Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques

Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques

International Series of Monographs on Chemical Engineering

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Author: W. D. Jamrack
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180564

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Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques describes the use of chemical engineering techniques in the extraction and purification of rare metals such as uranium, thorium, and zirconium as well as hafnium, titanium, beryllium, and vanadium. The various chemical extraction stages from ore to metal are discussed. Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an examination of ore breakdown processes including dilute acid leaching and the breakdown of concentrated acids, alkalis, and fluorides as well as chlorination. The reader is then introduced to ion-exchange purification; solvent extraction; and dryway conversion processes. Subsequent chapters focus on metal production by high-temperature reduction techniques; molten salt electrolytic processes; and iodide decomposition processes. The final chapter includes a selection of complete flowsheets for the extraction and purification rare metals from ores. This monograph will be of value to metallurgists, chemical engineers, chemists, and others who are interested in the extraction of rare metals.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    2. Ore Breakdown Processes

    Dilute Acid Leaching

    Batch Leaching

    Continuous Co-Current Leaching

    Continuous Counter-Current Leaching

    Percolation Leaching

    Leaching Equipment

    Ore Treatment Prior to Leaching

    Solid-Liquid Separation

    Flocculating Agents

    Acid Leaching of Uranium Ores

    Acid Leaching of Thorite

    Concentrated Acid Breakdown

    Breakdown Equipment

    Sulphuric Acid Breakdown of Monazite

    Sulphuric Acid Breakdown of Beryl

    Uranium and Vanadium Ore Opening by Concentrated Acid

    Alkali Breakdown

    Breakdown Equipment

    Alkali Breakdown of Monazite

    Alkali Breakdown of Zircon

    Alkali Treatment of Ferroniobium

    Alkali Breakdown of Beryl

    Dilute Alkali Carbonate Leaching

    Comparison with Dilute Acid Leaching

    Application to Uranium and Vanadium Extraction

    Chlorination Breakdown

    Mineral Chlorination Technique

    Plant Constructional Materials

    Plant Design

    Chlorination of Titanium Ores

    Chlorination of Zircon

    Chlorination of Monazite

    Chlorination of Ferrovanadium

    Chlorination of Niobium

    Application to Other Ores

    Fluoride Breakdown Processes

    Fluorination Breakdown of Beryl

    Fluoride Breakdown of Zircon


    3. Ion-Exchange Purification


    Methods of Application

    Frontal Analysis Technique

    Elution Analysis Technique

    Anionic Complexes of Rare Metals

    Chemical Composition and Structure of Resins

    Cationic Resins

    Anionic Resins

    Selective Resins

    Commercial Resins

    Process Design

    Optimization of Absorption Stage

    Elution Optimization


    Preservation of Resin

    Process Control

    Design of Elution Analysis Processes

    Ion-Exchange Plant


    Continuous Counter-Current Ion-Exchange

    Uranium Extraction by Ion-Exchange

    Chemistry of Absorption


    Uranium Extraction Plant

    Impurities and Resin Poisons


    Ion-Exchange from Carbonate Leach Liquors

    Moving Bed Process

    Resin-in-Pulp Process

    Extraction of Thorium by Ion-Exchange

    Extraction from Uranium Barren Liquor

    Nitrate and Chloride Systems

    Removal of Uranium in a Carbonate System

    Cellulose Phosphate Process

    Purification of Zirconium by Ion-Exchange

    Cation-Exchange of Impurities

    Cation-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

    Anion-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

    Separation of Niobium and Tantalum by Ion-Exchange

    Extraction of Vanadium by Ion-Exchange

    Acid Process

    Carbonate Processes


    4. Solvent Extraction


    Solvent Systems

    Distribution Coefficient

    Multiple Batch Extraction

    Counter-Current Batch Extraction

    Continuous Counter-Current Extraction

    Equilibrium Diagrams

    Solvent Extraction Plant

    Extraction Mechanism

    Extraction Columns


    Centrifugal Extractors

    Auxiliary Equipment

    Purification of Uranium by Solvent Extraction

    Extraction from Ore Leach Liquors

    Final Solvent Purification of Uranium

    Purification of Thorium by Solvent Extraction

    U.K. Process

    U.S. Processes

    Extraction from Sulphate Solutions

    Purification of Zirconium by Solvent Extraction

    Hexone-Thiocyanate Process

    TBP Process

    Purification of Niobium by Solvent Extraction

    Hexone Process

    TBP Process


    5. Dryway Conversion Processes

    Static Bed Reactors

    Stirred Bed Reactors

    Rotating Kiln Reactors

    Vibrating Tray Reactors

    Moving Bed Reactors

    Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Production of Uranium Tetrafluoride by the Static Bed Method

    Production of Thorium Fluoride by the Stirred Bed Process

    Production of Uranium Tetrafluoride by the Fluidized Bed Process

    U.S. Process

    U.K. Process


    6. Metal Production by High Temperature Reduction Techniques


    Reduction of Oxides

    Reduction of Halides

    Type of Product

    Reaction Conditions

    Ingot Production Processes

    Form of Reactants

    Reduction Plant

    Residue Recovery

    Calcium Reduction of Uranium Tetrafluoride

    Magnesium Reduction of Uranium Tetrafluoride

    Magnesium Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride

    Calcium Reduction of Vanadium Oxides

    Calcium Reduction of Thorium Tetrafluorides

    Metal Powder Production Processes

    Reductions in Absence of Metal Vapour

    Reactions in Presence of Metal Vapour

    Powder Recovery

    Calcium Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

    Calcium Reduction of Thorium Dioxide

    Sodium Reduction of Potassium Heptafluoniobate

    Hydrogen Reduction of Niobium Trichloride

    Metal Sponge Production Processes

    Purification of Reagents

    Reduction Plant

    Sponge Recovery

    Magnesium Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride

    Sodium Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride

    Magnesium Reduction of Zirconium Tetrachloride

    Magnesium Reduction of Vanadium Trichloride

    Magnesium Reduction of Niobium and Tantalum Pentachlorides


    7. Molten Salt Electrolytic Processes

    Comparison with Metal Reduction

    Inert Salts

    Cell Atmosphere

    Electrolysis Plant

    Introduction of Rare Metal Salt

    Electrolytic Purification

    Recovery of Metal Product

    Electrolysis of Beryllium Chloride

    Production of Uranium Metal by Electrolysis

    Zirconium Electrolysis from a Chloride-Fluoride Melt

    Production of Thorium Metal by Electrolysis

    Production of Titanium Metal by Electrolysis


    8. Iodide Decomposition Processes

    Reaction Conditions

    Plant and Equipment

    Product Purity

    Alternative Feed Materials

    Recycling of Residues

    Continuous Operation

    Production of Titanium by Iodide Decomposition

    Production of Zirconium by Iodide Decomposition

    Production of Thorium by Iodide Decomposition


    9. Flowsheets from Ore to Metal


    Extraction of Uranium (Acid Leach, Ion-Exchange, Fluidization and Magnesium Reduction Process)

    Extraction of Uranium (Carbonate Leach, Precipitation, Calcium Reduction of Oxide Process)


    Extraction of Thorium (Acid Breakdown, Electrolysis Process)

    Extraction of Thorium (Alkaline Breakdown, Oxide Reduction, Process)


    Extraction of Zirconium (Chlorination, Hexone Purification, Electrolysis Process)

    Extraction of Zirconium (Alkaline Breakdown, TBP Purification, Kroll Reduction Process)


    Extraction of Hafnium (Zirconium by-Product, Oxide, Carbide, Iodide Decomposition Process)


    Extraction of Titanium (Chlorination, Distillation, Sodium Reduction Process)


    Extraction of Niobium (Chlorination, Hydrogen Purification, Magnesium Reduction Process)

    Extraction of Niobium (Alkali Dissolution, Solvent Extraction, Sodium Reduction Process)


    Extraction of Tantalum (Fluoride Dissolution, Recrystallization of Double Fluoride, Sodium Reduction Process)


    Extraction of Vanadium (Chlorination, Distillation, Magnesium Reduction Process)


    Extraction of Beryllium (Sulphuric Acid Breakdown, Chlorination and Electrolysis Process)

    Extraction of Beryllium (Fluoride Breakdown, Magnesium Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride Process)


Product details

  • No. of pages: 372
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180564

About the Author

W. D. Jamrack

About the Editor

P. V. Danckwerts

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

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