Research in Medical and Biological Sciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127999432, 9780128001547

Research in Medical and Biological Sciences

1st Edition

From Planning and Preparation to Grant Application and Publication

Editors: Petter Laake Haakon Benestad Bjorn Olsen
eBook ISBN: 9780128001547
Paperback ISBN: 9780127999432
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st March 2015
Page Count: 584
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Description

Research in Medical and Biological Sciences covers the wide range of topics that a researcher must be familiar with in order to become a successful biomedical scientist. Perfect for aspiring as well as practicing professionals in the medical and biological sciences, this publication discusses a broad range of topics that are common yet not traditionally considered part of formal curricula, including philosophy of science, ethics, statistics, and grant applications. The information presented in this book also facilitates communication across conventional disciplinary boundaries, in line with the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of modern research projects.

Key Features

  • Provides a broad scientific perspective in basic, clinical and translational medical research, which is perfect for students with various professional backgrounds
  • Contains easily accessible, concise material that makes learning about diverse methods achievable in today's fast-paced world
  • Includes extensive examples, online resources such as further reading suggestions, and data files for statistical analyses
  • Covers the breadth of topics, including research strategies, bibliographic tools and scientific communication, that a researcher must understand in order to be a successful scientist

Readership

Postgraduate researchers in basic life science and clinical research, postdocs, researchers and clinical researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Philosophy of Science
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Philosophy of the Natural Sciences
    • 1.3 What is Science? Differentiating Science from Nonscience
    • 1.4 Knowledge and Truth: What is Knowledge and What Constitutes a Scientific Fact?
    • 1.5 The Glue That Holds the World Together: Causation
    • 1.6 Scientific Explanation
    • 1.7 Modes of Inference
    • 1.8 What Science is About
    • 1.9 Scientific Rationality
    • 1.10 Hypothesis Testing
    • 1.11 The Aim of Science: Reducing Uncertainty
    • 1.12 The Empirical Turn in the Philosophy of Science: Science in Society
    • 1.13 Philosophy of the Social Sciences
    • 1.14 Interpretation, Understanding, and Explanation
    • 1.15 The Hermeneutic Circle, Horizon of Understanding, and “Double Hermeneutics”
    • 1.16 Power, Ideology, and Interests
    • 1.17 Validity
    • 1.18 Reductionism and Emergence
    • 1.19 Generalization
    • Questions to Discuss
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 2. Ethics and Scientific Conduct
    • 2.1 Why the Current Focus on Scientific Misconduct?
    • 2.2 What Do We Know About Scientific Misconduct?
    • 2.3 What is Wrong with Scientific Misconduct?
    • 2.4 Scientific Conduct and Misconduct
    • 2.5 Scientific Misconduct That Affects the Truth Claims of Scientific Findings
    • 2.6 Authorship
    • 2.7 Salami, Imalas, and Duplicate Publication
    • 2.8 The Investigation, Prevention, and Punishment of Scientific Misconduct
    • Questions to Discuss
    • Appendix 1 ICMJE Recommendations on the Role of Authors and Contributors
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 3. Ethics in Human and Animal Studies
    • 3.1 Basic Principles of Human Biomedical Research Ethics
    • 3.2 International Regulation
    • 3.3 The Ethics of Animal Research
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 4. Research Strategies, Planning, and Analysis
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Identifying Scientific Problems
    • 4.3 The Experimental Design
    • 4.4 Data Types
    • 4.5 Methods and Experimental Techniques
    • 4.6 Experimental Research Checklist
    • 4.7 Repeatability, Reproducibility, and Reliability
    • 4.8 Multifactorial Relationships and Observational Studies
    • 4.9 Validity, Effect Estimate, and Choice of Statistical Test
    • 4.10 Research Protocol
    • 4.11 Experimental Routines
    • Acknowledgments
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 5. Literature Searches and Reference Management
    • 5.1 Information Literacy
    • 5.2 Literature Searches
    • 5.3 Establishment of a Search Query
    • 5.4 Selection of Relevant Sources of Information
    • 5.5 Search Techniques
    • 5.6 Critical Assessment
    • 5.7 Bibliometric Measures
    • 5.8 Principal Scientific Bibliographic Databases
    • 5.9 Staying Up to Date
    • 5.10 Medical and Scientific Internet Search Engines
    • 5.11 Finding Research Protocols and Ongoing Projects
    • 5.12 Reference Management
    • 5.13 Open Access Publication, Copyright, and Self-Archiving
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 6. Basic Medical Science
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Long-Term Goals and Specific Aims
    • 6.3 Background and Significance
    • 6.4 Experimental Strategies and Methods
    • 6.5 Levels of Research—from Organisms to Cells
    • 6.6 Research on Experimental Animals
    • 6.7 The Three Rs
    • 6.8 Animal Models
    • 6.9 Mouse Models for Studies of Mammalian Development and Disease
    • 6.10 Legislation
    • 6.11 Notes on the Use of Experimental Animals
    • 6.12 Commonly Used Experimental Animals
    • 6.13 Cell and Tissue Culture
    • 6.14 An Overview of Selected Technical Developments
    • 6.15 Applications of Cell Culture
    • 6.16 Manipulation of Cultured Cells
    • 6.17 Possibilities Provided by Molecular Biological Techniques
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 7. Translational Medical Research
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 An Old Success Story—Aspirin
    • 7.3 Research Provides a Path to Understanding Mechanisms and New Drugs
    • 7.4 The Importance of Understanding Drug Metabolism—The Rise and Fall of Clopidogrel (Plavix)
    • 7.5 The Need for More Translational Medical Research
    • 7.6 Translational Medical Research and the Development of Orphan Drugs
    • 7.7 From Rare Disorders to Common Disorders
    • 7.8 Target-Based Drug Development—Aquaporins
    • 7.9 Training of Investigators for Translational Medical Research
    • 7.10 Collaboration Between Academia and the Pharmaceutical Industry
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 8. Clinical Research
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 The Research Process—Important Steps
    • 8.3 Controlled Clinical Trials
    • 8.4 Drug Development
    • 8.5 Clinical Trial Protocol
    • 8.6 Trial Designs
    • 8.7 Target Population
    • 8.8 Historical Controls
    • 8.9 Randomization
    • 8.10 Blinding
    • 8.11 Choice of Endpoints
    • 8.12 Sample Size Estimation
    • 8.13 Statistical Analysis
    • 8.14 Personalized Medicine
    • 8.15 Noninferiority Trials
    • 8.16 Sources and Control of Bias
    • 8.17 Generalization of Trial Results
    • 8.18 Regulatory Issues
    • Questions to Discuss
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Epidemiology
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 The Definition of Epidemiology
    • 9.3 The Role of Epidemiology
    • 9.4 Target Population, Source Population, and Study Sample
    • 9.5 Disease Occurrence, Risk, Association, Importance, and Implication
    • 9.6 Epidemiological Study Designs
    • 9.7 Effect Measures in Epidemiological Studies
    • 9.8 Experimental Studies and Randomized Control Trials
    • 9.9 Types and Sources of Error
    • 9.10 Tests and Validity
    • 9.11 Causes of Disease
    • 9.12 Association Versus Causal Relationship
    • 9.13 Causal Calculus
    • Acknowledgments
    • Question to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 10. Qualitative Research Methods
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 What is Qualitative Research?
    • 10.3 Doing Qualitative Research
    • 10.4 What is Qualitative Interviewing?
    • 10.5 Doing Qualitative Interviewing
    • 10.6 What is Participant Observation?
    • 10.7 Doing Participant Observation
    • 10.8 Qualitative Data Analysis
    • 10.9 Making Insights Portable and Applicable
    • 10.10 The Quality of Qualitative Research
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 11. Statistical Inference
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Effect Estimate, Confidence Interval, and P-Value
    • 11.3 Two Binomial Samples
    • 11.4 Measures of Association in 2×2 Contingency Tables
    • 11.5 Statistical Tests for Comparing Two Proportions
    • 11.6 Normal Distribution
    • 11.7 Comparison of Means
    • 11.8 Nonparametric Methods
    • 11.9 Linear Regression Analysis
    • 11.10 Logistic Regression
    • 11.11 Median Regression
    • 11.12 Poisson Regression
    • 11.13 Survival Analysis and Cox Regression
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Evidence-Based Medicine and Systematic Reviews
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 The Five Elements of EBM
    • 12.3 Introduction to Systematic Reviews
    • 12.4 The Research Question
    • 12.5 Search Strategy
    • 12.6 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria and the Selection of Primary Studies
    • 12.7 Data Extraction from Included Studies
    • 12.8 Study Characteristics
    • 12.9 Methods to Assess Risk of Bias (Internal Validity) in the Included Studies
    • 12.10 Methods to Estimate the Common Effect
    • 12.11 Methods to Assess Heterogeneity
    • 12.12 Methods to Assess Publication Bias
    • 12.13 Additional Analyses
    • 12.14 Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 13. Scientific Communication
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Scientific Papers
    • 13.3 General Guidelines for Tables and Figures (Graphs)
    • 13.4 The Finish
    • 13.5 Posters
    • 13.6 Some Final Points and Caveats
    • Questions to Discuss
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 14. Successful Lecturing
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Preparing the Lecture
    • 14.3 Lecture Content and Form
    • 14.4 Lecture Manuscript
    • 14.5 Delivering a Lecture
    • Questions to Discuss
    • Acknowledgments
    • Further Reading
  • Chapter 15. Guide to Grant Applications
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 Getting Started
    • 15.3 The Postdoctoral Fellow and the Junior Scientist
    • 15.4 What Goes into a Successful Grant Application?
    • 15.5 Investigator-Initiated R01 NIH Grants
    • 15.6 Multiproject Grants
    • 15.7 Horizon 2020
    • 15.8 International Research Collaborations
    • 15.9 Summary and Perspective
    • Acknowledgements
    • Questions to Discuss
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
584
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128001547
Paperback ISBN:
9780127999432

About the Editor

Petter Laake

Petter Laake

Professor, PhD Petter Laake has since 1989 been a staff member of the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biostatistics, University of Oslo. He has 20 years of experience in lecturing, communicating and advising in statistics, at all levels and for various target groups. Since 2001, he has worked with the postgraduate studies programme at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, and has been in charge of the mandatory basic course in research methods. He has written and edited several text books in research methodology and statistics.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Oslo, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Dept of Biostatistics, Norway

Haakon Benestad

Haakon Benestad

Professor, MD Haakon Breien Benestad has since 1968 been a staff member of the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, University of Oslo. He has lectured students of medicine, odontology, nutrition and physiotherapy and has been an advisor for master and postgraduate students. He has held various basic courses for postgraduate students, compiled compendia for these courses and written a textbook of anatomy, physiology and immunology for social and health studies in upper secondary schools.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Oslo, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, Norway

Bjorn Olsen

Bjorn Olsen

Professor, MD, Bjorn Reino Olsen is Hersey Professor of Cell Biology at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Since 2005, he also serves as Dean of Research at Harvard School of Dental Medicine. He has lectured worldwide and mentored and trained a large number of students and postdoctoral fellows. He is a member of and has held leadership positions in several professional organizations, has served on several Editorial Boards, and is currently Editor-in-Chief of Matrix Biology and BioMed Central’s Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard Medical School, Department of Cell Biology, Boston, MA, USA

Reviews

"...an excellent conglomeration of practical information about research for medical researchers...may help streamline the work of researchers, saving time and energy while conserving limited resources.  Score: 87 - 3 Stars" --Doody's