Risks of Hazardous Wastes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781437778427, 9781437778434

Risks of Hazardous Wastes

1st Edition

Authors: Paul Rosenfeld Lydia Feng
eBook ISBN: 9781437778434
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437778427
Paperback ISBN: 9780323165655
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 22nd March 2011
Page Count: 472
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Hazardous waste in the environment is one of the most difficult challenges facing our society. The purpose of this book is to provide a background of the many aspects of hazardous waste, from its sources to its consequences, focusing on the risks posed to human health and the environment. It explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste; however, the scope of the book is much broader, discussing agents that are released into the environment that might not be classified as hazardous waste under the regulatory system, but nonetheless pose substantial hazards to human health and the environment. It provides a background of some of the major generators of hazardous wastes, explains the pathways by which humans and wildlife are exposed, and includes discussion of the adverse health effects linked to these pollutants. It provides numerous case studies of hazardous waste mismanagement that have led to disastrous consequences, and highlights the deficiencies in science and regulation that have allowed the public to be subjected to myriad potentially hazardous agents. Finally, it provides a discussion of measures that will need to be taken to control society’s hazardous waste problem. This book was designed to appeal to a wide range of audiences, including students, professionals, and general readers interested in the topic.

Key Features

  • Provides information about sources of and health risks posed by hazardous waste
  • Explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste
  • Includes numerous case studies of mismanagement, highlights deficiencies in science and regulation and discusses measures to tackle society’s hazardous waste problems


students, professionals, and general readers interested in the topic; Cluster E-brochure, trade shows and conferences, online display ads, 2x-Email blast to in-house subscribers, e-newsletters, and web feature

Table of Contents


About the Authors

1. Definition of Hazardous Waste

1.1. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Regulatory Definition

1.2. Regulatory History of Hazardous Waste in the US

1.3. Categories and Sources of Hazardous Waste

2. The Biggest Generators of Hazardous Waste in the US

2.1. Federal Criteria for Regulation of Waste Generators

2.2. National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Reports

2.3. The Chemical Industry

2.4. Local Effects of Hazardous Waste Production: Case Studies of the Top 3 Hazardous Waste Generators and the Communities that House Them

2.5. The United States Military and Other Federal Facilities

2.6. Unregulated Household Hazardous Waste

3. The Chemical Industry

3.1. The Dow Chemical Company

3.2. E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company

3.3. Monsanto Company

3.4. Chemical Industry Hazardous Wastes

4. The United States Military

4.1. Range and Scope of Military Hazardous Waste

4.2. Hazardous Waste from Domestic Manufacturing and Bases

4.3. Dumping of Munitions in the Ocean

4.4. Improper Disposal of Hazardous Waste in US Military Operations Abroad

5. The Petroleum Industry

5.1. Overview, Emissions and Waste

5.2. Refinery Workers Studies

5.3. The Baton Rouge Refinery: Cancer Alley

5.4. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)

5.5. Oil Fields Across America and Damage Done

5.6. Citgo’s Spill in Lake Charles and Criminal Charges

5.7. BP Oil Spill

6. Coal-Fired Power Plants

6.1. Overview

6.2. Power Production, Emissions, and Waste

6.3. Environmental Health Impacts

6.4. Lawsuits and Regulations

6.5. Control Technologies and Alternatives

7. Iron, Steel, and Coke

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Steel Production

7.3. Human Health Impacts

7.4. Standards and Regulations

7.5. Alabama By-Products Corp. (ABC) Coke Case Study

7.6. Alternatives to Conventional Technology

8. The Wood Treatment Industry

8.1. Overview

8.2. Chemicals Involved in the Wood Preserving Industry

8.3. Associated Hazardous Waste Laws and Regulations

8.4. Case Study – Koppers Tie Treating Facility, Somerville, TX

8.5. Hazardous Waste Mitigation – Best Management Practices and Technologies in the Wood Preservation Industry

9. The Paper and Pulp Industry

9.1. Overview

9.2. Chemicals Involved in the Pulp and Paper Industry

9.3. Associated Hazardous Waste Laws and Regulations

9.4. Case Study – International Paper Facility, Prattville, AL

9.5. Hazardous Waste Mitigation – General Guidance on Pollution Prevention (P2) and Cleaner Production in the Pulp and Paper Industry

10. Nuclear Waste and Tritium Releases

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Types and Sources of Nuclear Waste

10.3. Management and Storage

10.4. The Hazards of Nuclear Waste

11. Pesticides

11.1. Current Regulatory Framework

11.2. Case Studies of Select Pesticides

11.3. Worker Exposure to Pesticides

11.4. Pesticides in Groundwater, Surface Water, and Drinking Water

11.5. Conclusion

12. Current Practices in Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Underground Injection

12.3. Aqueous Organic Treatment

12.4. Incineration

12.5. Land Disposal

13. The Export of Hazardous Waste

13.1. Overview, Main Drivers, and Types of Exported Waste

13.2. International Law and the Loophole

13.3. E-Waste – The New Export Challenge

13.4. Recommendations and Conclusion

14. Introduction to Human Exposure, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment

14.1. Exposure Pathways

14.2. Quantifying Exposure

14.3. Toxicity Assessment

14.4. Estimating Risks

14.5. Risk-Based Regulatory Levels

14.6. Resources for Toxicity Information

14.7. Uncertainties in Risk Assessment

15. Bioaccumulation of Dioxins, PCBs, and PAHs

15.1. Overview of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals

15.2. Dioxins

15.3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

15.4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

15.5. Case Studies

16. Emerging Contaminants

16.1. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

16.2. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

16.3. Surfactants

16.4. Plasticizers

16.5. Fire Retardants

16.6. Biological Emerging Contaminants

16.7. Odor as a Potential Health Issue

16.8. Future Research

17. Mercury, BPA, and Pesticides in Food

17.1. Mercury

17.2. Bisphenol A

17.3. Pesticide Residues

17.4. Dioxins, PCBs, and PAHs

18. Childhood Exposure to Environmental Toxins

18.1. What Makes Children Vulnerable

18.2. Breastfeeding and Transfer of Organochlorine Compounds

18.3. Children in Agricultural Areas

18.4. The Effects of Air Pollution on Children’s Respiratory Health

18.5. Childhood Cancers and the Link to Environmental Toxins

19. Health Care Costs and Corporate Accountability

19.1. Corporate Accountability to Medicare and Medicaid for Health Care Costs

19.2. Case Study – US Government Civil Suit Against Monsanto

20. Health and Safety Standards

20.1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

20.2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

20.3. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

20.4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

20.5. World Health Organization

20.6. Environmental Protection Agency

20.7. EPA Sector Notebooks

21. The Failures of Regulatory Agencies and Their Inefficiency in Introducing New Chemicals into Regulation

21.1. Outdated OSHA Values are not Safe

21.2. Problems with the EPA’s IRIS

21.3. Superfund Liability and Determination of Probable Responsible Parties

21.4. Inadequacies within Hazardous Waste Legislation

22. Strategies for the Future – Waste Reduction and Recycling, Treatment Technologies, and Green Chemistry

22.1. Reduction and Recycling

22.2. New Treatment Technologies

22.3. Green Chemistry

Appendix A. OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)

Appendix B. OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) Time-Weighted Averages

Appendix C. OSHA Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

Appendix D. NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (REL)

Appendix E. NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

Appendix F. ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV)

Appendix G. ACGIH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

Appendix H. ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) December 2006

Appendix I. WHO Air Quality Guidelines

Appendix J. EPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

Appendix K. Toxicity and Chemical-Specific Information

Appendix L. Industry Chemical Matrix



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William Andrew
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About the Author

Paul Rosenfeld

Affiliations and Expertise

UCLA School of Public Health; Soil/Water/Air Protection Enterprise, Santa Monica

Lydia Feng