Radioactive Tracers in Biology

Radioactive Tracers in Biology

An Introduction to Tracer Methodology

2nd Edition - January 1, 1951

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  • Author: Martin D. Kamen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274478

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Radioactive Tracers in Biology: An Introduction to Trace Methodology, Second Edition focuses on the biochemical and physiological aspects of tracer research, including medical applications of tracer techniques, radioactivity, radiation hazards, and radioactive isotopes. The book first offers information on atomic nuclei, radioactivity, and the production of radioactive isotopes and radiation characteristics of tracer atoms. Discussions focus on nuclear reactions, neutron-induced and deuteron-induced transmutations, properties of atomic nuclei, and target techniques and radiochemistry. The manuscript also ponders on the procedures for radioactive assay and radiation hazards. The text examines the biochemical, medical, and physiological applications of tracer methodology. The manuscript also takes a look at radioactive hydrogen, short-lived and long-lived radioactive carbon, radioactive phosphorus and sulfur, and alkali metal and alkaline earth tracers. Topics include synthesis of organic intermediates for tracer carbon studies; biosynthesis of labeled carbon compounds; and general survey of alkali metal tracers. The publication is a dependable reference for readers interested in radioactive tracers.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Chapter I . Atomic Nuclei, Radioactivity, and the Production of Radioactive Isotopes

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. General Properties of Atomic Nuclei

    A. Nuclear Terminology

    B. Systematics of Nuclei

    C. Radioactivity

    3. Nuclear Reactions

    4. Neutron-Induced Transmutations

    A. General Remarks

    B. Neutron Sources

    C. Neutron Reactions

    5. Deuteron-Induced Transmutations

    A. General Remarks

    B. Deuteron Reactions

    6. Target Techniques and Radiochemistry

    A. Target Chemistry

    B. Specific Activity and Atomic Per Cent Excess

    C. Separation of Isotopes by the Szilard-Chalmers Process

    D. Survey of Radio Chemistry

    Chapter II. Radiation Characteristics of Tracer Atoms

    1. Introduction

    2. β Radiations

    A. The Nature of β Radiations

    B. The Absorption of β Particles

    C. Remarks on Scattering of β Particles

    3 . ɤ Radiations

    A. Nature of ɤ Radiation

    B. Interaction of ɤ Radiation with Matter

    Chapter III. Procedures for Radioactive Assay

    1. Basic Phenomena

    2. Basic Instruments

    A. General Remarks

    B. Internal Amplification Mechanism—The G-M Tube

    C. Amplification Mechanism External to Ionization Chambers

    D. Construction and Operation of G-M Tube Counters

    E. Corrections in Radioactive Assay with G-M Tube Counters

    F. Statistical Aspects of Radioactive Assay

    G. Standards and Radioactive Assay and Determination of Tracer Intensity

    3. Visualization Techniques

    A. Introduction

    B. General Remarks on the Radioautograph

    C. Experimental Procedures

    Chapter IV. Radiation Hazards

    1. General Remarks

    2. Health Physics Instrumentation

    3. Dosage Calculations

    4. Shielding

    Chapter V. Survey of Tracer Methodology: Biochemical Aspects

    1. The Significance of Tracer Methods for Biology

    2. Biochemical Applications

    A. Studies in Intermediary Metabolism

    B. Concluding Remarks

    Chapter VI. Survey of Tracer Methodology: Physiological and Medical Aspects

    1. Introduction

    2. Physiological Applications

    A. Permeability, Absorption, and Distribution Studies

    B. Determination of Intercellular and Extracellular Space by Isotope Dilution Techniques

    C. Transport Studies

    3. Applications to Clinical Research

    A. Determination of Circulation Time: Capillary Transport

    B. Uptake, Retention, and Excretion, Particularly in Relation to Extension of Radiation Therapy and Diagnosis

    C. Applications in Hematology and Immunology

    Chapter VII. Radioactive Hydrogen (Tritium, H³)

    1. Preparation and Properties

    2. Assay of Tritium

    3. Tritium as a Tracer for Hydrogen

    4. Tritium as an Auxiliary Tracer for Carbon

    5. Use of Tritium in Clinical Research with Remarks on Incidental Radiation Hazards

    Chapter VIII. Short-Lived Radioactive Carbon (C11)

    1. Preparation and Properties

    2. Assay of C11

    3. C11 as a Tracer Isotope

    4. The Use of C11 in Tracer Experiments

    A. Special Syntheses Involving C11

    B. Tracer Researches with C11

    Chapter IX. Long-Lived Radioactive Carbon (C14)

    1. Preparation and Properties

    2. Assay of C14

    3. Applications of C14 as a Tracer for Carbon

    4. Synthesis of Organic Intermediates for Tracer Carbon Studies

    5. Biosynthesis of Labeled Carbon Compounds

    A. Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates and Organic Acids from C02

    B. Biosyntheses of Higher Fatty Acids

    C. Biosyntheses of Other Compounds

    6. Degradation Methods

    7. Radiation Hazards

    8. Concluding Remarks and Preamble to Succeeding Chapters

    Chapter X. Radioactive Phosphorus (P32)

    1. Production, Preparation, and Assay

    2. The Use of P32 as a Tracer

    A. General Remarks

    B. Absorption and Excretion of Phosphorus

    C. Transport of Phosphorus in Plants

    D. Metabolism of Phosphorus Compounds

    Chapter XI. Radioactive Sulfur (S35)

    1. Preparation, Properties, and Assay

    2. Tracer Application of S35

    A. Biological Conversion Studies

    B. Distribution and Excretion Studies

    C. Synthesis of S35-Labeled Compounds

    D. Protein Turnover in Vivo and in Vitro

    E. Reversibility of Cysteine and Cystine Decomposition

    Chapter XII. Alkali Metal and Alkaline Earth Tracers

    1. General Survey of Alkali Metal Tracers

    2. Preparation, Properties, and Assay

    A. Radioactive Sodium

    B. Radioactive Potassium

    3. The Alkaline Earth Tracers—Calcium and Strontium

    Chapter XIII. Tracer Isotopes of Halogens

    1. Fluorine

    2. Chlorine

    3. Bromine

    4. Iodine

    Chapter XIV. Various Radioactive Isotopes of Importance in Biology

    1. Manganese

    2. Iron

    A. Tracer Researches

    B. Tracer Isotopes

    3. Cobalt

    4. Copper

    5. Zinc

    6. Molybdenum

    7. Arsenic

    8. Selenium, Antimony, and Tellurium

    9. Silver, Gold, and Mercury

    10. Concluding Remarks


    1. General Bibliography

    2. Radioactivity Units and Standards

    3. Some Typical Working Rules for Radiochemistry Laboratory

    4. Radioactive Nuclides of Interest in Biological Tracer Research

    5. National Bureau of Standards Radium E Beta Standards and Their Application to Analysis of P32 and I31

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 444
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1951
  • Published: January 1, 1951
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274478

About the Author

Martin D. Kamen

About the Editors

Louis F. Fieser

Mary Fieser

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