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Safety in the Process Industries - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750610193, 9781483102184

Safety in the Process Industries

1st Edition

Author: Ralph King
eBook ISBN: 9781483102184
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 23rd November 1990
Page Count: 780
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Safety in the Process Industries aims to ensure the safety of people involved in process plants, especially those who face its immediate hazards and dangers. The book is divided into four parts. Part I covers topics such as the history of process hazards and attitudes in health and safety; laws concerned with the health and safety in the process industry; and the definitions of different terms related to health and safety. Part II discusses the electrical, chemical, and physical hazards in the process industries, as well as the dangers of flammability and corrosion. Part III talks about hazard control design; protective instrumentation; and maintenance and inspection. Part IV tackles topics related to the management of health and safety in industry processes such as emergency planning; safety training; and protection the working environment.
The text is recommended for people concerned in the management, development, planning, design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance of process plants, as well as those who oversee its safety.

Table of Contents




Part I Setting the Stage

Chapter 1 From Past To Present

1.1 Origins of Process Hazards

1.2 Toxic Hazards of Ancient Metals

1.3 Changing Attitudes to Health and Safety in Chemical Education

1.4 Insurance Losses in the US Chemical Industry

1.5 Recent UK Experience

1.6 Vapour Cloud Explosions (VCEs) and Other Major World Losses in the Hydrocarbon-Chemical Industries

Chapter 2 Laws, Codes and Standards

2.1 Present International Trends

2.2 The UK Background

2.3 The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA)

2.4 Legislation on the Control of Major Hazards

2.5 Other Relevant Legislation and Its Problems

2.6 The Law and Public Inquiries Into Major Accidents

2.7 The Role of Standards

2.8 Levels of Standards

2.9 Safety Standards and Codes of Practice

Chapter 3 Meanings and Misconceptions

3.1 Units and Nomenclature

3.2 Meanings of Health and Safety Terms Used

3.3 Misconceptions and Disasters

Chapter 4 Flixborough and Its Lessons

4.1 Process Description and Normal Start-Up

4.2 Conditions During Start-Up on 1 June 1974

4.3 Possible Causes for the Failure of the By-Pass Assembly

4.4 The Court's Views on the Immediate Cause of the Disaster

4.5 The Pressure Rises and Their Cause

4.6 What Caused the Earlier Failure of R5?

4.7 Organisational Misconceptions

4.8 Lessons to be Learnt

Chapter 5 Four Other Major Accidents

5.1 The Explosion at Shell's Pernis Refinery in 1968

5.2 The Explosion at Dow Chemical Company's factory at King's Lynn, 27 June 1976

5.3 The 'Dioxin' release at Seveso on 10 July 1976

5.4 The Bhopal disaster in December 1984

Part II Hazards - Chemical, Mechanical and Physical

Chapter 6 Electrical and Other Physical Hazards

6.1 General Electrical Hazards

6.2 Electrical Ignition Hazards

6.3 Static Electricity (including lightning)

6.4 Physical Hazards Involving Liquids

Chapter 7 Health Hazards of Industrial Substances

7.1 Occupational Health Professionals

7.2 How Harmful Substances Attack Us

7.3 Effects on Body Organs

7.4 Units and Classes of Toxicity

7.5 Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs)

7.6 Sources of Exposure to Airborne Substances Hazardous to Health

7.7 Monitoring the Working Environment for Toxic Substances

7.8 Substances Hazardous to Health, and the Law

7.9 Treatment of Affected Persons

7.10 How Does One Decide if a Disease is Occupational?

Chapter 8 Chemical Reaction Hazards

8.1 Reactivities of the Elements and Structural Groupings

8.2 Reaction Rate

8.3 The Power of Reactions

8.4 Inorganic Reactions

8.5 Some Hazardous Organic Reactions and Processes

8.6 Reactivity as a Process Hazard

8.7 Self-heating Hazards of Solids

8.8 Reactive Substances and CIMAH Regulations 7 to 12

Chapter 9 Explosion Hazards of Process Materials

9.1 Explosive Deflagrations and Detonations

9.2 Industrial Chemicals with Explosive Potential

9.3 Structural Groups Which Confer Instability 15

9.4 Preliminary Screening of Materials for Explosivity

9.5 Thermochemical Screening

9.6 Stability and Sensitivity Tests

9.7 Classification of Materials with Explosive Potential

9.8 Explosions of Industrial Chemicals Outside the Explosives Industry

9.9 Features of the Explosives Industry and the Explosives Acts of 1875 and 1923

9.10 Explosives and CIMAH Regulations 7-12

Chapter 10 Flammability, Fires, and Explosions Involving Air

10.1 NFPA Flammability Classification of Materials

10.2 Parameters of Flammability (Mainly for Gases and Vapours)

10.3 Flammability and CIMAH Regulations 7-12

10.4 Flammable Dusts and Explosive Dust Clouds

10.5 Liquid and Vapour Fires and Aerial Explosions

Chapter 11 Corrosion Hazards and Control

11.1 Acceptable Corrosion Rates

11.2 Galvanic Corrosion

11.3 Corrosion of Iron and Steel in Aqueous Media

11.4 Other Types of Metal Corrosion

11.5 Passivation

11.6 Corrosion-Resistant Metals and Alloys

11.7 Examples of Industrial Corrosion Problems

11.8 Notes on 'Corrosion' of Non-Metals

Chapter 12 Fire and Explosion Hazard Rating of Process Plant

12.1 The Dow Fire and Explosion Hazard Index, Third Edition

12.2 The Mond Index

12.3 Plant Layout and Unit Hazard Rating

12.4 Maximum Probable Property Damage From Vapour Cloud Explosions (VCEs)

Chapter 13 Hardware Hazards

13.1 Mechanical Causes of Metal Failure

13.2 General Hazards of Moving Machinery

13.3 Common Hazards of Rotary Machines

13.4 Centrifuges

13.5 Mixers

13.6 Pumps

13.7 Compressors

Part III Hazard Control in Design and Maintenance

Chapter 14 Reliability and Risk Analysis

14.1 Introduction to Reliability

14.2 Process Equipment Reliability

14.3 Risk Analysis and Its Scope

14.4 Fault Trees

14.5 Truth Tables and Event Trees

14.6 Consequences of Accidental Releases

14.7 Risks to Life - Quantification and Levels of Acceptability

Chapter 15 Active Protective Systems and Instrumentation

15.1 Overpressure Relief-General

15.2 Pressure-Relief Devices and Definitions

15.3 Causes of Overpressure

15.4 Calculation of Individual Relieving Rates

15.5 Disposal of Released Fluids

15.6 Other Means of Pressure-Relief

15.7 Instrumentation for Control and Safety

15.8 Component Features of Instrumentation

15.9 Features of PES Systems Used for Control and Safety

15.10 Hazards of Instrument Maintenance and Modifications

Chapter 16 Designing for Safety

16.1 Checklists

16.2 Pre-sanction Planning and Preliminary Hazard Studies

16.3 Design Organisation and Parties Involved

16.4 Process Engineering

16.5 Process Engineering Hazards and Hazard Study III

16.6 Other Design Activities

16.7 Hazard Studies IV to VI

16.8 Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Chapter 17 Maintenance and Inspection

17.1 Maintenance

17.2 Pre-Operational Inspection

17.3 In-Service Inspection

17.4 Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

17.5 Condition Monitoring (CM)

17.6 Pressure, Leak and Acoustic Emission Testing

Chapter 18 Safe Work Permits

18.1 Why Permits are Needed

18.2 Principles of Permit Systems

18.3 Permits for Maintenance

18.4 Outline of the Dow System

18.5 Precautions Before Issueing a Permit

18.6 Practical Preparations for Maintenance

18.7 Entry into Confined Spaces

18.8 Other Permits and Certificates Used

18.9 Pitfalls that Must be Avoided

Part IV Management, Production and Related Topics

Chapter 19 Management for Health and Safety (HS)

19.1 Management's Responsibilities for Health and Safety(HS)

19.2 HS Programmes and Their Elements

19.3 Special Management Problems

19.4 Computers and Safety

Chapter 20 Commissioning, Operation and Emergency Planning

20.1 Commissioning

20.2 Plant Operation

20.3 Planning for Major Emergencies

Chapter 21 Safety Training for Process Workers

21.1 Training Aims and Framework

21.2 On-the-job Training

21.3 Training Media and Methods

21.4 Training for Special Safety Responsibilities

Chapter 22 Personal Protection in the Working Environment

22.1 Standards for PPC/E

22.2 Comfort and Body Protection

22.3 Hand Protection

22.4 Head Protection

22.5 Standing Work and Foot Protection

22.6 Vision and Eye Protection

22.7 Noise and Hearing Protection

22.8 Breathing and Respiratory Protection

22.9 Other Personal Hazards

Chapter 23 Hazards in the Transfer of Technology (TT)

23.1 Definitions and Historical Introduction

23.2 The ILO Code of Practice

23.3 Examples of the Spread of Hazardous Technologies

23.4 Problems of Culture, Communication and Language

23.5 Problems of Standards in Developing Countries

23.6 Uganda 1976

23.7 Important Lessons for Technology Importers


A Process Industries in the UK and Numbers Employed

B NFPA Classification of Hazardous Materials

C Material Safety Data Sheets

D Vapour Cloud Explosions up to 1983

E Largest Losses in the Hydrocarbon/Chemical Industries 1958-1987

F Some Details Given in the CPL Regulations and Approved List

G Some Details of the COSHH Regulations and Approved Codes of Practice

H Important Codes of Practice and British Standards

J Questionnaire for Designers to Ensure Safe Maintainability

K A Checklist to Test the Safety Policy Statement

L A Summary of Incidents Which Have to be Reported Under RIDDOR

M Sources of HS Training and Information (mainly UK)

N Standards (mainly British) Relating to Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing

O Factors to be Considered in Setting Up Industries and Transferring Technologies to Tropical and Sub-Tropical Regions

P Ergonomie and Anthrometric Factors to be Considered in Setting Up Industries and Transferring Technologies

List of Abbreviations


No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
23rd November 1990
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Ralph King

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant Chemical Engineer, Surrey, UK

Ratings and Reviews