Safety in the Process Industries

Safety in the Process Industries

1st Edition - November 23, 1990

Write a review

  • Author: Ralph King
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483102184

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Safety in the Process Industries aims to ensure the safety of people involved in process plants, especially those who face its immediate hazards and dangers. The book is divided into four parts. Part I covers topics such as the history of process hazards and attitudes in health and safety; laws concerned with the health and safety in the process industry; and the definitions of different terms related to health and safety. Part II discusses the electrical, chemical, and physical hazards in the process industries, as well as the dangers of flammability and corrosion. Part III talks about hazard control design; protective instrumentation; and maintenance and inspection. Part IV tackles topics related to the management of health and safety in industry processes such as emergency planning; safety training; and protection the working environment. The text is recommended for people concerned in the management, development, planning, design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance of process plants, as well as those who oversee its safety.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword



    Part I Setting the Stage

    Chapter 1 From Past To Present

    1.1 Origins of Process Hazards

    1.2 Toxic Hazards of Ancient Metals

    1.3 Changing Attitudes to Health and Safety in Chemical Education

    1.4 Insurance Losses in the US Chemical Industry

    1.5 Recent UK Experience

    1.6 Vapour Cloud Explosions (VCEs) and Other Major World Losses in the Hydrocarbon-Chemical Industries

    Chapter 2 Laws, Codes and Standards

    2.1 Present International Trends

    2.2 The UK Background

    2.3 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA)

    2.4 Legislation on the Control of Major Hazards

    2.5 Other Relevant Legislation and Its Problems

    2.6 The Law and Public Inquiries Into Major Accidents

    2.7 The Role of Standards

    2.8 Levels of Standards

    2.9 Safety Standards and Codes of Practice

    Chapter 3 Meanings and Misconceptions

    3.1 Units and Nomenclature

    3.2 Meanings of Health and Safety Terms Used

    3.3 Misconceptions and Disasters

    Chapter 4 Flixborough and Its Lessons

    4.1 Process Description and Normal Start-Up

    4.2 Conditions During Start-Up on 1 June 1974

    4.3 Possible Causes for the Failure of the By-Pass Assembly

    4.4 The Court's Views on the Immediate Cause of the Disaster

    4.5 The Pressure Rises and Their Cause

    4.6 What Caused the Earlier Failure of R5?

    4.7 Organisational Misconceptions

    4.8 Lessons to be Learnt

    Chapter 5 Four Other Major Accidents

    5.1 The Explosion at Shell's Pernis Refinery in 1968

    5.2 The Explosion at Dow Chemical Company's factory at King's Lynn, 27 June 1976

    5.3 The 'Dioxin' release at Seveso on 10 July 1976

    5.4 The Bhopal disaster in December 1984

    Part II Hazards - Chemical, Mechanical and Physical

    Chapter 6 Electrical and Other Physical Hazards

    6.1 General Electrical Hazards

    6.2 Electrical Ignition Hazards

    6.3 Static Electricity (including lightning)

    6.4 Physical Hazards Involving Liquids

    Chapter 7 Health Hazards of Industrial Substances

    7.1 Occupational Health Professionals

    7.2 How Harmful Substances Attack Us

    7.3 Effects on Body Organs

    7.4 Units and Classes of Toxicity

    7.5 Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs)

    7.6 Sources of Exposure to Airborne Substances Hazardous to Health

    7.7 Monitoring the Working Environment for Toxic Substances

    7.8 Substances Hazardous to Health, and the Law

    7.9 Treatment of Affected Persons

    7.10 How Does One Decide if a Disease is Occupational?

    Chapter 8 Chemical Reaction Hazards

    8.1 Reactivities of the Elements and Structural Groupings

    8.2 Reaction Rate

    8.3 The Power of Reactions

    8.4 Inorganic Reactions

    8.5 Some Hazardous Organic Reactions and Processes

    8.6 Reactivity as a Process Hazard

    8.7 Self-heating Hazards of Solids

    8.8 Reactive Substances and CIMAH Regulations 7 to 12

    Chapter 9 Explosion Hazards of Process Materials

    9.1 Explosive Deflagrations and Detonations

    9.2 Industrial Chemicals with Explosive Potential

    9.3 Structural Groups Which Confer Instability 15

    9.4 Preliminary Screening of Materials for Explosivity

    9.5 Thermochemical Screening

    9.6 Stability and Sensitivity Tests

    9.7 Classification of Materials with Explosive Potential

    9.8 Explosions of Industrial Chemicals Outside the Explosives Industry

    9.9 Features of the Explosives Industry and the Explosives Acts of 1875 and 1923

    9.10 Explosives and CIMAH Regulations 7-12

    Chapter 10 Flammability, Fires, and Explosions Involving Air

    10.1 NFPA Flammability Classification of Materials

    10.2 Parameters of Flammability (Mainly for Gases and Vapours)

    10.3 Flammability and CIMAH Regulations 7-12

    10.4 Flammable Dusts and Explosive Dust Clouds

    10.5 Liquid and Vapour Fires and Aerial Explosions

    Chapter 11 Corrosion Hazards and Control

    11.1 Acceptable Corrosion Rates

    11.2 Galvanic Corrosion

    11.3 Corrosion of Iron and Steel in Aqueous Media

    11.4 Other Types of Metal Corrosion

    11.5 Passivation

    11.6 Corrosion-Resistant Metals and Alloys

    11.7 Examples of Industrial Corrosion Problems

    11.8 Notes on 'Corrosion' of Non-Metals

    Chapter 12 Fire and Explosion Hazard Rating of Process Plant

    12.1 The Dow Fire and Explosion Hazard Index, Third Edition

    12.2 The Mond Index

    12.3 Plant Layout and Unit Hazard Rating

    12.4 Maximum Probable Property Damage From Vapour Cloud Explosions (VCEs)

    Chapter 13 Hardware Hazards

    13.1 Mechanical Causes of Metal Failure

    13.2 General Hazards of Moving Machinery

    13.3 Common Hazards of Rotary Machines

    13.4 Centrifuges

    13.5 Mixers

    13.6 Pumps

    13.7 Compressors

    Part III Hazard Control in Design and Maintenance

    Chapter 14 Reliability and Risk Analysis

    14.1 Introduction to Reliability

    14.2 Process Equipment Reliability

    14.3 Risk Analysis and Its Scope

    14.4 Fault Trees

    14.5 Truth Tables and Event Trees

    14.6 Consequences of Accidental Releases

    14.7 Risks to Life - Quantification and Levels of Acceptability

    Chapter 15 Active Protective Systems and Instrumentation

    15.1 Overpressure Relief-General

    15.2 Pressure-Relief Devices and Definitions

    15.3 Causes of Overpressure

    15.4 Calculation of Individual Relieving Rates

    15.5 Disposal of Released Fluids

    15.6 Other Means of Pressure-Relief

    15.7 Instrumentation for Control and Safety

    15.8 Component Features of Instrumentation

    15.9 Features of PES Systems Used for Control and Safety

    15.10 Hazards of Instrument Maintenance and Modifications

    Chapter 16 Designing for Safety

    16.1 Checklists

    16.2 Pre-sanction Planning and Preliminary Hazard Studies

    16.3 Design Organisation and Parties Involved

    16.4 Process Engineering

    16.5 Process Engineering Hazards and Hazard Study III

    16.6 Other Design Activities

    16.7 Hazard Studies IV to VI

    16.8 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

    Chapter 17 Maintenance and Inspection

    17.1 Maintenance

    17.2 Pre-Operational Inspection

    17.3 In-Service Inspection

    17.4 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

    17.5 Condition Monitoring (CM)

    17.6 Pressure, Leak and Acoustic Emission Testing

    Chapter 18 Safe Work Permits

    18.1 Why Permits are Needed

    18.2 Principles of Permit Systems

    18.3 Permits for Maintenance

    18.4 Outline of the Dow System

    18.5 Precautions Before Issueing a Permit

    18.6 Practical Preparations for Maintenance

    18.7 Entry into Confined Spaces

    18.8 Other Permits and Certificates Used

    18.9 Pitfalls that Must be Avoided

    Part IV Management, Production and Related Topics

    Chapter 19 Management for Health and Safety (HS)

    19.1 Management's Responsibilities for Health and Safety(HS)

    19.2 HS Programmes and Their Elements

    19.3 Special Management Problems

    19.4 Computers and Safety

    Chapter 20 Commissioning, Operation and Emergency Planning

    20.1 Commissioning

    20.2 Plant Operation

    20.3 Planning for Major Emergencies

    Chapter 21 Safety Training for Process Workers

    21.1 Training Aims and Framework

    21.2 On-the-job Training

    21.3 Training Media and Methods

    21.4 Training for Special Safety Responsibilities

    Chapter 22 Personal Protection in the Working Environment

    22.1 Standards for PPC/E

    22.2 Comfort and Body Protection

    22.3 Hand Protection

    22.4 Head Protection

    22.5 Standing Work and Foot Protection

    22.6 Vision and Eye Protection

    22.7 Noise and Hearing Protection

    22.8 Breathing and Respiratory Protection

    22.9 Other Personal Hazards

    Chapter 23 Hazards in the Transfer of Technology (TT)

    23.1 Definitions and Historical Introduction

    23.2 The ILO Code of Practice

    23.3 Examples of the Spread of Hazardous Technologies

    23.4 Problems of Culture, Communication and Language

    23.5 Problems of Standards in Developing Countries

    23.6 Uganda 1976

    23.7 Important Lessons for Technology Importers


    A Process Industries in the UK and Numbers Employed

    B NFPA Classification of Hazardous Materials

    C Material Safety Data Sheets

    D Vapour Cloud Explosions up to 1983

    E Largest Losses in the Hydrocarbon/Chemical Industries 1958-1987

    F Some Details Given in the CPL Regulations and Approved List

    G Some Details of the COSHH Regulations and Approved Codes of Practice

    H Important Codes of Practice and British Standards

    J Questionnaire for Designers to Ensure Safe Maintainability

    K A Checklist to Test the Safety Policy Statement

    L A Summary of Incidents Which Have to be Reported Under RIDDOR

    M Sources of HS Training and Information (mainly UK)

    N Standards (mainly British) Relating to Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing

    O Factors to be Considered in Setting Up Industries and Transferring Technologies to Tropical and Sub-Tropical Regions

    P Ergonomie and Anthrometric Factors to be Considered in Setting Up Industries and Transferring Technologies

    List of Abbreviations

Product details

  • No. of pages: 780
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
  • Published: November 23, 1990
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483102184

About the Author

Ralph King

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Chemical Engineer, Surrey, UK

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Safety in the Process Industries"