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Radioactivity - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444634894, 9780444634962

Radioactivity

2nd Edition

Introduction and History, From the Quantum to Quarks

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Author: Michael L'Annunziata
eBook ISBN: 9780444634962
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444634894
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 8th June 2016
Page Count: 932
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Description

A recipient of the PROSE 2017 Honorable Mention in Chemistry & Physics, Radioactivity: Introduction and History, From the Quantum to Quarks, Second Edition provides a greatly expanded overview of radioactivity from natural and artificial sources on earth, radiation of cosmic origins, and an introduction to the atom and its nucleus. The book also includes historical accounts of the lives, works, and major achievements of many famous pioneers and Nobel Laureates from 1895 to the present.

These leaders in the field have contributed to our knowledge of the science of the atom, its nucleus, nuclear decay, and subatomic particles that are part of our current knowledge of the structure of matter, including the role of quarks, leptons, and the bosons (force carriers).

Users will find a completely revised and greatly expanded text that includes all new material that further describes the significant historical events on the topic dating from the 1950s to the present.

Key Features

  • Provides a detailed account of nuclear radiation – its origin and properties, the atom, its nucleus, and subatomic particles including quarks, leptons, and force carriers (bosons)
  • Includes fascinating biographies of the pioneers in the field, including captivating anecdotes and insights
  • Presents meticulous accounts of experiments and calculations used by pioneers to confirm their findings

Readership

Chemists (especially physical and nuclear); physicists; scientists interested in radioactivity and nuclear energy; upper division undergraduates through graduate-level students

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Radioactivity and Our Well-Being

  • 1.1. Human Health
  • 1.2. Biological Research
  • 1.3. Food and Agriculture
  • 1.4. Water Resources
  • 1.5. Marine Resources
  • 1.6. Radiation Technology
  • 1.7. Nuclear Power
  • 1.8. Summary

Chapter 2. Basic Concepts and Definitions

  • 2.1. Properties of Atomic Constituents
  • 2.2. Nuclide Nomenclature
  • 2.3. Mass and Energy
  • 2.4. Q Value
  • 2.5. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides
  • 2.6. Artificially Produced Radionuclides

Chapter 3. Hall of Fame: Part I

  • Democritus (c.460–C.370BC)
  • Wilhelm C. Röntgen (1845–1923)
  • Ivan Pavlovich Puluj (a.k.a. Johann Puluj 1845–1918)
  • Henri Becquerel (1852–1908)
  • Pierre Curie (1859–1906) and Marie Curie (1867–1934)
  • Paul Villard (1860–1934)
  • Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937)
  • Johannes “Hans” Geiger (1882–1945)
  • Hendrick A. Lorentz (1853–1928)
  • James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879)
  • Pieter Zeeman (1865–1943)
  • Jean B. Perrin (1870–1942)
  • Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940)
  • Hantaro Nagaoka (1865–1950)
  • Philipp Lenard (1862–1947)

Chapter 4. Alpha Radiation

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Decay Energy
  • 4.3. Alpha Decay-Energy and Half-Life Relationship
  • 4.4. Alpha Particle Interactions With Matter
  • 4.5. Alpha Particle Ranges

Chapter 5. Hall of Fame: Part II

  • Frederick Soddy (1877–1956)
  • C.T.R. Wilson (1869–1959)
  • Frédéric Joliet (1900–1958) and Irène Joliet-Curie (1897–1956)
  • Enrico Fermi (1901–1954)
  • Wolfgang Pauli (1900–1958)
  • Frederick Reines (1918–1998) and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. (1919–1974)
  • Otto Stern (1888–1969)

Chapter 6. Beta Radiation and Beta Decay

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Negatron (β−) Emission
  • 6.3. Positron (β+) Emission
  • 6.4. Electron Capture
  • 6.5. Branching β−, β+, and EC Decay
  • 6.6. Double-Beta (ββ) Decay
  • 6.7. Beta Particle Interactions With Matter
  • 6.8. Beta Particle Absorption and Transmission
  • 6.9. Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer

Chapter 7. Hall of Fame: Part III

  • Max Planck (1858–1947)
  • Louis de Broglie (1892–1987)
  • Albert Einstein (1879–1955)
  • Arthur H. Compton (1892–1962)
  • Wu Youxun (1897–1977)
  • Yoshio Nishina (1890–1951)
  • Max von Laue (1879–1960)
  • Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942) and Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971)
  • Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958)
  • Henry G.J. Moseley (1887–1915)
  • Charles Glover Barkla (1877–1944)
  • Manne Siegbahn (1886–1978)
  • Robert A. Millikan (1868–1953) and Harvey Fletcher (1884–1981)
  • Homi J. Bhabha (1909–1966)

Chapter 8. Electromagnetic Radiation: Photons

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Dual Nature: Wave and Particle
  • 8.3. Gamma Radiation
  • 8.4. Annihilation Radiation
  • 8.5. Cherenkov Radiation
  • 8.6. X-Radiation
  • 8.7. Synchrotron Radiation
  • 8.8. Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation With Matter

Chapter 9. Hall of Fame: Part IV

  • James Chadwick (1891–1974)
  • Lise Meitner (1878–1968) and Otto Hahn (1879–1968)
  • Leo Szilard (1898–1964)
  • Joseph Rotblat (1908–2005)
  • The Russell–Einstein Manifesto, London, July 9, 1955
  • Edward Teller (1908–2003)

Chapter 10. Neutron Radiation

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Neutron Classification
  • 10.3. Neutron Sources
  • 10.4. Interactions of Neutrons with Matter
  • 10.5. Neutron Attenuation and Cross-Sections
  • 10.6. Neutron Decay

Chapter 11. Hall of Fame: Part V

  • Niels Bohr (1885–1962)
  • Gustav Hertz (1887–1975) and James Franck (1882–1964)
  • The Franck Report, June 11, 1945, James Franck (Chairman)
  • The Franck–Hertz Experiment
  • Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976), Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961), Max Born (1882–1970), and Paul A.M. Dirac (1902–1984)
  • Clinton Davisson (1881–1958) and George Paget Thomson (1892–1975)
  • Pierre Victor Auger (1899–1993)

Chapter 12. Atomic Electron Radiation

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Internal Conversion Electrons
  • 12.3. Auger Electrons

Chapter 13. Hall of Fame: Part VI

  • Victor F. Hess (1883–1964)
  • Carl D. Anderson (1905–1991)
  • Patrick M.S. Blackett (1897–1974)
  • Hideki Yukawa (1907–1981)
  • Cecil F. Powell (1903–1969)
  • Emilio Segrè (1905–1989) and Owen Chamberlain (1920–2006)
  • Donald A. Glaser (1926–2013)
  • Manuel Sandoval Vallarta (1899–1977)

Chapter 14. Cosmic Radiation

  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Classification and Properties
  • 14.3. Showers of Cosmic Radiation
  • 14.4. Cosmic Rays Underground
  • 14.5. Origins of Cosmic Radiation
  • 14.6. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation and the Big-Bang Theory
  • 14.7. Radiation Dose from Cosmic Radiation and Other Sources

Chapter 15. Hall of Fame: Part VII

  • Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov (1891–1951)
  • Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904–1990)
  • Il'ja Mikhailovich Frank (1908–1990) and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895–1971)

Chapter 16. Cherenkov Radiation

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Theory and Properties
  • 16.3. Cherenkov Photons from Gamma-Ray Interactions
  • 16.4. Particle Identification
  • 16.5. Neutrino Detection and Measurement
  • 16.6. Applications in Radionuclide Analysis

Chapter 17. Hall of Fame: Part VIII

  • Ernest Lawrence (1901–1958)
  • John D. Cockcroft (1897–1967) and Ernest T.S. Walton (1903–1995)
  • Hans A. Bethe (1906–2005)
  • Willard F. Libby (1908–1980)
  • Edwin M. McMillan (1907–1991)
  • Glenn T. Seaborg (1912–1999)

Chapter 18. Radionuclide Decay, Radioactivity Units, and Radionuclide Mass

  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Half-Life
  • 18.3. General Decay Equations
  • 18.4. Secular Equilibrium
  • 18.5. Transient Equilibrium
  • 18.6. No Equilibrium
  • 18.7. More Complex Decay Schemes
  • 18.8. Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass

Chapter 19. Hall of Fame: Part IX

  • Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906–1972) and J. Hans D. Jensen (1907–1973)
  • Eugene P. Wigner (1902–1995)
  • Chen-Ning Yang (1922–), Tsung-Dao Lee (1926−), and Chien-Shiung Wu (1912–1997)
  • Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898–1988)
  • Richard P. Feynman (1918–1988)

Chapter 20. The Atomic Nucleus

  • 20.1. Introduction
  • 20.2. Nuclear Radius and Density
  • 20.3. Nuclear Forces
  • 20.4. Binding Energy
  • 20.5. Nuclear Models
  • 20.6. Superheavy Nuclei
  • 20.7. Cluster Radioactivity
  • 20.8. Proton and Neutron Radioactivity
  • 20.9. Nuclear Decay Modes
  • 20.10. Nuclear Reactions
  • 20.11. Radioactive Nuclear Recoil

Chapter 21. Hall of Fame: Part X

  • Luis W. Alvarez (1911–1988)
  • Murray Gell-Mann (1929–)
  • George Zweig (1937–)
  • Oscar Wallace Greenberg (1932–), Moo-Young Han (1934–), and Harald Fritzsch (1943–)
  • Jerome I. Friedman (1930–), Henry W. Kendall (1926–1999), and Richard E. Taylor (1929–)
  • Sheldon L. Glashow (1932–), Abdus Salam (1926–1996), and Steven Weinberg (1933–), Gerardus ‘T Hooft (1946–) and Martinus J.G. Veltman (1931–), and Carlo Rubbia (1934–) and Simon van der Meer (1925–2011)
  • Yoichiro Nambu (1921–), Makoto Kobayashi (1944–), and Toshihide Maskawa (1940–)
  • François Englert (1932–) and Peter W. Higgs (1929–)
  • Serge Haroche (1944–) and David J. Wineland (1944–)

Chapter 22. The Atom as We Know and Use It

  • 22.1. Introduction
  • 22.2. From Democritus' “Atomos” to Quarks and Gluons
  • 22.3. The Particle Zoo
  • 22.4. Images of the Atom
  • 22.5. The Atom in Our Future

Details

No. of pages:
932
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
8th June 2016
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444634962
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444634894

About the Author

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael F. L'Annunziata earned his undergraduate BSc degree in Chemistry in 1965 from St. Edward's University and MSc and PhD degrees in 1967 and 1970, respectively, at the University of Arizona. His graduate thesis research in the 1960s was carried out under a research contract with the then US Atomic Energy Commission (US AEC). The research work dealt with the analysis of radionuclides and chemical remediation of the environment in the event of possible nuclear war and fission product fallout. His main research interests have been focused on the development of chemical and instrumental methods for the detection and measurement of radioactive nuclides and the utilization of radionuclides as tracers in biological research. L'Annunziata was formerly Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria; and he has served as a representative for the IAEA in fact-finding, planning, and implementation assignments on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development in over 50 countries of the world from 1976 to 2007. He is the author and editor of several books, including Radioactivity; Introduction and History, From the Quantum to Quarks published by Elsevier in 2016, which received an Honorable Mention in the 2017 PROSE Awards and the “Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis” now in its fourth edition.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Head, IAEA Fellowships and Training, Vienna, Austria; Current office: Oceanside, CA, USA

Awards

PROSE Awards 2017: Honorable Mention, Chemistry and Physics, Association of American Publishers

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