    II. The Atrium of the Cat and the Rat

    III. The Aortic Strip of the Rabbit

    Chapter 21 Histamine-Like Agents

    I. Perfusion of the Hind Quarters and the Lung

    II. Perfusion of the Skin

    Chapter 22 Antihistamine Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Intravenous Toxicity

    III. Histamine Aerosol

    IV. Direct Antagonism to Histamine

    V. Anaphylactic Microshock

    VI. Other Methods

    Chapter 23 Antitussive Agents

    I. Cough Induced by Ammonia in the Cat

    II. Cough Induced by Citric Acid in the Guinea Pig

    III. Cough Induced by Sulfuric Acid in the Dog

    Chapter 24 Antacid Agents

    I. Ulceration and Acidity in the Shay Rat

    II. Gastric Perfusion in the Rat

    III. The Isolated Heal Segment

    Chapter 25 Thyromimetic Agents

    Chapter 26 Hypoglycemic Agents

    Chapter 27 Choleretic Agents

    Chapter 28 Antiparkinson Agents

    Chapter 29 Anti-Inflammatory and Glucocorticoidal Agents

    Chapter 30 Antiemetic Agents

    Chapter 31 Bronchodilatant Agents

    Chapter 32 Curariform Agents

    I. Paralysis of Intact Animals

    II. The Phrenic Nerve and Diaphragm of the Rat

    III. The Biventer Cervicis of the Chicken

    Chapter 33 Anabolic, Androgenic, and Antiandrogenic Agents

    Chapter 34 Potentiators and Antagonists of Tryptamine

    Chapter 35 Vasopressive Peptides

    Chapter 36 Diuretic and Natriuretic Agents

    Chapter 37 Anticholinestehase Agents

    Chapter 38 Anticholesterol Agents

    Chapter 39 Uricosuric Agents

    Chapter 40 Antishock Agents

    Chapter 41 Hemostatic Agents

    Chapter 42 Local and Spinal Anesthetics

    Chapter 43 Abortifacient Agents

    Chapter 44 Thymoleptic Agents

    I. Introduction

    II. Qualitative Screening Methods

    III. Amine Depletion in the Central Nervous System

    IV. Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase

    V. Rats Having Septal Lesions

    Chapter 45 Dermal Irritants

    Chapter 46 Teratogenic Agents


    I. A Summary of Often Used Formulas in Statistics

    II. An Approximate Formula for Statistical Significance

    III. Statistical Analysis of Responses in Groups of Animals: Salivation in Rabbits

    IV. Four-Point Assay of Substances Causing Tachyphylaxis

    V. Right-Left Assay

    VI. The Composition of Solutions Used for the Bathing of Tissues

    VII. Formulas for Use in the Injection of Animals

    VIII. An Antipyretic Test

    IX. A Test for Dermal Absorption

    X. Tests for Hepatotoxicity

    XI. Serum Cholesterol

    XII. Anesthetics for Laboratory Animals

    XIII. Acute Toxicity: The Determination of the LD50

    XIV. A Test for the Normal Distribution of a Set of Numbers


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261607

About the Author

Robert A. Turner

Dr. Robert Turner is currently the owner and CEO of Network Neurology in Charleston SC. He is also Associate Clinical Professor of Neurosciences at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, as well as an Associate Researcher with the MIND Research Institute in Irvine CA. Dr Turner maintains a full-time clinical, teaching, and neurophysiology practice with patients throughout the southeastern region of the United States. While continuing full time work at MUSC since 1997, he obtained a Master’s degree in clinical research (epidemiology & biostatistics) in 2003 in the MUSC College of Graduate Studies, and has since then been actively involved in ongoing clinical research with collaborative studies in non-invasive neurostimulation and neuromodulation techniques as well as advanced techniques of EEG source analysis. Current research involves collaborating with colleagues in Charleston, Cape Town, South Africa, Mexico City, Bejing, and with several academic practices throughout the United States.

Dr Turner began as a music and foreign language major in college, changing over to pre-medicine in his 3rd year. During medical school, he also pursued Master’s training in Piano Performance at the University of Nebraska at Omaha Graduate School. After Medical School, his postgraduate training consisted of internship/residency in Pediatrics followed by two fellowships, one in Adult/Child Neurology, and the second in Clinical Neurophysiology/EMG/Neuromuscular Disorders, and his current clinical/research emphases are pediatric epilepsy/epileptogenesis, the non-linear effects of auditory and music stimulation on the brain, as well as neuromodulation techniques. He continues to pursue his love of music, and is an accomplished classical pianist. He has received numerous awards and honors in Charleston over the past 16 years, including multiple Faculty Excellence Awards for teaching, AREA Awards for excellence in ambulatory care, Golde Apple Nominations and Awards, and double honors in humanism with the AAMC Humanism in Medicine Award and the Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award

Dr. Turner is multiply Board-Certificated by the National Board of Medical Examiners, became a certified member of the American Society of Neurorehabilitation in 1992, and has eight medical specialty boards certifications:

1. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Special Qualification in Child Neurology,

2. American Board of Pediatrics,

3. American Board of Electrodiagnostic Medicine,

4. American Board of Clinical Neurophysiology,

5. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Clinical Neurophysiology,

6. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Neurodevelopmental Disabilities ,

7. Quantitative Electroencephalograpy (QEEG) Certification Board, and

8. American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology With Added Qualification in Epilepsy.

Affiliations and Expertise

Owner and CEO, Network Neurology, Charleston SC, USA

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