Radioactivity: Introduction and History - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444527158, 9780080548883

Radioactivity: Introduction and History

1st Edition

Authors: Michael L'Annunziata Michael L'Annunziata
eBook ISBN: 9780080548883
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444527158
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 18th July 2007
Page Count: 632
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Description

Radioactivity: Introduction and History provides an introduction to radioactivity from natural and artificial sources on earth and radiation of cosmic origins. This book answers many questions for the student, teacher, and practitioner as to the origins, properties, detection and measurement, and applications of radioactivity. Written at a level that most students and teachers can appreciate, it includes many calculations that students and teachers may use in class work. Radioactivity: Introduction and History also serves as a refresher for experienced practitioners who use radioactive sources in his or her field of work. Also included are historical accounts of the lives and major achievements of many famous pioneers and Nobel Laureates who have contributed to our knowledge of the science of radioactivity.

Key Features

  • Provides entry-level overview of every form of radioactivity including natural and artificial sources, and radiation of cosmic origin.
  • Includes many solved problems to practical questions concerning nuclear radiation and its interaction with matter
  • Historical accounts of the major achievements of pioneers and Nobel Laureates, who have contributed to our current knowledge of radioactivity

Readership

Undergraduate/graduate students, teachers and practitioners interested in the basics of radioactivity and nuclear radiation

Table of Contents

Foreword by Prof. Dr. W. Burkart, Deputy Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
Preface
Introduction: Radioactivity and our Well Being

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part I Democritus (c.460-c.370 B.C.), W.C. Rontgen (1845-1923), H. Becquerel (1852-1908), Pierre (1859-1906) and Marie Curie (1867-1934), P. Villard (1860-1934), E. Rutherford (1871-1937), H.A. Lorentz (1853-1928), P. Zeeman (1865-1943), J.J. Thomson (1856-1940), P. Lenard (1862-1947)

Chapter 1. Alpha Radiation I. Introduction II. Decay Energies III. Alpha Particle Interactions with Matter IV. Alpha Particle Ranges

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part II F. Soddy (1877-1956), C.T.R. Wilson (1869-1959), F. Joliet (1900-1958) and I. Joliet-Curie (1897-1956), E. Fermi (1901-1954), W. Pauli (1900-1958), F. Reines (1918-1998) and C. Cowan, Jr. (1919-1974)

Chapter 2. Beta Radiation I. Introduction II. Negatrons III. Positrons IV. Beta-particle Absorption and Transmission V. Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part III M. Planck (1858-1947), L. de Broglie (1892-1987), A. Einstein (1879-1955), A.H. Compton (1892-1962), M. von Laue (1879-1960), Sir W.H. Bragg (1862-1942) and Sir W.L. Bragg (1890-1971), H.G.J. Moseley (1887-1915), C.G. Barkla (1877-1944), M. Siegbahn (1886-1978), R.A. Millikan (1868-1953)

Chapter 3. Gamma- and X-Radiation – Photons I. Introduction II. Dual Nature: Wave and Particle III. Gamma Radiation IV. Annihilation Radiation V. Cherenkov Radiation VI. X-Radiation VII. Bremsstrahlung VIII. Interactions of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part IV J. Chadwick (1891-1974), L. Meitner (1878-1968 and O. Hahn (1879-1968), L. Szilard (1898-1964)

Chapter 4. Neutron Radiation I. Introduction II. Neutron Classification III. Sources of Neutrons IV. Interactions of Neutrons with Matter V. Neutron Attenuation and Cross Sections VI. Neutron Decay

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part V N. Bohr (1885-1962), G. Hertz (1887-1975) and J. Frank (1882-1964), W. Heisenberg (1901-1976), E. Schrodinger (1887-1961), M. Born (1882-1970) and P.A.H. Dirac (1902-1984), C. Davisson (1881-1958) and G.P. Thomson (1892-1975)

Chapter 5. Atomic Electron Radiation I. Introduction II. Internal Conversion Electrons III. Auger Electrons

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part VI V.F. Hess (1883-1964), C.D. Anderson (1905-1991), P.M.S. Blackett (1897-1974), Hideki Yukawa (1907-1981), C.F. Powell (1903-1969), D.A. Glaser (1926-), Pierre Victor Auger (1899-1993)

Chapter 6. Cosmic Radiation I. Introduction II. Classification and Properties III. Showers of the Cosmic Radiation IV. Cosmic Rays Underground V. Origins of Cosmic Radiation VI. Cosmic Background Radiation VII. Dose from Cosmic Radiation and other Sources

Radioactivity Hall of Fame – Part VII S. Ivanovich Vavilov (1891-1951), P. Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904-1990), I. Mikhailovich Frank (1908-1990) and I. Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895-1971)

Chapter 7. Cherenkov Radiation I. Introduction II. Theory and Properties III. Cherenkov Photons from Gamma-ray Interactions IV. Particle Identification V. Applications in Radionuclide Analysis

Radioactivity Hall of Fame - Part VIII E.O. Lawrence (1901-1958, J.D. Cockroft (1897-1967) and E.T.S. Walton (1903-1995), H.A. Bethe (1906-2005), W.F. Libby (1908-1980)

Chapter 8. Radioisotope Decay, Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass I. Introduction II. Half-life III. General Decay Equations IV. Secular Equilibrium V. Transient Equilibrium VI. No Equilibrium VII. More Complex Decay Schemes VIII. Radioactivity Units and Radionuclide Mass

Appendix A - Particle Range-Energy Correlations
Appendix B - Periodic Table of the Elements

Details

No. of pages:
632
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080548883
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444527158

About the Author

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael F. L’Annunziata, Ph.D. appears with a detailed biography in the annual editions of Who’s Who in the World from 1987 to 2016 and Who’s Who in America from 2000 to 2016. He majored in chemistry with a BSc degree from St. Edward's University in 1965; and he was awarded MSc and PhD degrees from the University of Arizona, Tucson in 1967 and 1970, respectively, and an Honorary Teaching Degree from the Central University of Ecuador in 1978. His graduate thesis research in the 1960s, financed by the then U.S. Atomic Energy Commission directed by Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, dealt with the analysis of radioactive strontium-89 and strontium-90 in the environment and the remediation of soils contaminated with strontium-90 in the event of nuclear fallout. L’Annunziata was a member of the Board of Governors, International Science Programs at Uppsala University between 1988 and 1991. He was Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria from 1987-1991 and has served as IAEA Expert on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development to over 50 countries of the world from 1976 to 2007. His main research interests have been focused on the development of chemical and instrumental methods for the detection and measurement of radioactive nuclides in the environment and the application of radioactive tracers in biological research. L'Annunziata was first to demonstrate in 1971 the separation of strontium-90 from its daughter nuclide yttrium-90 by electrophoresis as a potential method for strontium-90 analysis (J. Chem. Educ. 48, 700-703). He was the first to postulate in 1970 and 1975 the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to other inositol isomers as a source of inositol phosphate isomers in soils (University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 1970 (http://dissexpress.umi.com/dxweb/search.html) and SSSA Journal 30(2), 377-379) and to demonstrate in 1977, with the use of radioactive carbon-14, the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol as a mechanism for the origin of the unique inositol phosphate isomers in soils (SSSA Journal 41(4), 733-736). Michael F. L’Annunziata was Honorary Professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China in 1992. He has authored several books among which his recent book entitled "Radioactivity: Introduction and History" published by Elsevier was on the LibraryJournal’s Best Sellers List in Physics..

Affiliations and Expertise

Oceanside, CA, USA

Michael L'Annunziata

Michael F. L’Annunziata, Ph.D. appears with a detailed biography in the annual editions of Who’s Who in the World from 1987 to 2016 and Who’s Who in America from 2000 to 2016. He majored in chemistry with a BSc degree from St. Edward's University in 1965; and he was awarded MSc and PhD degrees from the University of Arizona, Tucson in 1967 and 1970, respectively, and an Honorary Teaching Degree from the Central University of Ecuador in 1978. His graduate thesis research in the 1960s, financed by the then U.S. Atomic Energy Commission directed by Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg, dealt with the analysis of radioactive strontium-89 and strontium-90 in the environment and the remediation of soils contaminated with strontium-90 in the event of nuclear fallout. L’Annunziata was a member of the Board of Governors, International Science Programs at Uppsala University between 1988 and 1991. He was Head of Fellowships and Training at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria from 1987-1991 and has served as IAEA Expert on peaceful applications of nuclear energy for development to over 50 countries of the world from 1976 to 2007. His main research interests have been focused on the development of chemical and instrumental methods for the detection and measurement of radioactive nuclides in the environment and the application of radioactive tracers in biological research. L'Annunziata was first to demonstrate in 1971 the separation of strontium-90 from its daughter nuclide yttrium-90 by electrophoresis as a potential method for strontium-90 analysis (J. Chem. Educ. 48, 700-703). He was the first to postulate in 1970 and 1975 the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to other inositol isomers as a source of inositol phosphate isomers in soils (University of Arizona, Ph.D. dissertation, 1970 (http://dissexpress.umi.com/dxweb/search.html) and SSSA Journal 30(2), 377-379) and to demonstrate in 1977, with the use of radioactive carbon-14, the soil microbial epimerization of myo-inositol to D-chiro-inositol as a mechanism for the origin of the unique inositol phosphate isomers in soils (SSSA Journal 41(4), 733-736). Michael F. L’Annunziata was Honorary Professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China in 1992. He has authored several books among which his recent book entitled "Radioactivity: Introduction and History" published by Elsevier was on the LibraryJournal’s Best Sellers List in Physics..

Affiliations and Expertise

Oceanside, CA, USA

Reviews

CHOICE Magazine, July 2008: "This work provides an overview of the many interesting aspects of the science of radioactive decays, including in-depth chapters that offer reminiscences on the history and important personalities of the field ... The book can be useful as supplemental reading or as a reference when developing course material for nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, or health physics lectures. Special attention has been given to a chapter on the role radioactivity plays in everyday life applications...Generally the book is well produced and will be a valuable resource for the history of radioactivity. Many lectures can be lightened up by including material from this work. Summing up: RECOMMENDED. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals; technical program students." --U. Greife, Colorado School of Mines, USA "I found the biographical accounts of the various stalwarts of Physics inspirational. Most of them, if not all, had to overcome economic hardships or personal tragedies or had to do their ground breaking work in the face of tyranny and war. The biographies also highlighted the high standards of moral convictions that the scientists had as they realized the grave implications of some of their work and the potential threat to humanity. This ought to inspire and motivate young men and women aspiring to be Physicists. Even people who have been in the field for a while should find your book re-energizing. It certainly had that effect on me." --Dr. Ramkumar Venkataraman, Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT, USA.