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Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781782422488, 9781782422587

Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques

1st Edition

Applications in New Product Development and Consumer Research

Editors: Julien Delarue Ben Lawlor
Hardcover ISBN: 9781782422488
Paperback ISBN: 9780081013328
eBook ISBN: 9781782422587
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 17th November 2014
Page Count: 584
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Table of Contents

    <li>List of contributors</li> <li>Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition</li> <li>Part One: Evolution of the methods used for sensory profiling<ul><li>1: The use of rapid sensory methods in R&amp;D and research: an introduction<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>1.1 Introduction and context</li><li>1.2 Methodological evolution</li><li>1.3 Consequences on sensory activities</li><li>1.4 Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>2: Alternative methods of sensory testing: advantages and disadvantages<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>2.1 Introduction</li><li>2.2 The subjects in sensory testing</li><li>2.3 Methods in sensory testing</li><li>2.4 Further important considerations in sensory testing</li><li>2.5 Developing descriptive analysis capability</li><li>2.6 Other descriptive methods</li><li>2.7 Future trends</li><li>2.8 Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>3: Measuring sensory perception in relation to consumer behavior<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>3.1 Introduction</li><li>3.2 Sensation</li><li>3.3 Hedonics</li><li>3.4 Measuring product use and intake</li><li>3.5 Linking sensations, liking, and intake</li><li>3.6 Summary</li></ul></li><li>4: Insights into measuring emotional response in sensory and consumer research<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>4.1 Introduction</li><li>4.2 Defining emotion</li><li>4.3 The importance of measuring emotions in sensory and consumer research</li><li>4.4 Approaches to measuring emotional response</li><li>4.5 Verbal self-report emotion lexicon</li><li>4.6 Application of verbal self-report emotion techniques in the sensory and consumer field</li><li>4.7 Relating sensory properties to consumers&#x2019; emotional response</li><li>4.8 Unresolved issues and topics for future research in verbal self-report emotion measurement</li></ul></li><li>5: Expedited procedures for conceptual profiling of brands, products and packaging<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>5.1 Introduction</li><li>5.2 Fundamentals of new product success and failure</li><li>5.3 Measurement using direct scaling</li><li>5.4 Concepts, conceptualisation and conceptual structure</li><li>5.5 Emotion profiling versus conceptual profiling &#x2013; some theoretical considerations</li><li>5.6 Conceptual profiling in practice</li><li>5.7 Applications and case studies</li><li>5.8 Conclusion</li><li>Acknowledgements</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Two: Rapid methods for sensory profiling<ul><li>6: Flash Profile, its evolution and uses in sensory and consumer science<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>6.1 The method and its origins</li><li>6.2 Flash Profile (FP) methodology through an example: evaluation of dark chocolates</li><li>6.3 Further methodological considerations</li><li>6.4 Metrological properties of Flash Profile</li><li>6.5 Limitations of Flash Profile</li><li>6.6 Evolution in the use of Flash Profile</li><li>6.7 Conclusions and future trends</li></ul></li><li>7: Free sorting as a sensory profiling technique for product development<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>7.1 Introduction</li><li>7.2 The free sorting task</li><li>7.3 Statistical treatment of free sorting data</li><li>7.4 A case study in the automotive industry: understanding the consumer perception of car body style</li><li>7.4.3 Results</li><li>7.5 Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>8: Free multiple sorting as a sensory profiling technique<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>8.1 Introduction</li><li>8.2 Overview of free multiple sorting (FMS)</li><li>8.3 Theoretical framework</li><li>8.4 Practical framework and design of experiments</li><li>8.5 Implementation and data collection</li><li>8.6 Data analysis</li><li>8.7 Advantages, disadvantages and applications</li><li>8.8 Future trends and further information</li></ul></li><li>9: Napping and sorted Napping as a sensory profiling technique<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>9.1 Introduction</li><li>9.2 From projective tests to Napping</li><li>9.3 From Napping to sorted Napping</li><li>9.4 Analysing Napping and sorted Napping data using the R statistical software</li><li>9.5 Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>10: Polarized sensory positioning (PSP) as a sensory profiling technique<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>10.1 Introduction</li><li>10.2 Polarized sensory positioning (PSP) methodologies</li><li>10.3 Data analyses</li><li>10.4 PSP and the taste of water</li><li>10.5 Discussion of the choice of the poles</li><li>10.6 Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>11: Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with consumers in practice: experimental considerations and impact on outcome<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>11.1 Introduction</li><li>11.2 Implementation of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions</li><li>11.3 Analysis of data from CATA questions</li><li>11.4 Case study: application of CATA questions for sensory characterization of plain yoghurt</li><li>11.5 Pros, cons and opportunities of the application of CATA questions</li><li>11.6 Conclusions</li><li>Acknowledgments</li></ul></li><li>12: Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>12.1 Introduction</li><li>12.2 General pros and cons of open-ended questions</li><li>12.3 When open-ended questions are appropriate</li><li>12.4 Processing the answers: from raw to clean data</li><li>12.5 Analysing the data: getting valuable outcomes from different applications</li><li>12.6 Future trends and social media</li><li>12.7 Conclusions</li></ul></li><li>13: Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) as a sensory profiling technique<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>13.1 Introduction</li><li>13.2 Overview of temporal dominance of sensations (TDS)</li><li>13.3 TDS experiment and panel training</li><li>13.4 Data analysis: representation of the sequence</li><li>13.5 Data analysis: representation of the product space</li><li>13.6 Data analysis: comparison between products</li><li>13.7 Panel performance</li><li>13.8 Some applications</li><li>13.9 Future trends in TDS</li><li>13.10 Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>14: Ideal profiling as a sensory profiling technique<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>14.1 Introduction</li><li>14.2 Principle and properties of the Ideal Profile Method (IPM)</li><li>14.3 IPM, a tool for product development and product optimization</li><li>14.4 Additional valuable properties of the IPM</li><li>14.5 Illustration of the Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA)</li><li>14.6 Conclusions</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Three: Applications in new product development and consumer research<ul><li>15: Adoption and use of Flash Profiling in daily new product development: a testimonial<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>15.1 Introduction</li><li>15.2 Flash Profile as a starting point</li><li>15.3 Flash Profile as a reference methodology</li><li>15.4 Limitations and perspectives in the use of Flash Profile</li><li>15.5 Conclusion</li></ul></li><li>16: Improving team tasting in the food industry<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>16.1 Introduction: the ever-increasing importance of new tasting methods within the project teams</li><li>16.2 Precise analysis of the concrete situations where evaluation by team tasting is appropriate</li><li>16.3 Analysis of opportunities and constraints linked to project team evaluation</li><li>16.4 An approach adapted to Danone&#x2019;s needs but integrated with the limits of the team tasting</li><li>16.5 Implementation examples (common in R&amp;D field)</li><li>16.6 Analysis and prospects</li></ul></li><li>17: Alternative methods of sensory testing: working with chefs, culinary professionals and brew masters<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>17.1 Introduction</li><li>17.2 Background: fast descriptive methods and persons with no formal sensory training in sensory tests</li><li>17.3 Data analysis of projective descriptive methods</li><li>17.4 Case study&#xA0;1: brewers and novices assessing beer</li><li>17.5 Results and discussion of partial napping of beer</li><li>17.6 Case study&#xA0;2: exploring the world of spice blends and pastes with chefs and other food experts</li><li>17.7 Results and discussion of spice blends and pastes</li><li>17.8 General discussion and recommendations</li><li>Appendix Projective mapping versus napping (see also Chapter 9)</li></ul></li><li>18: Sensory testing with flavourists: challenges and solutions<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>18.1 Introduction</li><li>18.2 Roles and responsibilities</li><li>18.3 Different ways of working</li><li>18.4 Strategies to complement both types of expertise</li><li>18.5 Future trends</li></ul></li><li>19: Projective Flash Profile from experts to consumers: a way to reveal fragrance language<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>19.1 Introduction: an industrial approach to the assessment of fragrances</li><li>19.2 Flash Profile of fragrances: perfumers vs consumers</li><li>19.3 An extension to Flash Profile of fragrances with consumers: beyond sensory description</li><li>19.4 Discussion and conclusion</li></ul></li><li>20: Use of rapid sensory methods in the automotive industry<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>20.1 Introduction</li><li>20.2 Example&#xA0;1: gearbox sensations and comfort</li><li>20.3 Example&#xA0;2: role and lateral support perception</li><li>20.4 Example&#xA0;3: idle noises of diesel engines</li><li>20.5 Conclusion: pros and cons of rapid sensory methods in the automotive context</li></ul></li><li>21: Testing consumer insight using mobile devices: a case study of a sensory consumer journey conducted with the help of mobile research<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>21.1 Mobile research: status quo</li><li>21.2 Mobile sensory research: a new mobile research method</li><li>21.3 Case study: a sensory consumer journey conducted with the help of mobile research</li><li>21.4 Summary and discussion</li><li>21.5 Conclusion</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Part Four: Applications in sensory testing with specific populations and methodological consequences<ul><li>22: Sensory testing in new product development: working with children<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>22.1 Introduction</li><li>22.2 Reasons for studying sensory aspects in children</li><li>22.3 How to organize sensory evaluation testing with children</li><li>22.4 Application of different sensory evaluation techniques to children of different ages</li><li>22.5 Conclusion</li><li>22.6 Future trends</li></ul></li><li>23: Sensory testing in new product development: working with older people<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>23.1 Introduction</li><li>23.2 The elderly market: a challenge between needs and pleasure</li><li>23.3 The heterogeneity of the elderly</li><li>23.4 Impact of age and dependence on performance at a sensory task: key findings on scale use in a monadic sequential presentation</li><li>23.5 Running sensory descriptive analysis with an elderly panel: recommendations</li><li>23.6 Conclusion and future trends</li><li>Acknowledgements</li></ul></li><li>24: Empathy and Experiment&#x2122;: dealing with the algebra of the mind to understand and change food habits<ul><li>Abstract</li><li>24.1 Introduction</li><li>24.2 The origins of the study</li><li>24.3 Background: Golden Rice &#x2013; the positives</li><li>24.4 Background: Golden Rice &#x2013; the negatives</li><li>24.5 Empathy and Experiment&#x2122;: the two halves of the approach</li><li>24.6 The value of experimentation and implementation of Golden Rice evaluations among Pakistanis</li><li>24.7 Summary of the elements and process of the experiment</li><li>24.8 The material of the interview and analysis of structured experimental design data</li><li>24.9 Explicating the results &#x2013; the total panel versus gender</li><li>24.10 Culture-mind-set segments</li><li>24.11 Summary and future trends</li><li>Acknowledgment</li></ul></li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


Sensory analysis is an important tool in new product development. There has recently been significant development in the methods used to capture sensory perception of a product. Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques provides a comprehensive review of rapid methods for sensory analysis that can be used as alternatives or complementary to conventional descriptive methods. Part one looks at the evolution of sensory perception capture methods. Part two focuses on rapid methods used to capture sensory perception, and part three covers their applications in new product development and consumer research. Finally, part four explores the applications of rapid methods in testing specific populations.


R&D managers and product development personnel in the food and other consumer industries; academics with a research interest in the area of sensory perception; sensory survey and software developers.


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© Woodhead Publishing 2015
17th November 2014
Woodhead Publishing
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About the Editors

Julien Delarue

Julien Delarue is Associate Professor of Sensory and Consumer science at AgroParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences) where he is in charge of the Food Science graduate program. He conducts his research with INRA on the measure of consumers’ sensory perceptions and preferences and on its effective use in R&D. His work, which includes the role of context in hedonic measures and the development of rapid sensory descriptive methods, has been subject to many public and industrial projects. Julien Delarue is cofounder of the French society for sensory science (SFAS) and the current chair of the European Sensory Science Society (E3S).

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Sensory and Consumer Science, AgroParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology for Life, Food and Environmental Sciences)

Ben Lawlor

J Ben Lawlor is a Sensory, Consumer and Analytical Scientist. He has he is particularly interested in areas concerning nutrition in older adults and using sensory and nutritional sciences to improve their nutritional intake, health and wellbeing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Sensory, Consumer and Analytical Scientist, Danone, The Netherlands