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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780120885749, 9780080575520

Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices

2nd Edition

Authors: Milton Ohring Lucian Kasprzak
Hardcover ISBN: 9780120885749
eBook ISBN: 9780080575520
Paperback ISBN: 9780128100363
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th October 2014
Page Count: 758
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Reliability and Failure of Electronic Materials and Devices is a well-established and well-regarded reference work offering unique, single-source coverage of most major topics related to the performance and failure of materials used in electronic devices and electronics packaging. With a focus on statistically predicting failure and product yields, this book can help the design engineer, manufacturing engineer, and quality control engineer all better understand the common mechanisms that lead to electronics materials failures, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, and radiation damage. This new edition adds cutting-edge knowledge gained both in research labs and on the manufacturing floor, with new sections on plastics and other new packaging materials, new testing procedures, and new coverage of MEMS devices.

Key Features

  • Covers all major types of electronics materials degradation and their causes, including dielectric breakdown, hot-electron effects, electrostatic discharge, corrosion, and failure of contacts and solder joints
  • New updated sections on "failure physics," on mass transport-induced failure in copper and low-k dielectrics, and on reliability of lead-free/reduced-lead solder connections
  • New chapter on testing procedures, sample handling and sample selection, and experimental design
  • Coverage of new packaging materials, including plastics and composites


Professional Materials Engineers working with materials used in electronic devices, including silicon chips; Electronics Engineers; Electrical Engineers; Manufacturing Engineers; Chemical Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. An Overview of Electronic Devices and Their Reliability
    • 1.1. Electronic Products
    • 1.2. Reliability, Other “…Ilities,” and Definitions
    • 1.3. Failure Physics
    • 1.4. Summary and Perspective
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 2. Electronic Devices: How They Operate and Are Fabricated
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Electronic Materials
    • 2.3. Diodes
    • 2.4. Bipolar Transistors
    • 2.5. Field Effect Transistors
    • 2.6. Memories
    • 2.7. GaAs Devices
    • 2.8. Electro-Optical Devices
    • 2.9. Processing—The Chip Level
    • 2.10. Microelectromechanical Systems
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 3. Defects, Contaminants, and Yield
    • 3.1. Scope
    • 3.2. Defects in Crystalline Solids and Semiconductors
    • 3.3. Processing Defects
    • 3.4. Contamination
    • 3.5. Yield
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 4. The Mathematics of Failure and Reliability
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Statistics and Definitions
    • 4.3. All About Exponential, Lognormal, and Weibull Distributions
    • 4.4. System Reliability
    • 4.5. On the Physical Significance of Failure Distribution Functions
    • 4.6. Prediction Confidence and Assessing Risk
    • 4.7. A Skeptical and Irreverent Summary
    • Statistics and Ignorance
    • Superstition, Witchcraft, Prediction
    • Statistics versus Physics
    • Where Do I Begin?
    • Reliability Prediction and MIL-HDBK-217
    • 4.8. Epilogue—Final Comment
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 5. Mass Transport-Induced Failure
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Diffusion and Atom Movements in Solids
    • 5.3. Binary Diffusion and Compound Formation
    • 5.4. Reactions at Metal–Semiconductor Contacts
    • 5.5. EM Physics and Damage Models
    • 5.6. EM in Practice
    • 5.7. Stress Voiding
    • 5.8. Multilevel Copper Metallurgy—EM and SV
    • 5.9. Failure of Incandescent Lamps
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 6. Electronic Charge-Induced Damage
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Aspects of Conduction in Insulators
    • 6.3. Dielectric Breakdown
    • 6.4. Hot-Carrier Effects
    • 6.5. Electrical Overstress and Electrostatic Discharge
    • 6.6. Bias Temperature Effects
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 7. Environmental Damage to Electronic Products
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Atmospheric Contamination and Moisture
    • 7.3. Corrosion of Metals
    • 7.4. Corrosion in Electronics
    • 7.5. Metal Migration
    • 7.6. Radiation Damage to Electronic Materials and Devices
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 8. Packaging Materials, Processes, and Stresses
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. IC Chip Packaging Processes and Effects
    • 8.3. Solders and Their Reactions
    • 8.4. Second-Level Packaging Technologies
    • 8.5. Thermal Stresses in Package Structures
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 9. Degradation of Contacts and Package Interconnections
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. The Nature of Contacts
    • 9.3. Degradation of Contacts and Connectors
    • 9.4. Creep and Fatigue of Solder
    • 9.5. Reliability and Failure of Solder Joints
    • 9.6. Dynamic Loading Effects in Electronic Equipment
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 10. Degradation and Failure of Electro-Optical Materials and Devices
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Failure and Reliability of Lasers and Light-Emitting Diodes
    • 10.3. Thermal Degradation of Lasers and Optical Components
    • 10.4. Reliability of Optical Fibers
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 11. Characterization and Failure Analysis of Materials and Devices
    • 11.1. Overview of Testing and Failure Analysis
    • 11.2. Nondestructive Examination and Decapsulation
    • 11.3. Structural Characterization
    • 11.4. Chemical Characterization
    • 11.5. Examining Devices under Electrical Stress
    • Exercises
  • Chapter 12. Future Directions and Reliability Issues
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Integrated Circuit Technology Trends
    • 12.3. Scaling
    • 12.4. Fundamental Limits
    • 12.5. Improving Reliability
    • Exercises
  • Appendix
  • Acronyms
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2014
14th October 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Authors

Milton Ohring

Milton Ohring

Dr. Milton Ohring, author of two previously acclaimed Academic Press books,The Materials Science of Thin Films (l992) and Engineering Materials Science (1995), has taught courses on reliability and failure in electronics at Bell Laboratories (AT&T and Lucent Technologies). From this perspective and the well-written tutorial style of the book, the reader will gain a deeper physical understanding of failure mechanisms in electronic materials and devices; acquire skills in the mathematical handling of reliability data; and better appreciate future technology trends and the reliability issues they raise.

Affiliations and Expertise

Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA (Retired)

Lucian Kasprzak

Lucian Kasprzak

In 1988, Dr Lucian Kasprzak became an IEEE Fellow “For contributions to very-largescale-integrated devices through the integration of reliability physics with process development.” He discovered the hot-electron effect in short channel field-effect transistors, while at IBM in 1973. From 1992 to 1996, he was Associate Professor of Physics and Engineering Science at Franciscan University. He retired from IBM in 1995 after 30 years. In 1996, he joined Sterling Diagnostic Imaging as Reliability Manager for the Direct Radiography Program. He became Director of Reliability at Direct Radiography Corp. in 1997. Early in 2001 he became an independent Reliability Consultant.

Affiliations and Expertise

Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics (Retired)

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