Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857094353, 9780857097446

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

1st Edition

Processes, Technologies and International Experience

Editors: William Lee Michael Ojovan Carol Jantzen
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857094353
eBook ISBN: 9780857097446
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 912
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
380.00
290.00
230.00
Unavailable
Compatible Not compatible
VitalSource PC, Mac, iPhone & iPad Amazon Kindle eReader
ePub & PDF Apple & PC desktop. Mobile devices (Apple & Android) Amazon Kindle eReader
Mobi Amazon Kindle eReader Anything else

Institutional Access


Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Foreword

Preface

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of radioactive waste (RAW): science, sources, classification and management strategies

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Controlled and uncontrolled wastes

1.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) classification

1.4 Sources of waste

1.5 Managing controlled wastes

1.6 Strategies for managing uncontrolled releases and contaminated site clean-up

1.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 2: Radioactive waste (RAW) categories, characterization and processing route selection

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic categories of radioactive waste (RAW)

2.3 RAW characterization and control

2.4 RAW processing route selection

2.5 Sources of further information

Chapter 3: International safety standards for radioactive waste (RAW) management and remediation of contaminated sites

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 International, regional and national organisations involved

3.3 International standards for radiological safety and environmental protection

3.4 Radioactive waste (RAW) management policies, regulations and standards

3.5 RAW packaging and transportation practice

3.6 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Technical solutions for the management of radioactive waste (RAW): overview and methods of selection

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Waste routing, classification and categorization

4.3 Waste management steps

4.4 Technical options for waste management

4.5 Methodologies for technology selection

4.6 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Irradiated nuclear fuel management: resource versus waste

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Temporary storage

5.3 Fuel cycle options

5.4 Managing wastes from fuel recycling

5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Radioactive waste (RAW) conditioning, immobilization, and encapsulation processes and technologies: overview and advances

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Waste form definitions

6.3 Types of immobilization processes and pre-processes

6.4 Immobilization processes and technologies

6.5 Waste forms, waste packages, and the geological environment

6.6 Recent advances in waste form processing

6.7 Radiation damage in glasses and ceramics

6.8 Leach testing and its role in the waste acceptance process

Chapter 7: Assessing and modelling the performance of nuclear waste and associated packages for long-term management

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Background

7.3 Corrosion of relevant metals and alloys in mild and near-neutral pH environments

7.4 Stress corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking of carbon steel and stainless steel

7.5 Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) degradation

7.6 Cladding performance

7.7 Summary

Chapter 8: Remediation of radioactively contaminated sites and management of the resulting waste

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction: definition and extent of the problem

8.2 Planning and management of environmental remediation (ER)

8.3 Waste from contaminated areas: characteristics and volume

8.4 Decontamination methodologies and techniques

8.5 Waste transportation

8.6 Waste disposal

8.7 Future trends

8.8 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Safety and risk assessment of radioactive waste (RAW) and contaminated sites

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Deterministic and probabilistic analysis methods

9.3 Safety and risk assessment

9.4 Application to the case of radionuclide escape from a near-surface disposal facility

9.5 Correlation of emergency accident levels with probabilities of occurrence: implications for the safe operation of facilities

Chapter 10: Russia: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Special features of radioactive waste (RAW) accumulation in the USSR

10.3 Long-term RAW isolation strategy

10.4 A new type of repository: the adoption of the controlled prolonged storage concept

10.5 Survey of modern RAW management technologies

10.6 The state system for the accounting and control of RAW and radioactive materials (RAM)

10.7 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Ukraine: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

11.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management practice

11.4 Chernobyl accident

11.5 Problems and lessons learned

11.6 Future trends

11.7 Conclusion

11.8 Sources of further information

Chapter 12: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Poland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

12.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

12.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

12.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

12.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 13: Nordic countries: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

13.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

13.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

13.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

13.6 Future trends

13.7 Acknowledgement

Chapter 14: Germany: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Sources, types and classification of nuclear waste

14.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

14.4 German nuclear waste repository projects

14.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

14.6 Future trends

Chapter 15: France: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

15.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

15.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

15.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

15.6 Future trends

Chapter 16: England and Wales: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Structure of the UK nuclear industry

16.3 Sources, types and classification of wastes

16.4 Development of radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

16.5 Current RAW management practices and strategies

16.6 Contaminated site clean-up

16.7 Sharing experience

16.8 Future trends

Chapter 17: Scotland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Legal framework for decommissioning and radioactive waste (RAW) arrangements in Scotland

17.3 Scottish government solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) policy

17.4 Scottish government higher activity waste (HAW) policy

17.5 Nuclear power plants in Scotland

17.6 Dounreay research station under decommissioning

17.7 Nuclear submarines and naval test reactors in Scotland

17.8 Industry and small users

17.9 Conclusion

Chapter 18: United States: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Policies and practices

18.3 Regulations and standards

18.4 Regulatory oversight: federal and state agencies

18.5 Waste classification, characteristics, and inventory

18.6 Blue Ribbon Commission

18.7 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

18.8 Site cleanup and closure experience

18.9 Yucca Mountain: history and lessons learned

18.10 Acknowledgement

18.12 Appendix: acronyms

Chapter 19: Canada: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

Abstract:

19.1 Policies and regulations

19.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

19.3 Long-term management

19.4 Contaminated site cleanup experience and planned projects

19.5 Case studies and lessons learned

19.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 20: South Africa: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Sources, classification and types of wastes

20.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

20.4 Waste acceptance criteria (WAC)

20.5 Necsa solid waste management system

20.6 Necsa radioactive waste management plan development

20.7 Development of the Necsa radioactive waste management plan (NRWMP)

20.8 Decommissioning strategies and planning

20.9 Future trends

Chapter 21: Republic of Korea: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy, practice and issues

21.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues

21.4 Decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) strategy, practice and issues

21.5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: China: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management

Abstract:

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Sources, types and classification of waste

22.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

22.4 Geological disposal of high level waste (HLW)

22.5 Future trends

Chapter 23: Japan: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy

23.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues15

23.4 Decommissioning strategy, practice and issues16–20

Chapter 24: Fukushima: The current situation and future plans

Abstract:

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Extent and composition of radioactive material released

24.3 Dispersion and transport of radioactive materials

24.4 Effects of released radiation on food, environment and human health

24.5 Clean-up programme

24.6 Mid- and long-term roadmap

24.7 Sources of further information

24.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 25: Management of radioactive waste (RAW) from nuclear weapons programmes

Abstract:

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Waste types, classification and composition

25.3 Nuclear safety and security

25.4 Treatment and immobilization

25.5 Waste form properties

25.6 Future trends

Chapter 26: Modeling and strategy approaches for assessing radionuclide contamination from underground testing of nuclear weapons in Nevada, USA

Abstract:

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Hydrogeological setting of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

26.3 Underground testing and groundwater flow and transport in corrective action units

26.4 Regulatory strategy

26.5 Future trends

26.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 27: Remote monitoring of former underground nuclear explosion sites predominantly in the former USSR

Abstract:

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Effects of the underground nuclear explosions on the environment

27.3 Problems as a consequence of underground nuclear tests

27.4 Thermal anomalies as informative signs of underground nuclear explosions

27.5 Space monitoring of thermal anomalies and prospects for its application

Index


Description

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Foreword

Preface

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of radioactive waste (RAW): science, sources, classification and management strategies

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Controlled and uncontrolled wastes

1.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) classification

1.4 Sources of waste

1.5 Managing controlled wastes

1.6 Strategies for managing uncontrolled releases and contaminated site clean-up

1.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 2: Radioactive waste (RAW) categories, characterization and processing route selection

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Basic categories of radioactive waste (RAW)

2.3 RAW characterization and control

2.4 RAW processing route selection

2.5 Sources of further information

Chapter 3: International safety standards for radioactive waste (RAW) management and remediation of contaminated sites

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 International, regional and national organisations involved

3.3 International standards for radiological safety and environmental protection

3.4 Radioactive waste (RAW) management policies, regulations and standards

3.5 RAW packaging and transportation practice

3.6 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Technical solutions for the management of radioactive waste (RAW): overview and methods of selection

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Waste routing, classification and categorization

4.3 Waste management steps

4.4 Technical options for waste management

4.5 Methodologies for technology selection

4.6 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Irradiated nuclear fuel management: resource versus waste

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Temporary storage

5.3 Fuel cycle options

5.4 Managing wastes from fuel recycling

5.5 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Radioactive waste (RAW) conditioning, immobilization, and encapsulation processes and technologies: overview and advances

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Waste form definitions

6.3 Types of immobilization processes and pre-processes

6.4 Immobilization processes and technologies

6.5 Waste forms, waste packages, and the geological environment

6.6 Recent advances in waste form processing

6.7 Radiation damage in glasses and ceramics

6.8 Leach testing and its role in the waste acceptance process

Chapter 7: Assessing and modelling the performance of nuclear waste and associated packages for long-term management

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Background

7.3 Corrosion of relevant metals and alloys in mild and near-neutral pH environments

7.4 Stress corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking of carbon steel and stainless steel

7.5 Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) degradation

7.6 Cladding performance

7.7 Summary

Chapter 8: Remediation of radioactively contaminated sites and management of the resulting waste

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction: definition and extent of the problem

8.2 Planning and management of environmental remediation (ER)

8.3 Waste from contaminated areas: characteristics and volume

8.4 Decontamination methodologies and techniques

8.5 Waste transportation

8.6 Waste disposal

8.7 Future trends

8.8 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Safety and risk assessment of radioactive waste (RAW) and contaminated sites

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Deterministic and probabilistic analysis methods

9.3 Safety and risk assessment

9.4 Application to the case of radionuclide escape from a near-surface disposal facility

9.5 Correlation of emergency accident levels with probabilities of occurrence: implications for the safe operation of facilities

Chapter 10: Russia: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Special features of radioactive waste (RAW) accumulation in the USSR

10.3 Long-term RAW isolation strategy

10.4 A new type of repository: the adoption of the controlled prolonged storage concept

10.5 Survey of modern RAW management technologies

10.6 The state system for the accounting and control of RAW and radioactive materials (RAM)

10.7 Conclusion

Chapter 11: Ukraine: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

11.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management practice

11.4 Chernobyl accident

11.5 Problems and lessons learned

11.6 Future trends

11.7 Conclusion

11.8 Sources of further information

Chapter 12: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Poland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

12.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

12.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

12.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

12.7 Sources of further information

Chapter 13: Nordic countries: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

13.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

13.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

13.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

13.6 Future trends

13.7 Acknowledgement

Chapter 14: Germany: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Sources, types and classification of nuclear waste

14.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

14.4 German nuclear waste repository projects

14.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

14.6 Future trends

Chapter 15: France: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Sources, types and classification of wastes

15.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

15.4 Contaminated site clean-up experience

15.5 Problematic cases and lessons learned

15.6 Future trends

Chapter 16: England and Wales: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Structure of the UK nuclear industry

16.3 Sources, types and classification of wastes

16.4 Development of radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

16.5 Current RAW management practices and strategies

16.6 Contaminated site clean-up

16.7 Sharing experience

16.8 Future trends

Chapter 17: Scotland: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Legal framework for decommissioning and radioactive waste (RAW) arrangements in Scotland

17.3 Scottish government solid low level radioactive waste (LLW) policy

17.4 Scottish government higher activity waste (HAW) policy

17.5 Nuclear power plants in Scotland

17.6 Dounreay research station under decommissioning

17.7 Nuclear submarines and naval test reactors in Scotland

17.8 Industry and small users

17.9 Conclusion

Chapter 18: United States: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Policies and practices

18.3 Regulations and standards

18.4 Regulatory oversight: federal and state agencies

18.5 Waste classification, characteristics, and inventory

18.6 Blue Ribbon Commission

18.7 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

18.8 Site cleanup and closure experience

18.9 Yucca Mountain: history and lessons learned

18.10 Acknowledgement

18.12 Appendix: acronyms

Chapter 19: Canada: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site cleanup

Abstract:

19.1 Policies and regulations

19.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

19.3 Long-term management

19.4 Contaminated site cleanup experience and planned projects

19.5 Case studies and lessons learned

19.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 20: South Africa: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Sources, classification and types of wastes

20.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies

20.4 Waste acceptance criteria (WAC)

20.5 Necsa solid waste management system

20.6 Necsa radioactive waste management plan development

20.7 Development of the Necsa radioactive waste management plan (NRWMP)

20.8 Decommissioning strategies and planning

20.9 Future trends

Chapter 21: Republic of Korea: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy, practice and issues

21.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues

21.4 Decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) strategy, practice and issues

21.5 Conclusion

Chapter 22: China: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management

Abstract:

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Sources, types and classification of waste

22.3 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategies: history and developments

22.4 Geological disposal of high level waste (HLW)

22.5 Future trends

Chapter 23: Japan: experience of radioactive waste (RAW) management and contaminated site clean-up

Abstract:

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Radioactive waste (RAW) management strategy

23.3 Spent fuel management strategy, practice and issues15

23.4 Decommissioning strategy, practice and issues16–20

Chapter 24: Fukushima: The current situation and future plans

Abstract:

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Extent and composition of radioactive material released

24.3 Dispersion and transport of radioactive materials

24.4 Effects of released radiation on food, environment and human health

24.5 Clean-up programme

24.6 Mid- and long-term roadmap

24.7 Sources of further information

24.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 25: Management of radioactive waste (RAW) from nuclear weapons programmes

Abstract:

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Waste types, classification and composition

25.3 Nuclear safety and security

25.4 Treatment and immobilization

25.5 Waste form properties

25.6 Future trends

Chapter 26: Modeling and strategy approaches for assessing radionuclide contamination from underground testing of nuclear weapons in Nevada, USA

Abstract:

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Hydrogeological setting of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

26.3 Underground testing and groundwater flow and transport in corrective action units

26.4 Regulatory strategy

26.5 Future trends

26.6 Acknowledgments

Chapter 27: Remote monitoring of former underground nuclear explosion sites predominantly in the former USSR

Abstract:

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Effects of the underground nuclear explosions on the environment

27.3 Problems as a consequence of underground nuclear tests

27.4 Thermal anomalies as informative signs of underground nuclear explosions

27.5 Space monitoring of thermal anomalies and prospects for its application

Index

Key Features

  • Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies
  • Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management
  • Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Readership

Nuclear and radioactive waste management professionals; Nuclear power operators; Govermental and regulatory bodies in radioactive waste management and cleanup


Details

No. of pages:
912
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857097446
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857094353

Reviews

As the need for energy grows worldwide, nuclear energy must be considered one of the options. However, the disposal of radioactive wastes and how to clean up the contaminated sites are major deterrents. This book presents an objective view of the background and principles of management. Perhaps more importantly, it presents the conditions in the most affected countries by experts from these countries. It is a must read for anyone interested in radioactive waste problems., Frank L. Parker, Professor Emeritus, Vanderbilt University, USA


About the Editors

William Lee Editor

Professor William E. Lee FREng is Deputy Chair of the Government advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), and Director of the Centre for Nuclear Engineering at Imperial College London, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Immobilisation Science Laboratory, University of Sheffield, UK.

Michael Ojovan Editor

Dr Michael I. Ojovan is an Associate Professor (Reader) in Materials Science and Waste Immobilisation at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, UK

Carol Jantzen Editor

Dr Carol Jantzen is a Consulting Scientist at Savannah River National Laboratory, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Savannah River National Laboratory, USA