Risks of Hazardous Wastes

Risks of Hazardous Wastes

1st Edition - March 22, 2011

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  • Authors: Paul Rosenfeld, Lydia Feng
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323165655
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778434

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Hazardous waste in the environment is one of the most difficult challenges facing our society. The purpose of this book is to provide a background of the many aspects of hazardous waste, from its sources to its consequences, focusing on the risks posed to human health and the environment. It explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste; however, the scope of the book is much broader, discussing agents that are released into the environment that might not be classified as hazardous waste under the regulatory system, but nonetheless pose substantial hazards to human health and the environment. It provides a background of some of the major generators of hazardous wastes, explains the pathways by which humans and wildlife are exposed, and includes discussion of the adverse health effects linked to these pollutants. It provides numerous case studies of hazardous waste mismanagement that have led to disastrous consequences, and highlights the deficiencies in science and regulation that have allowed the public to be subjected to myriad potentially hazardous agents. Finally, it provides a discussion of measures that will need to be taken to control society’s hazardous waste problem. This book was designed to appeal to a wide range of audiences, including students, professionals, and general readers interested in the topic.

Key Features

  • Provides information about sources of and health risks posed by hazardous waste
  • Explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste
  • Includes numerous case studies of mismanagement, highlights deficiencies in science and regulation and discusses measures to tackle society’s hazardous waste problems


students, professionals, and general readers interested in the topic; Cluster E-brochure, trade shows and conferences, online display ads, 2x-Email blast to in-house subscribers, e-newsletters, and web feature

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    About the Authors

    1. Definition of Hazardous Waste

    1.1. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Regulatory Definition

    1.2. Regulatory History of Hazardous Waste in the US

    1.3. Categories and Sources of Hazardous Waste

    2. The Biggest Generators of Hazardous Waste in the US

    2.1. Federal Criteria for Regulation of Waste Generators

    2.2. National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Reports

    2.3. The Chemical Industry

    2.4. Local Effects of Hazardous Waste Production: Case Studies of the Top 3 Hazardous Waste Generators and the Communities that House Them

    2.5. The United States Military and Other Federal Facilities

    2.6. Unregulated Household Hazardous Waste

    3. The Chemical Industry

    3.1. The Dow Chemical Company

    3.2. E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company

    3.3. Monsanto Company

    3.4. Chemical Industry Hazardous Wastes

    4. The United States Military

    4.1. Range and Scope of Military Hazardous Waste

    4.2. Hazardous Waste from Domestic Manufacturing and Bases

    4.3. Dumping of Munitions in the Ocean

    4.4. Improper Disposal of Hazardous Waste in US Military Operations Abroad

    5. The Petroleum Industry

    5.1. Overview, Emissions and Waste

    5.2. Refinery Workers Studies

    5.3. The Baton Rouge Refinery: Cancer Alley

    5.4. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    5.5. Oil Fields Across America and Damage Done

    5.6. Citgo’s Spill in Lake Charles and Criminal Charges

    5.7. BP Oil Spill

    6. Coal-Fired Power Plants

    6.1. Overview

    6.2. Power Production, Emissions, and Waste

    6.3. Environmental Health Impacts

    6.4. Lawsuits and Regulations

    6.5. Control Technologies and Alternatives

    7. Iron, Steel, and Coke

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Steel Production

    7.3. Human Health Impacts

    7.4. Standards and Regulations

    7.5. Alabama By-Products Corp. (ABC) Coke Case Study

    7.6. Alternatives to Conventional Technology

    8. The Wood Treatment Industry

    8.1. Overview

    8.2. Chemicals Involved in the Wood Preserving Industry

    8.3. Associated Hazardous Waste Laws and Regulations

    8.4. Case Study – Koppers Tie Treating Facility, Somerville, TX

    8.5. Hazardous Waste Mitigation – Best Management Practices and Technologies in the Wood Preservation Industry

    9. The Paper and Pulp Industry

    9.1. Overview

    9.2. Chemicals Involved in the Pulp and Paper Industry

    9.3. Associated Hazardous Waste Laws and Regulations

    9.4. Case Study – International Paper Facility, Prattville, AL

    9.5. Hazardous Waste Mitigation – General Guidance on Pollution Prevention (P2) and Cleaner Production in the Pulp and Paper Industry

    10. Nuclear Waste and Tritium Releases

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Types and Sources of Nuclear Waste

    10.3. Management and Storage

    10.4. The Hazards of Nuclear Waste

    11. Pesticides

    11.1. Current Regulatory Framework

    11.2. Case Studies of Select Pesticides

    11.3. Worker Exposure to Pesticides

    11.4. Pesticides in Groundwater, Surface Water, and Drinking Water

    11.5. Conclusion

    12. Current Practices in Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Underground Injection

    12.3. Aqueous Organic Treatment

    12.4. Incineration

    12.5. Land Disposal

    13. The Export of Hazardous Waste

    13.1. Overview, Main Drivers, and Types of Exported Waste

    13.2. International Law and the Loophole

    13.3. E-Waste – The New Export Challenge

    13.4. Recommendations and Conclusion

    14. Introduction to Human Exposure, Toxicology, and Risk Assessment

    14.1. Exposure Pathways

    14.2. Quantifying Exposure

    14.3. Toxicity Assessment

    14.4. Estimating Risks

    14.5. Risk-Based Regulatory Levels

    14.6. Resources for Toxicity Information

    14.7. Uncertainties in Risk Assessment

    15. Bioaccumulation of Dioxins, PCBs, and PAHs

    15.1. Overview of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals

    15.2. Dioxins

    15.3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    15.4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    15.5. Case Studies

    16. Emerging Contaminants

    16.1. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    16.2. Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products

    16.3. Surfactants

    16.4. Plasticizers

    16.5. Fire Retardants

    16.6. Biological Emerging Contaminants

    16.7. Odor as a Potential Health Issue

    16.8. Future Research

    17. Mercury, BPA, and Pesticides in Food

    17.1. Mercury

    17.2. Bisphenol A

    17.3. Pesticide Residues

    17.4. Dioxins, PCBs, and PAHs

    18. Childhood Exposure to Environmental Toxins

    18.1. What Makes Children Vulnerable

    18.2. Breastfeeding and Transfer of Organochlorine Compounds

    18.3. Children in Agricultural Areas

    18.4. The Effects of Air Pollution on Children’s Respiratory Health

    18.5. Childhood Cancers and the Link to Environmental Toxins

    19. Health Care Costs and Corporate Accountability

    19.1. Corporate Accountability to Medicare and Medicaid for Health Care Costs

    19.2. Case Study – US Government Civil Suit Against Monsanto

    20. Health and Safety Standards

    20.1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    20.2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    20.3. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

    20.4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    20.5. World Health Organization

    20.6. Environmental Protection Agency

    20.7. EPA Sector Notebooks

    21. The Failures of Regulatory Agencies and Their Inefficiency in Introducing New Chemicals into Regulation

    21.1. Outdated OSHA Values are not Safe

    21.2. Problems with the EPA’s IRIS

    21.3. Superfund Liability and Determination of Probable Responsible Parties

    21.4. Inadequacies within Hazardous Waste Legislation

    22. Strategies for the Future – Waste Reduction and Recycling, Treatment Technologies, and Green Chemistry

    22.1. Reduction and Recycling

    22.2. New Treatment Technologies

    22.3. Green Chemistry

    Appendix A. OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)

    Appendix B. OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) Time-Weighted Averages

    Appendix C. OSHA Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

    Appendix D. NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (REL)

    Appendix E. NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

    Appendix F. ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV)

    Appendix G. ACGIH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Values

    Appendix H. ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) December 2006

    Appendix I. WHO Air Quality Guidelines

    Appendix J. EPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    Appendix K. Toxicity and Chemical-Specific Information

    Appendix L. Industry Chemical Matrix


Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2011
  • Published: March 22, 2011
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323165655
  • eBook ISBN: 9781437778434

About the Authors

Paul Rosenfeld

Affiliations and Expertise

UCLA School of Public Health; Soil/Water/Air Protection Enterprise, Santa Monica

Lydia Feng

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