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Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080098685, 9781483180564

Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Chemical Engineering

Author: W. D. Jamrack
Editor: P. V. Danckwerts
eBook ISBN: 9781483180564
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 372
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Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. Ore Breakdown Processes

Dilute Acid Leaching

Batch Leaching

Continuous Co-Current Leaching

Continuous Counter-Current Leaching

Percolation Leaching

Leaching Equipment

Ore Treatment Prior to Leaching

Solid-Liquid Separation

Flocculating Agents

Acid Leaching of Uranium Ores

Acid Leaching of Thorite

Concentrated Acid Breakdown

Breakdown Equipment

Sulphuric Acid Breakdown of Monazite

Sulphuric Acid Breakdown of Beryl

Uranium and Vanadium Ore Opening by Concentrated Acid

Alkali Breakdown

Breakdown Equipment

Alkali Breakdown of Monazite

Alkali Breakdown of Zircon

Alkali Treatment of Ferroniobium

Alkali Breakdown of Beryl

Dilute Alkali Carbonate Leaching

Comparison with Dilute Acid Leaching

Application to Uranium and Vanadium Extraction

Chlorination Breakdown

Mineral Chlorination Technique

Plant Constructional Materials

Plant Design

Chlorination of Titanium Ores

Chlorination of Zircon

Chlorination of Monazite

Chlorination of Ferrovanadium

Chlorination of Niobium

Application to Other Ores

Fluoride Breakdown Processes

Fluorination Breakdown of Beryl

Fluoride Breakdown of Zircon


3. Ion-Exchange Purification


Methods of Application

Frontal Analysis Technique

Elution Analysis Technique

Anionic Complexes of Rare Metals

Chemical Composition and Structure of Resins

Cationic Resins

Anionic Resins

Selective Resins

Commercial Resins

Process Design

Optimization of Absorption Stage

Elution Optimization


Preservation of Resin

Process Control

Design of Elution Analysis Processes

Ion-Exchange Plant


Continuous Counter-Current Ion-Exchange

Uranium Extraction by Ion-Exchange

Chemistry of Absorption


Uranium Extraction Plant

Impurities and Resin Poisons


Ion-Exchange from Carbonate Leach Liquors

Moving Bed Process

Resin-in-Pulp Process

Extraction of Thorium by Ion-Exchange

Extraction from Uranium Barren Liquor

Nitrate and Chloride Systems

Removal of Uranium in a Carbonate System

Cellulose Phosphate Process

Purification of Zirconium by Ion-Exchange

Cation-Exchange of Impurities

Cation-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

Anion-Exchange Separation of Zirconium and Hafnium

Separation of Niobium and Tantalum by Ion-Exchange

Extraction of Vanadium by Ion-Exchange

Acid Process

Carbonate Processes


4. Solvent Extraction


Solvent Systems

Distribution Coefficient

Multiple Batch Extraction

Counter-Current Batch Extraction

Continuous Counter-Current Extraction

Equilibrium Diagrams

Solvent Extraction Plant

Extraction Mechanism

Extraction Columns


Centrifugal Extractors

Auxiliary Equipment

Purification of Uranium by Solvent Extraction

Extraction from Ore Leach Liquors

Final Solvent Purification of Uranium

Purification of Thorium by Solvent Extraction

U.K. Process

U.S. Processes

Extraction from Sulphate Solutions

Purification of Zirconium by Solvent Extraction

Hexone-Thiocyanate Process

TBP Process

Purification of Niobium by Solvent Extraction

Hexone Process

TBP Process


5. Dryway Conversion Processes

Static Bed Reactors

Stirred Bed Reactors

Rotating Kiln Reactors

Vibrating Tray Reactors

Moving Bed Reactors

Fluidized Bed Reactors

Production of Uranium Tetrafluoride by the Static Bed Method

Production of Thorium Fluoride by the Stirred Bed Process

Production of Uranium Tetrafluoride by the Fluidized Bed Process

U.S. Process

U.K. Process


6. Metal Production by High Temperature Reduction Techniques


Reduction of Oxides

Reduction of Halides

Type of Product

Reaction Conditions

Ingot Production Processes

Form of Reactants

Reduction Plant

Residue Recovery

Calcium Reduction of Uranium Tetrafluoride

Magnesium Reduction of Uranium Tetrafluoride

Magnesium Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride

Calcium Reduction of Vanadium Oxides

Calcium Reduction of Thorium Tetrafluorides

Metal Powder Production Processes

Reductions in Absence of Metal Vapour

Reactions in Presence of Metal Vapour

Powder Recovery

Calcium Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

Calcium Reduction of Thorium Dioxide

Sodium Reduction of Potassium Heptafluoniobate

Hydrogen Reduction of Niobium Trichloride

Metal Sponge Production Processes

Purification of Reagents

Reduction Plant

Sponge Recovery

Magnesium Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride

Sodium Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride

Magnesium Reduction of Zirconium Tetrachloride

Magnesium Reduction of Vanadium Trichloride

Magnesium Reduction of Niobium and Tantalum Pentachlorides


7. Molten Salt Electrolytic Processes

Comparison with Metal Reduction

Inert Salts

Cell Atmosphere

Electrolysis Plant

Introduction of Rare Metal Salt

Electrolytic Purification

Recovery of Metal Product

Electrolysis of Beryllium Chloride

Production of Uranium Metal by Electrolysis

Zirconium Electrolysis from a Chloride-Fluoride Melt

Production of Thorium Metal by Electrolysis

Production of Titanium Metal by Electrolysis


8. Iodide Decomposition Processes

Reaction Conditions

Plant and Equipment

Product Purity

Alternative Feed Materials

Recycling of Residues

Continuous Operation

Production of Titanium by Iodide Decomposition

Production of Zirconium by Iodide Decomposition

Production of Thorium by Iodide Decomposition


9. Flowsheets from Ore to Metal


Extraction of Uranium (Acid Leach, Ion-Exchange, Fluidization and Magnesium Reduction Process)

Extraction of Uranium (Carbonate Leach, Precipitation, Calcium Reduction of Oxide Process)


Extraction of Thorium (Acid Breakdown, Electrolysis Process)

Extraction of Thorium (Alkaline Breakdown, Oxide Reduction, Process)


Extraction of Zirconium (Chlorination, Hexone Purification, Electrolysis Process)

Extraction of Zirconium (Alkaline Breakdown, TBP Purification, Kroll Reduction Process)


Extraction of Hafnium (Zirconium by-Product, Oxide, Carbide, Iodide Decomposition Process)


Extraction of Titanium (Chlorination, Distillation, Sodium Reduction Process)


Extraction of Niobium (Chlorination, Hydrogen Purification, Magnesium Reduction Process)

Extraction of Niobium (Alkali Dissolution, Solvent Extraction, Sodium Reduction Process)


Extraction of Tantalum (Fluoride Dissolution, Recrystallization of Double Fluoride, Sodium Reduction Process)


Extraction of Vanadium (Chlorination, Distillation, Magnesium Reduction Process)


Extraction of Beryllium (Sulphuric Acid Breakdown, Chlorination and Electrolysis Process)

Extraction of Beryllium (Fluoride Breakdown, Magnesium Reduction of Beryllium Fluoride Process)



Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical Engineering Techniques describes the use of chemical engineering techniques in the extraction and purification of rare metals such as uranium, thorium, and zirconium as well as hafnium, titanium, beryllium, and vanadium. The various chemical extraction stages from ore to metal are discussed.

Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an examination of ore breakdown processes including dilute acid leaching and the breakdown of concentrated acids, alkalis, and fluorides as well as chlorination. The reader is then introduced to ion-exchange purification; solvent extraction; and dryway conversion processes. Subsequent chapters focus on metal production by high-temperature reduction techniques; molten salt electrolytic processes; and iodide decomposition processes. The final chapter includes a selection of complete flowsheets for the extraction and purification rare metals from ores.

This monograph will be of value to metallurgists, chemical engineers, chemists, and others who are interested in the extraction of rare metals.


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1963
1st January 1963
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

W. D. Jamrack

About the Editor

P. V. Danckwerts

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK