Reservoir Formation Damage - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780128018989, 9780128019108

Reservoir Formation Damage

3rd Edition

Authors: Faruk Civan
eBook ISBN: 9780128019108
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128018989
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 23rd September 2015
Page Count: 1042
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Reservoir Formation Damage, Third Edition, provides the latest information on the economic problems that can occur during various phases of oil and gas recovery from subsurface reservoirs, including production, drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and workover operations.

The text helps readers better understand the processes causing formation damage and the factors that can lead to reduced flow efficiency in near-wellbore formation during the various phases of oil and gas production.

The third edition in the series provides the most all-encompassing volume to date, adding new material on conformance and water control, hydraulic fracturing, special procedures for unconventional reservoirs, field applications design, and cost assessment for damage control measures and strategies.

Key Features

  • Understand relevant formation damage processes by laboratory and field testing
  • Develop theories and mathematical expressions for description of the fundamental mechanisms and processes
  • Predict and simulate the consequences and scenarios of the various types of formation damage processes encountered in petroleum reservoirs
  • Develop methodologies and optimal strategies for formation damage control and remediation


Reservoir Engineers, Well Designers, Asset Managers, Production Engineers, Petrophysicists, Completion Engineers, Fracturing Specialists, Petroleum Geologists, Petrologists, Petroleum Engineers, and Graduates in Petroleum Engineering

Table of Contents

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  • Dedication
  • About the Author
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Overview of Formation Damage
    • Summary
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Common Formation Damage Problems, Factors, and Mechanisms
    • 1.3 Team for Understanding and Mitigation of Formation Damage
    • 1.4 Objectives of the Book
    • Exercises
  • Part I: Characterization of Reservoir Rock for Formation Damage—Reservoir Formations, Description and Characterization, Damage Potential, and Petrographics
    • Chapter 2. Description and Characterization of Oil and Gas Reservoirs for Formation Damage Potential
      • Summary
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Origin of Petroleum-Bearing Formations
      • 2.3 Types and Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
      • 2.4 Operational Classification of the Constituents of Sedimentary Rocks
      • 2.5 Composition of Petroleum-Bearing Formations
      • 2.6 Classification of Rock Types: Depositional, Petrographic, and Hydraulic
      • 2.7 Flow Units Classification of Rock Types
      • 2.8 Geologic Controls on Hydrocarbon Production
      • 2.9 Formation Evaluation (FE) and Reservoir Characterization (RC)
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 3. Petrographic Characteristics of Petroleum-Bearing Formations
      • Summary
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Petrographic Characteristics
      • 3.3 Morphology of Dispersed Clays in Sandstones
      • 3.4 Rock Damage Tendency and Formation Damage Index Number
      • Exercises
  • Part II: Characterization of the Porous Media Processes for Formation Damage—Porosity and Permeability, Mineralogy Sensitivity, Petrophysics, Rate Processes, Rock-Fluid-Particle Interactions, and Accountability of Phases and Species
    • Chapter 4. Alteration of the Porosity and Permeability of Geologic Formations – Basic and Advanced Relationships
      • Summary
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Basic Models for Permeability of Rocks
      • 4.3 Special Effects on Porosity—Permeability Relationships
      • 4.4 Advanced Permeability Equations
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 5. Mineral Sensitivity of Petroleum–Bearing Formations
      • Summary
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Mineral Sensitivity of Sedimentary Formations
      • 5.3 Mechanism of Clay Swelling
      • 5.4 Modeling of Clay Swelling
      • 5.5 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
      • 5.6 Physico-Chemical Sensitivity of Clayey Formation and Clay Reactivity Coefficient (CRC)
      • 5.7 Clay Stabilization
      • 5.8 Clay and Silt Fines
      • 5.9 Intense Heat Treatment
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 6. Petrophysical Alterations—Fluid Disposition, Distribution, and Entrapment, Flow Functions, and Petrophysical Parameters of Geologic Formations
      • Summary
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Dependence of End-Point Saturations to Porosity and Permeability
      • 6.3 Alteration and Temperature Dependency of the Rock Wettability
      • 6.4 Alteration of Flow Functions: Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability
      • 6.5 Mobility of Gas and Water Phases, Entrapment Shock – Critical Phase Entrapment Condition (CPEC)
      • 6.6 Water-Blockage in Hydraulically Created Fractures and Reservoir Formation
      • 6.7 Clay Swelling by Water Imbibition
      • 6.8 Sensitivity of Shale Formations to Water
      • 6.9 Description of Shale Behavior
      • 6.10 Shale Swelling and Stability
      • 6.11 Simplified Modeling of Processes Affecting Wellbore Stability
      • 6.12 Remediation Methods
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 7. Phase Equilibria, Solubility, and Precipitation in Porous Media
      • Summary
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Types of Precipitation
      • 7.3 Solid/Liquid Equilibrium and Solubility Equation
      • 7.4 Solid/Gas Equilibrium and Solubility Equation
      • 7.5 Crystallization Phenomena
      • 7.6 Particle Growth and Dissolution in Solution
      • 7.7 Scale Formation and Dissolution at the Pore Surface
      • 7.8 Crystal Surface Pitting and Displacement by Dissolution
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 8. Particulate Processes in Porous Media
      • Summary
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Particulate Processes
      • 8.3 Properties Affecting Particles
      • 8.4 Forces Acting Upon Particles
      • 8.5 Rate Equations for Particulate Processes in Porous Matrix
      • 8.6 Particulate Phenomena in Multiphase Systems
      • 8.7 Temperature Effect on Particulate Processes
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 9. Multiphase and Multispecies Transport in Porous Media
      • Summary
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Multiphase and MultiSpecies Systems in Porous Media
      • 9.3 Alternative Expressions of Various Species-Content and Flow for Systems in Porous Media
      • 9.4 Multispecies and Multiphase Macroscopic Transport Equations
      • Exercises
  • Part III: Formation Damage by Particulate Processes—Single- and Multi-Phase Fines Migration, Clay Swelling, Filtrate and Particulate Invasion, Filter Cake, Stress Sensitivity, and Sanding
    • Chapter 10. Single-Phase Formation Damage by Fines Migration and Clay Swelling
      • Summary
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Algebraic Core Impairment Model
      • 10.3 Simple Partial Differential Core Impairment Model
      • 10.4 Partial Differential Core Impairment Model Considering the Clayey Formation Swelling and Both the Indigenous and External Particles
      • 10.5 Plugging–Nonplugging Parallel Pathways Partial Differential Core Impairment Model
      • 10.6 Model-Assisted Analysis of Experimental Data
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 11. Multiphase Formation Damage by Fines Migration
      • Summary
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Formulation of a Multiphase Formation Damage Model
      • 11.3 Model-Assisted Analysis of Experimental Data
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 12. Cake Filtration: Mechanism, Parameters and Modeling
      • Summary
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Incompressive Cake Filtration Without Fines Intrusion
      • 12.3 Compressive Cake Filtration Including Fines Invasion
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 13. Injectivity of the Water-flooding Wells
      • Summary
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Injectivity of Wells
      • 13.3 Water Quality Ratio
      • 13.4 Single-Phase Filtration Processes
      • 13.5 Diagnostic-Type Curves for Water Injectivity Tests
      • 13.6 Injection Rate Decline Function
      • 13.7 Field Applications
      • 13.8 Water Injectivity Management
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 14. Drilling-Induced Near-Wellbore Formation Damage: Drilling Mud Filtrate and Solids Invasion and Mud Cake Formation
      • Summary
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Formation Damage in Vertical and Horizontal Wells
      • 14.3 Formation Damage Caused by Drilling and Completion Fluids
      • 14.4 Effect of Drilling Fluids on Shale Stability
      • 14.5 Mitigation of Formation Damage Induced by Completion Fluids and Crude-Oil Emulsions
      • 14.6 Depth of Mud Damage Prediction
      • 14.7 Single Phase Mud Filtrate Invasion Model
      • 14.8 Two-Phase Wellbore Mud Invasion and Filter Cake Formation Model
      • 14.9 Near-Wellbore Filtrate Invasion
      • 14.10 Dynamically Coupled Mud-Cake Buildup and Immiscible Multiphase Filtrate Invasion
      • 14.11 Drilling Mud Loss into Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 15. Reservoir Stress-Induced Formation Damage: Formation Compaction, Subsidence, Sanding Tendency, Sand Migration, Prediction and Control, and Gravel-Pack Damage
      • Summary
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Stress Fields and Yield Surfaces
      • 15.3 Stress Shock, Critical Yield Stress (CYS), and Sand Fluidization and Production
      • 15.4 Review and Discussion of Sand Control Issues
      • 15.5 Sand Management Strategies and Techniques
      • 15.6 Criteria for Selection and Design of Sand Control Techniques
      • 15.7 Pressure Pulse Workovers
      • 15.8 Prediction of Sanding Conditions Using a Simple Model
      • 15.9 Prediction of Massive Sand Production Using a Differential Model
      • 15.10 Modeling Sand Retention in Gravel Packs
      • 15.11 Reservoir Compaction and Subsidence
      • Exercises
  • Part IV: Formation Damage by Inorganic and Organic Precipitation Processes—Chemical Reactions, Saturation Phenomena, Dissolution, Precipitation, and Deposition
    • Chapter 16. Inorganic Scaling and Geochemical Formation Damage
      • Summary
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Geochemical Phenomena—Classification, Formulation, Modeling, and Simulation
      • 16.3 Reactions in Porous Media
      • 16.4 Geochemical Modeling
      • 16.5 Graphic Description of the Rock–Fluid Chemical Equilibrium
      • 16.6 Geochemical Model Assisted Analysis of Fluid–Fluid and Rock–Fluid Compatibility
      • 16.7 Geochemical Simulation of Rock–Fluid Interactions in Brine-Saturated Sedimentary Basins
      • 16.8 Treatment of Inorganic Scales
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 17. Formation Damage by Organic Deposition
      • Summary
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Characteristics of Asphaltenic Oils
      • 17.3 Mechanisms of the Heavy Organic Deposition
      • 17.4 Asphaltene and Wax Phase Behavior
      • 17.5 Prediction of Asphaltene Stability and Measurement (Detection) of the Onset of Asphaltene Flocculation (OAF)
      • 17.6 Algebraic Model for Formation Damage by Asphaltene Precipitation in Single Phase
      • 17.7 Plugging–Nonplugging Pathways Model for Asphaltene Deposition in Single Phase
      • 17.8 Two-Phase and Dual-Porosity Model for Simultaneous Asphaltene-Paraffin Deposition
      • 17.9 Single-Porosity and Two-Phase Model for Organic Deposition
      • 17.10 Naphthenate Soap Deposition-Induced Formation Damage
      • 17.11 Control, Mitigation, and Remediation Methods
      • Exercises
  • Part V: Laboratory Assessment of the Formation Damage Potential—Instrumental Techniques, Testing, Analysis, and Interpretation
    • Chapter 18. Instrumental and Laboratory Techniques for Characterization of Reservoir Rock
      • Summary
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Instrumental Laboratory Techniques
      • 18.3 Mineral Quantification
      • 18.4 Difference Maps Technique (DMST)
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 19. Laboratory Evaluation of Formation Damage
      • Summary
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Fundamental Processes of Practical Importance for Formation Damage in Petroleum Reservoirs
      • 19.3 Selection of Reservoir Compatible Fluids
      • 19.4 Experimental Setup for Formation Damage Testing
      • 19.5 Recommended Practice for Laboratory Formation Damage Tests
      • 19.6 Protocol for Standard Core Flood Tests
      • 19.7 Laboratory Procedures for Evaluation of Common Formation Damage Problems
      • 19.8 Evaluation of the Reservoir Formation Damage Potential by Laboratory Testing—A Case Study
      • Exercises
  • Part VI: Field Diagnosis and Mitigation of Formation Damage—Measurement, Assessment, Control, and Remediation
    • Chapter 20. Field Diagnosis and Measurement of Formation Damage
      • Summary
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Diagnosis and Evaluation of Formation Damage in the Field
      • 20.3 Pseudodamage Versus Formation Damage
      • 20.4 Measures of Formation Damage
      • 20.5 Model-Assisted Analysis of the Near-Wellbore Permeability Alteration Using Pressure Transient Data
      • 20.6 Estimation of Near-Wellbore Depth of Permeability Impairment by Mud-Filtrate Invasion
      • 20.7 Productivity Decline Caused by Mud Invasion into Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
      • 20.8 Continuous Real-Time Series Analysis for Detection and Monitoring Formation Damage Effects
      • 20.9 Formation Damage Expert System
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 21. Determination of Formation- and Pseudodamage from Well Performance—Identification, Characterization, Evaluation, and Abatement
      • Summary
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Completion Damage and Flow Efficiency
      • 21.3 Formation Damage Assessment in the Field—Well Surveillance
      • 21.4 Well-Testing Techniques, Reservoir Parameters, and Interpretation Methods
      • 21.5 Components of the Total Skin Factor
      • 21.6 Variable Skin Factor
      • 21.7 Well Performance Analysis – the Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 22. Formation Damage Control and Remediation—Conventional Techniques and Remedial Treatments for Common Problems
      • Summary
      • 22.1 Introduction
      • 22.2 Selection of Treatment Fluids
      • 22.3 Well Stimulation
      • 22.4 Sandstone and Carbonate Formation Acidizing
      • 22.5 Placement of Stimulation Fluids
      • 22.6 Effectiveness of Clay-Swelling-Inhibiting Additives
      • 22.7 Nanoparticle Fluids Injection
      • 22.8 Scale Management
      • 22.9 Chelating Agents
      • 22.10 Explosive Well Stimulation and Completion
      • 22.11 Acoustic Well Stimulation
      • 22.12 Near-Wellbore Formation and Wellbore Cleanup
      • 22.13 Formation Damage Caused by Pressure-Pulse Induced by Valve Closure
      • 22.14 Controlling the Adverse Side Effects of Remedial Treatments
      • 22.15 Treatment Fluid Application Methods
      • 22.16 Thermal Effects on Treatment Fluids
      • 22.17 Recapitulation of the Methods for Formation Damage Mitigation
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 23. Reservoir Formation Damage Abatement—Guidelines, Methodology, Preventive Maintenance, and Remediation Treatments
      • Summary
      • 23.1 Introduction
      • 23.2 Common Operating Constraints and Their Impact on Production and Surveillance
      • 23.3 Comprehensive Methodology for Mitigation of Formation Damage
      • Exercises
  • Part VII: Modeling and Simulation of Formation Damage- Prediction of the Near-Wellbore Formation Damage and the Combined Effects of Fluid, Completion, and Formation Damages on Well Performance by Various Modeling and Simulation Approaches and Examples
    • Chapter 24. Near-Wellbore Formation Damage by Inorganic and Organic Precipitates Deposition
      • Summary
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Modeling Near-Wellbore Deposition and Its Effect on Well Performance
      • 24.3 Near-Wellbore Sulfur Deposition
      • 24.4 Near-Wellbore Calcite Deposition
      • 24.5 Near-Wellbore Asphaltene Deposition
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 25. Interactions and Coupling of Reservoir Fluid, Completion, and Formation Damages
      • Summary
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Fundamental Damage Processes, Mechanisms, and Skin Effects
      • 25.3 Wellbore Transport Processes
      • 25.4 Thermal and Hydraulic Coupling of Wellbore with Reservoir During Remedial Fluid Treatments Illustrated for Hydraulically Fractured Well Acidizing
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 26. Formation Damage Simulator Development
      • Summary
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Description of Fundamental Model Equations
      • 26.3 Numerical Solution of Formation Damage Models
      • 26.4 Ordinary Differential Equations
      • 26.5 Partial Differential Equations
      • Exercises
    • Chapter 27. Model-Assisted Analysis and Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Tests
      • Summary
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 Measurement Error
      • 27.3 Model Validation, Refinement, and Parameter Estimation
      • 27.4 Formation Damage Potential of Stimulation and Production Techniques
      • 27.5 Reactive-Transport Simulation of Dolomitization, Anhydrite Cementation, and Porosity Evolution
      • 27.6 Impact of Scale Deposition in a Reservoir
      • 27.7 Simulation of Fine-Particle Mobilization, Migration, and Deposition in a Core Plug
      • Exercises
  • References
  • Index


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About the Author

Faruk Civan

Faruk Civan is the Martin G. Miller Chair Professor of the Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma in Norman. He formerly held the Brian and Sandra O’Brien Presidential and Alumni Chair Professorships. Previously, he worked in the Chemical Engineering department at the Technical University of Istanbul, Turkey. Dr. Civan received an Advanced Engineering Degree from the Technical University of Istanbul, Turkey, a M.S. degree from the University of Texas at Austin, Texas, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. All of his degrees are in chemical engineering.

Dr. Civan specializes in petrophysics and reservoir characterization; fossil and sustainable energy resources development; carbon sequestration; unconventional gas and condensate reservoirs; reservoir and well/pipeline hydraulics and flow assurance; formation and well damage modeling, diagnosis, assessment, and mitigation; reservoir and well analyses, modeling, and simulation; natural gas engineering, measurement, processing, hydrates, transportation, and storage; carbon dioxide sequestration; coalbed methane production; improved reservoir recovery techniques; corrosion protection in oil and gas wells; filtration and separation techniques; oil and gas processing, transportation, and storage; multiphase transport phenomena in porous media; environmental pollution assessment, prevention, and control; mathematical modeling and simulation, and solving differential equations by numerical methods including by the quadrature, cubature, and finite-analytic methods.

Dr. Civan is the author of two books, has published more than 330 technical articles in journals, edited books, handbooks, encyclopedia, and conference proceedings, and presented worldwide more than 125 invited seminars and/or lectures at various technical meetings, companies, and universities. He teaches short industry courses on a number of topics worldwide. Additionally, he has written numerous reports on his funded research projects. Dr. Civan’s publications have been cited frequently in various publications, as reported by the Science Author Citation Index.

He is a member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. and a member of the editorial boards of several journals. He has served on numerous petroleum and chemical engineering, and other related conferences and meetings in various capacities, including as committee chairman and member, session organizer, chair or co-chair, and instructor. Civan has received 21 honors and awards, including five distinguished lectureship awards and the 2003 SPE Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty and the 2014 SPE Reservoir Description and Dynamics Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

Martin G. Miller Chair Professor of the Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma in Norman

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