Rapid Penetration into Granular Media

Rapid Penetration into Granular Media

Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration

1st Edition - July 10, 2015

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  • Authors: Magued Iskander, Stephen Bless, Mehdi Omidvar
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008683
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011553

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Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods developed to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials while providing seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. There has been a flurry of recently funded research both in the U.S. and Europe on studying the behavior of projectiles in granular media. This book compiles the findings of recent research on the subject and outlines the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration, and assembles a comprehensive collection of experimental and numerical techniques to study the problem.

Key Features

  • Presents a comprehensive interdisciplinary review of the latest research developments in the response of granular media to impact and impulsive loading
  • Combines the experience of prominent researchers from different disciplines focusing on the challenges presented by impact loading of granular media
  • Introduces recently developed methods for visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media


Scientists in the fields of earth and planetary science, ballistics, soft matter physics, and physics of granular media, as well as industry professionals in ballistics, petroleum exploration, and aerospace engineering

Table of Contents

    • About the Authors and Contributors
    • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1: Introduction
      • Abstract
      • 1 Background
      • 2 Objectives and Scope
      • 3 Organization of This Book
      • 4 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 2: Behavior of Granular Media Under High Strain-Rate Loading
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Behavior of Sand Under Quasistatic Loading
      • 3 Testing of Sand for HSR Behavior
      • 4 HSR Uniaxial Compression (Oedometer) Tests
      • 5 SHPB Test
      • 6 HSR Triaxial Shear Test
      • 7 Shock Wave Tests
      • 8 Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Micromechanical Behavior of Sand Learned from Multiscale Kolsky Bar Experiments
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (Kolsky Bar)
      • 3 High Strain-Rate Behavior of Sand
      • 4 Particle Failure in Kolsky Bar Experiments
      • 5 Individual Particle Failure Studies
      • 6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 4: High-Speed Penetration of Granular Geomaterials
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 General Aspects of Rapid Penetration into Granular Media
      • 3 Laboratory and Field Observations of Projectile Penetration
      • 4 Modeling of Projectile Penetration
      • 5 The Role of Projectile-Target Properties in Penetration into Soils
      • 6 Transient Events Associated with Penetration
      • 7 Closing Remarks
    • Chapter 5: Global Observations & Post Mortem Analysis of Penetration in Sand
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Experiments
      • 3 Velocity Measurements
      • 4 Test Results
      • 5 Discussion
      • 6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: In Situ Characterization of Projectile Penetration into Sand
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Experimental Setup
      • 3 Experimental Results
      • 4 Discussion and Conclusion
    • Chapter 7: The Use of Digital Speckle Radiography to Investigate the Internal Flow Fields During the Ballistic Penetration of Sand
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Why Use Digital Speckle Radiography
      • 2 Analysis of Digital Speckle Radiographs
      • 3 Contrast Normalization
      • 4 Experimental Methodology for Obtaining Digital Speckle Radiographs
      • 5 Results
      • 6 Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research
    • Chapter 8: Multimodal Radiation Based Tomography and Diffraction of Granular Materials Using Neutrons and Photons and Instrumented Penetration Mechanics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Stress-Strain Behavior of Granular Materials Using In Situ Neutron Diffraction
      • 3 Neutron and X-ray Imaging of Sand Specimens Before and After Projectile Penetration
    • Chapter 9: Grain-Scale Measurements During Low Velocity Impact in Granular Media
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Mechanics of Low Velocity Impact
      • 3 DEM Simulations
      • 4 The Granular Element Method
      • 5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Granular Impact: A Grain-scale Approach
      • Abstract
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Testing the Form of the Poncelet Equation
      • 3 A Grain-Scale Force Picture
      • 4 Collisional Model
      • 5 Impacts at Higher Speed
      • 6 Simulation Results for Penetration Depth at Large M
      • 7 Techniques for Experiments and Simulations
      • 8 Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Refractive Index Matching: Microstructure Evolution During Impact Using Refractive Index-Matched Granular Matter
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Image Acquisition and Analysis
      • 3 Experimental Setup
      • 4 Trajectory Analysis
      • 5 Effect of Strain
      • 6 Bead-Scale Motion Analysis
      • 7 Effect of Intruder Shape
      • 8 Summary
    • Chapter 12: Mesoscale Observations of Dynamic Penetration in Granular Media Using Transparent Soils
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1 Introduction
      • 2 Transparent Soils to Model Natural Sand
      • 3 Visualization of Soil-Penetrator Interactions During Dynamic Penetration
      • 4 Results and Discussion
      • 5 Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: Summary and Conclusions
      • Abstract
      • 1 Background
      • 2 Insights into Material Behavior
      • 3 Global Observations of Penetration
      • 4 Mesoscale Observations of Kinematics
      • 5 Observations and Insights at the Particle Scale
      • 6 Avenues for Future Research
    • Bibliography
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 458
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: July 10, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008683
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128011553

About the Authors

Magued Iskander

Magued Iskander, PhD, PE, F.ASCE, is a Professor of Geotechnical and Chair of the Civil and Urban Engineering Department at New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering. He is widely recognized as the leading authority on physical modeling of geotechnical applications using transparent soils. Professor

Iskander served as Principal Investigator (PI) and Co-PI on over $12 Million of research and educational grants and contracts, including the NSF CAREER Award. He is a Fellow of The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Dr. Iskander authored 4 books, edited 10 books, and published over 150 papers. He graduated 9 doctoral and 31 masters’ students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY, USA

Stephen Bless

Stephan Bless, ScD, F.APS, F.IBS, is a Research Professor in the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering at New York University Polytechnic School of

Engineering. Before joining NYU he was Head of the Hypervelocity Effects Division at the University of Texas Institute for Advanced Technology. He is an expert in impact effects and the dynamic behavior of materials, with extensive publications in shock physics, terminal ballistics, and strength of materials. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the International Ballistics Society. He can be reached at sbless@nyu.edu.

Mehdi Omidvar

Mehdi Omidvar, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at Manhattan College. He received his PhD from New York University, where he studied the macro and micro scale behavior of natural and artificial sands to rapid penetration. He has published over 30 articles dealing with granular mechanics, soil dynamics, and nonlinear dynamics.

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