Regional Studies and Specific Deposits

Regional Studies and Specific Deposits

1st Edition - January 1, 1985

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  • Author: Author Unknown
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444600677

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Description

Regional Studies and Specific Deposits deals with regional studies of strata-bound and stratiform ore deposits. Topics covered include the geological association between coal and metallic ores; the genesis of iron ores in banded iron-formation (BIF) by supergene and supergene-metamorphic processes; mineral zoning in sediment-hosted copper deposits; and the formation of gossans. The role of hydrothermal karst phenomena in the formation of Mississippi Valley-type deposits is also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with a review of the geological association of coal and metallic ores, focusing in particular on which metallic accumulations could be expected to be possibly present, within or close to the coal. The next chapter examines the origin of strata-bound enrichment deposits derived from BIF and presents the basic conceptual model for BIF-derived iron ores. The evolution of sulfide mineral zonation in low-temperature, sediment-hosted copper deposits is then evaluated. The book also describes the processes underlying the formation of gossans before concluding with an analysis of the hydrothermal karst phenomena as a factor in the development of Mississippi Valley-type deposits. This handbook will be useful to students, practitioners, and researchers in the fields of energy and earth sciences, mineralogy, mining, and metallurgy.

Table of Contents


  • Chapter 1. The Geological Association of Coal and Metallic Ores - A Review

    Introduction

    Categories of Coal-Ore Association

    Metallic Ore Substance Directly within the Coal Seam

    Uraniferous Lignites Outside of North America

    Uraniferous Coals (Braunkohle to Anthracite)

    Metallic Ores in Coal Association, Repetitively Present in Close Proximity to the Coal Seams

    Metallic Ores in Coal Association or Adjacent to it, Accidentally Present

    Metallic Ores in a Proximal Facies of Coal Associations

    Metallic Mineralizations Related to the Basement on which the Coal Association Rests

    Interaction of Coal and Metamorphism, Metasomatism, Igneous Intrusion: Metallogenic Implications

    Spontaneous Coal Burning and Thermal Metamorphism

    Contact Metamorphism/Metasomatism at Coal/Igneous Dikes and Sills Contacts

    Contact Metamorphism/Metasomatism at Coal/Granitic Intrusion Contacts

    Regional Metamorphism of Coal

    Coal, Ores and Evolution

    References

    Chapter 2. Genesis of Iron Ore in Banded Iron-Formation by Supergene and Supergene-Metamorphic Processes - A Conceptual Model

    Introduction

    General

    The Basic Conceptual Model for BIF-Derived Iron Ores

    Definitions of Controversial Terms

    Genesis of BIF-Derived Iron Ores

    Literature Survey and Compilation of Genetic Models

    Literature Features of Iron-Enrichment Ores

    Genetic Models for BIF-Derived Ores - Discussion

    The Hamersley Iron Province of Western Australia

    General

    Brief Review of Geological Investigations of Ores and BIFs

    Geology of the BIFs

    Formation of Ore by Supergene Processes

    Textural Features of BIF

    Effects of Supergene Processes on BIF Minerals

    Supergene Ore Textures - Macroscopic Features

    Modifications to Ore by Continuing Supergene Processes

    General

    Leaching of Goethite

    Dehydration of Goethite

    Ferricrust - Ferruginous Duricrust

    Metamorphic and Post-Metamorphic Modifications to Supergene Ore

    General

    Regional Metamorphism

    Formation of Magnetite During Regional Metamorphism

    Contact Metamorphism

    Textural Relationships and Interpretations

    Metamorphism - Concluding Statement

    Geologic and Meteoric Controls of Supergene Enrichment

    General

    Stratigraphic Thinning Due to Enrichment

    Material Balance Between BIF and Ore

    Mobility of Iron and Silica - Ore-Forming Rates

    Oxidation of Iron at Depth - The Electrochemical Model

    Specific Factors in Supergene Enrichment

    The Environment of Supergene Enrichment

    Reconstruction of an Ore Body - A Model for a Supergene Deposits

    Chronology of Ore Formation

    General

    Stratigraphic Evidence for the Age of the Oldest Supergene Ores

    Hamersley Platform

    Supporting Evidence for the Age of the Oldest Supergene Ores

    Later Ore Events

    Phosphorus in BIF and Ore

    General

    Phosphorus in BIF

    Phosphorus in Weathered BIF and Ores

    Model for Distribution of Phosphorus in BIF-Hosted Enrichment Ores

    Application of Theory

    The Pilbara Iron Ore Classification (PIOC)

    Exploration for High-Grade Ores

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3. Mineral Zoning in Sediment-Hosted Copper Deposits

    Introduction

    Stability Relationships Between Cu and Cu-Fe Sulfide Minerals

    Pyrite Replacement and Zoning Sequences

    Mass Transfer Modeling as Applied to Problems of Sulfide Zoning

    Transport of Copper in Aqueous Solution

    Other Approaches to the Study of Reaction/Transfer Problems

    General Remarks

    Coupling, Feedback, Instability and Self Organization

    Modeling Cu-Fe Sulfide Zoning

    Overview

    Simulations

    Discussion

    Remarks on Transport-Reaction Modeling

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Gossans

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Definitions

    Processes of Gossan Formation

    Sulphide Oxidation

    Formation of Secondary Minerals

    Behavior of Gold

    Sorption Processes

    Leaching

    Effect of Wallrock and Gangue Minerals

    The Influence of Hydrology, Climate and Geomorphology

    Gossan Maturity

    The Constitution of Gossans

    Mineralogy

    Textures

    Lack of Textural Development

    Colour

    Geochemistry

    IsotopiC Composition

    The Evaluation of Gossans

    Field Observations

    Sampling

    Preparation of Samples for Laboratory Study

    Laboratory Techniques of Gossan Appraisal

    Mineralogy

    Texture

    Case Histories

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 5. Hydrothermal Karst Phenomena as a Factor in the Formation of Mississippi Valley-Type Deposits

    Introduction

    Underground Karst Structures - General Comments

    Hydrothermal Karst - Modern Examples

    Geologic Setting of MVTD

    Host Rock of Ores

    Solutional Disaggregation

    General Premises

    Karstic Nature of Ore Receptacles

    Hydrothermal Origin of Sulfides

    Relationship Between Hydrothermal Ores and their Karst Receptacles

    Mineralization in Disaggregated Rocks - Ammoblastesis

    Relationships Between Metasomatic and Karst Ores

    Crevice Ores

    Review of Other Hypotheses on the Origin of Karst Ores

    Criticism of Hydrothermal Karst Concept

    Conclusions and Implications

    Acknowledgement

    Glossary

    References

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1985
  • Published: January 1, 1985
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444600677

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