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Russian Orthography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080134376, 9781483181271

Russian Orthography

1st Edition

The Commonwealth and International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Liberal Studies

Editor: C. V. James
eBook ISBN: 9781483181271
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 164
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Russian Orthography provides a complete range of information on all aspects of the Russian language. This book discusses the Russian alphabet and a number of orthographic rules.

Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rules of orthography that is closely connected with the condition and laws of development of the lexical composition and grammatical structure of a language. This text then explains the correct use of vowels and consonants in spelling. Other chapters consider the general rules in the correct use of the hyphen. This book discusses as well the correct use of capital letters and the rules for writing of abbreviations. The final chapter deals with the general rules for the correct division of words.

This book is a valuable resource for students and teachers.

Table of Contents



The Correct Use of Vowels in Spelling

I. Vowels After Sibilants and у

§ 1. y, a, и After Ж, ч, ш, щ

§ 2. и and Ы After ц

§ 3. ю and Я After ц

§ 4. Stressed o and e After Ж, ч, ш, щ

§ 5. Unstressed o and e After Ж, ч, ш, щ

§ 6. o and e After и

II. The Vowels Ы and и After prefixes

§ 7. Ы Instead of и After Prefixes

III. The Letter Э

§ 8. In Russian Words

§ 9. In Foreign Words

IV. The Letter ё

§ 10. When this Letter is Used

V. General Rules for the Spelling of Unstressed Vowels

§ 11. The Basic Rule for the Spelling of Unstressed Vowels

 § 12. When the Spelling Cannot be Determined by this Rule

VI. Unstressed Vowels in Word Roots

§ 13. The Vowels a and o in Roots зар-/зор, раc(т)-/роc(т)- равн-/рoвн-, rар-/rор-, плав-/плов-

§ 14. Alternation of и and e in Verbs

VII. Unstressed Vowels in Prefixes

§ 15. Prefixes раз- (раc-)/роз- (роc-)

§ 16. Prefixes при- and nрe- 10

VIII. Unstressed Vowels in Suffixes

§ 17. Suffixes -ик and -eк

§ 18. Suffixes -eц and -иц

§ 19. Suffixes -eчк- and -ичк-

§ 20. Suffixes -инк- and -eнк-

§ 21. Suffixes -оньк-, -еньк-, and the Combination of -ьІнь- in the Base with the Suffix -к-

§ 22. Suffixes -ушк-, -юшк-, -ышк-, -ишк- suffix -ышек

§ 23. Nouns with -атай and -атый

§ 24. Suffixes -ев-, -ив-

§ 25. Suffixes -ян- (-ан-) and -енн-

§ 26. Suffixes -ан- (-анн-), -ян- (-янн-), -ен- (-енн-) in Past Passive Participles and in Adjectives and Nouns Formed from them

§ 27. Suffixes of Present Participles

§ 28. The Vowel e in the Short Form of Adjectives

§ 29. Suffixes -инск- and -енск-

§ 30. Suffixes -еч- and -ач-

§ 31. The Vowel е in Collective Numerals

§ 32. The Vowel е in Suffixes of Comparatives

§ 33. Verbs in -вать, -овать, -евать, -ывать, -ивать

§ 34. Vowels Before the Suffix -ну- in Semelfactive Verbs

§ 35. Verbs in -енеть

§ 36. Final Vowels in the Stems of Infinitive Verbs Before -ть

IX. Unstressed Connecting Vowels

§ 37. Connecting Vowels Between Stems

X. Vowels in Certain Unstressed Case-Endings

§ 38. Forms with -ище and -ища

§ 39. Forms with -ушко, -ушка, etc., Formation of Masculine Nouns with -ка and -ла

§ 40. Endings -и and -е in Prepositional and Dative Cases

§ 41. Endings -ий and -ей in Genitive Plurals

§ 42, § 43. Endings -ым and -ом in Instrumental Cases of Surnames in -ин(о), -ын(о), -ов(о) and -ев(о)

XI. Unstressed Vowels in Personal Verb Endings

§ 44. Personal Endings of Verbs of I and II Conjugations

XII. Unstressed Final Vowels in Adverbs and Prepositions

§ 45. Adverbs Formed by Joining Prepositions to the Short Forms of Adjectives or to Pronouns

§ 46. The Adverb впоследствии

§47. The Prepositions вследствие, в продолжение, в течение

XIII. The Unstressed Particles не and ни

§ 48. Distinction Between не and ни

The Correct Use of Consonants in Spelling

I. General Rules

§ 49. The Basic Rule of the Correct Use of Consonants in Spelling

§ 50. Consonants in Prefixes

§ 51. т and д Before с, ц and ч

§ 52. ц and the Combinations тс, дс in Adjectives in -кий, -кой

§ 53. Determination of a Consonant Preceding Another Consonant in a Group

§ 54. щ and Combinations зч, эдч, сч, стч, жч, шч

§ 55. Numerals in -дцать

§ 56. чн and шн in Combinations of Prefixes and Roots

§ 57. Endings -оrо, -еrо in Adjectives and Pronouns

II. Double Consonants

§ 58. Double Consonants in Combinations of Prefixes and Roots

§ 59. Double Consonants in Compound Abbreviations

§ 60. нн and сс in Adjectives And Adverbs in Combinations of Roots and Suffixes

§ 61. Suffixes -енн- and -онн-, -ян- and -ан-, and the Suffix -ин- in Adjectives Formed from Nouns

§ 62. нн in Past Passive Participles

§ 63. нн and н in Adjectives Formed from Past Passive Participles

§ 64. нн and н in Adverbs in -о

§ 65. нн and н in the Short Forms of Adjectives and Past Passive Participles

§ 66. жж and зж

§ 67. Double Consonants Instead of Triple

§ 68. Double Consonants in Foreign Words

§ 69. Double Consonants in Words Formed from Bases Ending in Two Identical Consonants

The Letters ъ and ь

§ 70. ъ Before е, ю, я

§ 71. ь Before и, е, ю, я

§ 72. ь to Indicate the Softness of Final Consonants

§ 73. ь in Numerals, in the Instrumental Plural of Nouns and in the Imperative Mood of Verbs

§ 74. The Absence of ь in Adjectives with the Prefix -ск-, and in the Genitive Plural of Nouns in -ня

§ 75. ь After ж, ч, ш, щ

The Use of the Hyphen

I. General Rules

§ 76. Words of Various Types Written without a Hyphen

§ 77. Words of Various Types Written with a Hyphen

II. Nouns

§ 78. Written without a Hyphen

§ 79. Written with a Hyphen

III. Adjectives

§ 80. Written without a Hyphen

§ 81. Written with a Hyphen

IV. Numerals

§ 82. Written without a Hyphen

V. Adverbs

§ 83. Written without a Hyphen

§ 84. Written with a Hyphen

VI. Prepositions, Conjunctions, Particles, Interjections

§ 85. Written without a Hyphen

§ 86. Written with a Hyphen

§ 87. бы, ли, же Written Separately

VII. The Correct Spelling of не and ни

§ 88. не Joined to Another Word

§ 89. не Written Separately

§ 90. ни Joined to Another Word

§ 91. ни Written Separately

The Use of Capital Letters

§ 92. In the First Word of a Text, After a Full-Stop, Three Full Stops, an Interrogation or an Exclamation Mark

§ 93. In the First Word of a Sentence Following an Exclamation Mark Placed After an Apostrophe or Interjection

§ 94. After a Colon

§ 95. In Christian Names, Patronymics, Surnames, Pseudonyms; Nouns Formed from the Names of Individuals; Ranks, Titles and Offices

§ 96. Names Taken from Religions and Mythology

§ 97. Names of Individual Animals

§ 98. Dramatis Personae of Fables And Plays

§ 99. Adjectives Formed from the Names of Individual Persons

§ 100. Names of Astronomical, Geographical and Other Objects

§ 101. Adjectives Formed from Geographical Names

§ 102. Names of Historical Events, Epochs, Documents, Works of Art

§ 103. Names of Revolutionary Holidays and Memorable Dates

§ 104. Names of Orders

§ 105, § 106. Names of Institutions and Organizations

§ 107. Names of Political Parties

§ 108. Names Enclosed in Inverted Commas

§ 109. Special Stylistic Uses

Initial, Compound and Graphic Abbreviations

§ 110. Compound Abbreviations Written as One Word

§ 111. Use of Small Letters in Initial Letter and Compound Abbreviations

§ 112. Initial Capital Letters in Compound Abbreviations

§ 113. Capital Letters in Initial Letter Abbreviations

§ 114. Compound Abbreviations Formed from an Abbreviated Word and Initial Letters

§115. Conventional Graphic Abbreviations

§116. List of Generally Accepted Abbreviations

Rules for the Division of Words

§ 117, § 124. General Rules


Vocabulary and Index


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1963
1st January 1963
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

C. V. James

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